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HefrjetjeittlB §tbmttii. 

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Plants and Vegetable Substances 




De. g. c. wittstein. 





C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., F.R.S. 



ox, r 

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Translator's Preface ix 

Author's Preface xiii 

Introduction xv 



The Proximate Constituents op Plants and Vegetable Sub- 

THEIR Mode of Preparation and Quantitative Estimation 1 

Molecular Weights of Organic Compounds .... 232 


Synopsis of those Plants, which yield the Proximate Con- 
stituents described under Division 1 238 


List of the Plants indicated in the preceding Division, the 
Orders Systematically Arranged 




Apparatus rsqxtired for Phyto-chemical Analysis . 




Chemicals beqxtired fob Phyto-chemical Analysis . . . 279 


General Systeiiatic Course of Phyto-che]C[cal Analysis . 292 

I. Quantitative Estimation of the Water 293 

II. Treatment with Ether 294 

IIL Treatment with Alcohol 313 

IV. Treatment with Cold Water 314 

V. Treatment with Boiling Water . . . 318 

VI. Treatment with Diluted Hydrochloric Acid . . . ' 318 

VII. Treatment with Diluted Potash Solution .... 320 

VIII. Distillation with Water .321 

IX. Distillation with Acid Water 324 

X. DistiUation with Alkaline Water ...... ^ 

Tables of Comparison 326 

Errata and Omissions 330 


At the time when Dr. Wittstein's *' Ardeitung zur chemischen 
Arudyse von PJlanzentheUen auf ihre organisclien BestandtheUe" 
made its appearance, I was honoured by its distinguished author, 
whose friendshipl have enjoyed for many years, by bringing this im- 
portant work under my notice. Becognising its value in my own 
laboratory, I became eager to render it accessible also to chemical 
workers in the great British Empire, as well as in the North 
American States, through an English version. The consent for a 
translation w:as granted with equal liberality and disinterestedness 
both by the author and Mr. C. H. Beck, of Noerdlingen, the pub- 
lisher of the work. Circumstances, over which I could exercise no 
control, and such as not readily occur except in the earlier phases 
of a young colony, have retarded, to my deep regret, for a series 
of years the issue of this translation, though the manuscripts were 
mostly prepared long ago; thus I redeem but late the obligation 
so far devolving on me^ and this to the disadvantage of the author. 
I feel great pleasure in acknowledging the co-operation of Mr. L. 
RuMMEL^ who for some years conducted many phyto-chemic and 
technic operations in my laboratory, in aiding me throughout in 
the work of translation^ and also in its revision, while it was pass- 
ing through the press. Thus I effected a large saving of my time, 
heavily taxed already by multifarious professional, departmental 
and special literary duties^ and often even sacrificed in defending the 
dignity of a scientific position^ or sustaining my means for 
further progressive researches. These circumstances may also 
plead excuse, should I not have realised the expectations, raised in 

reference to this translation by the meritorious author or by the 
Pharmaceutic Society of Victoria, which more particularly through 
its President, Jos. Bosisto, Esq., M.P., and its Hon. Secretary, 
C. R. Blackett, Esq., promoted the issue of this English 
edition. The delay, which arose in the publication, has had how- 
ever one advantage; it is this, that I was enabled to supplement 
the original work with many additional notes on new and well 
authenticated phyto-chemic data, which transpired during the 
last few years, some claiming local originality here. These addi- 
tions, for which I myself must take the responsibility, are distin- 
guished by the marks of parenthesis, and have met with Dr. 
Wittstein's approbation. The ^^ Zeitschrift des allgemeinen oester- 
reichischen Apotheker-Vereins" was one of the main-sources of the 
additional data, obtained for this translation. Moreover, in one 
respect I have effected alterations in the original, for which the 
author's concession was also obtained; they consist in my re-writ- 
ing the two chapters on the systematic names and arrangement of 
all the plants, to chemical substances of which allusion is made in 
the work. Researches on extended material, even since Professor 
WiTTSTEiN issued his volume, have not only modified in many cases 
the systematic limits of the orders, genera and species of these 
plants, but have also shed light on the origin of many medicinal and 
other vegetable substances, coming within the scope of this work, 
and formerly more or less involved in obscurity. Furthermore, I 
have preferred in the enumerative chapter of plants a systematic 
arrangement to an alphabetic sequence, and for this I have 
adopted the CandoUean (or reversed Jussieuan) system, with such 
a change, as enabled me to distribute the monochlamydeous orders 
(Coniferse and Cycadeae excepted) among the other dicotyledonous 
ordinal groups, according to their greatest mutual affinities. 
The atomic formulas have been left unaltered, as given in the 
original; but a tabular exposition is appended, demonstrating the 
symbols of molecules according to the modem doctrine, adopted in 
most of the recent chemical works. Added are also as new 
for convenience tabular comparisons of English with metric 
weights and measures; furthermore, comparative tables of 


Celsius' and Fahrenheit's thermometers, and finally calculations 
of the specific gravity of alcohol, according to the degrees of its 

The translation is effected not without a certain freedom, 
extended even to the etymologic construction of the chemical 
appellations; yet I have endeavoured to adhere to the original 
text, so far as the different idioms of the two languages permitted. 
If I have faHed in fusing the translation into the best expressions 
and forms, then I may frankly concede, that unless under remark- 
able circumstances of exception we never will be able to wield 
fully a language, which has not been that of our youth. If, after 
much toil and expenditure (the print of this trandation being 
effected at my own private expense), I could wish, to reap any 
reward for my aid in diffusing the knowledge of methods, adopted 
by a leading masterly operator in phyto-chemistry, it would be, 
that local observers in these southern colonies, as well as in 
any other countries, teeming with an almost endless number of 
yet novel objects for phyto-chemic inquiry for additional resources, 
may be armed with auxiliary means for extending not only 
in abstract the science of chemistry, but also the precincts of 
therapeutics, and the realms of technology in reference to 
vegetable products. 

Melbourne, May, 1878. 



With the exception of a work* published ten years ago, literature 
has as yet been wholly unrepresented by a manual of phyto-chemic 
analysis. For this reason alone the above work met with a very 
favourable reception, which moreover was doubtless enhanced by 
the name of the author, who had for a long time been engaged in 
researches of that particular direction. My expectations on receiving 
it were great. But although I found a considerable treasure of ex- 
periences deposited therein, I had soon to arrive at the conclusion, 
that the course recommended by the author renders the performance 
of a phyto-chemical analysis an extremely tiresome and slow pro- 
cess, and one requiring a large share of patience; consequently, 
instead of animating to attempt analyses of such kind^ it rather 
deters therefrom. Besides, the course of the analysis indicated 
therein did not meet with my approval. 

I decided therefore, not being inexperienced myself in these 
kinds of operations, to publish the method, which I have followed 
for many years, and which after numerous repetitions and correc- 
tions has been proved most practical, since it is considerably 
shorter than any other, and, I venture to say, is not less accui-ate. 
By this I will not assume, that my work is not capable of im- 
provement; indeed, I myself am striving for that incessantly still, 
and shall gladly acknowledge any aid firom anyone, who may pur- 
sue the same objects. 

* "ArUdtung zur Analyse von Pflann/en und PJlanzentheilen," von Friedr. 
Koohleder, Wuerzburg. 


But to restrict this work merely to the methodical course of 
investigation appeared to me too« incomplete; on the contrary, I 
considered it necessary to submit a short review of the apparatus 
and reagents required for the investigation, as well as of the whole 
of the proximate constituents hitherto known, in order that my 
work might contain nearly everything most urgently required for 
any phyto-chemical analysis, while dispensing with the necessity 
of consulting other works, involving loss of time and often pro- 
ducing unsatisfactory results.* 


Munich, February, 1868. 

* All temperatures given in this book refer to the centesimal (Celsiu8'> 


The chemical analysis of a plant is distinguislied from that of a 
mineral in several ways. 

1. With a mineral the object of the analysis is the investigation 
of the nature of its elements or of their simplest binary combi- 

With a plant it is otherwise, because the elements, constituting 
the same,* are few in number and always the same^ namely^ car- 
bon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.t 

It is true, all organic bodies do not contain these four elements 
together ; but to all of them belongs carbon, with which in most 
cases is combined oxygen and hydrogen, in some hydrogen, oxygen 
and nitrogen, in others hydrogen and nitrogen, in others again 
only hydrogen, and in a very small number only oxygen. Accord- 
ing to the nature of their elements^ the organic bodies form there- 
fore the following five groups : 

First group, carbon combined with oxygen, 

Second,, „ „ „ hydrogen, 

Third „ „ „ „ „ and oxygen, 

Fourth,, „ „ „ „ „ nitrogen, 

Fifth „ „ „ „ „ „ „ and oxygen, 

of which the third group in regard to members greatly excels the 
other four groups. 

* Once for all be it here remarked, that the investigation of plants in 
r^ard to their inorganic constituents — ^the ash-analysis — is excluded from 
ibis book, since I have published regarding this branch of science special 
instructions already several years ago. 

t Sulphur, present in a very few proximate constituents of plants, may 
here remain unconsidered. 


General, perspicuous and readily applicable distinguishing charac- 
teristics of these five groups are at pi'esent unknown; only the 
determination^ whether an organic body belongs to any of the 
three first or any of the last two groupiii, that is^ whether it is free 
oi nitrogen or nitrogenised, is as a rule easy, because nitrogenised 
bodies mostly bum with a so-called homy odour and liberate 
ammonia on application of alkalies. In dubious cases ignite the 
body with sodium, treat the mass with water, add to the solution 
subsuipiiate of iron and over-saturatfe afterwards with hydrochlbric 
acid, when in the presence of nitrogen a flodoous turbidity of prus- 
sian blue is produced. 

The investigation, to which of these five groups an organic body 
belongs and in what proportions the elements stand to each other, 
is moreover the object o^ the so-called elementary analysis ; con- 
sequeiitly the latter often extends into the province of special 
phyto-chemic analysis, but, like ash analysis, needs not here to be 
considered, since for their execution most text-books on organic 
chemistry afford all the requisite instruction. 

2. With a mineral the object }X)inted out before can only be 
attained by complete dissolution. The solution takes place either 
in one or in several operations, in the latter case under change of 
the solvent. As solvents serve mostly acids, not so frequently 
alkalies, seldom water, never alcohol or ether. 

With a plant the determination of its constituents is likewise 
ascertained by dissolution, but always with leaving a considerable 
residue; and therefore this kind of solution belongs to those 
operations, described by the term of extraction. The m6st im- 
portant extrsL^ting ageiits are here ether, alcohol and water. Of 
less importance are acids and alkaHes. 

3. In a mineral analysis, the single constituents of the objeet 6f 
examination are obtained either as such or in compounds of 
accurately known constitution, but always in proportions of 
weight expressing most aecmutely the composition of the minerieiL 

In a phyto-chemic analysis means for a precise separation of 
the constituents are often still wanting. Quantitative determina- 
tions often encounter invincible difficulties, can only, in com- 


paMtxV^f;^ f&^ cad^, b€f &:2e^6ut6d sfttisfactoiily, and a quititative 
restdt has ikiOstl jr to satisfy tb^ operator. 

4. lb fid^oin ih^ cheinic^ constitntion of a mineral, otte at a 
few ^vktnd wei^it are almost always G(tdte snfficient. 

On the contraty, to ^if^Certain qtialitatively, and even su^r- 
Rii&sSif, all tli6 cdnstitaents of a plftnt, at least a huHdried tiMe^ 
tdore lioafte^al is required, bat whicH, if a profound study ^ the 
single eom^ituents is ^dmed at, has still to be increai^d ten ot* 
even a bnndred fbld. 

5. It belongs to the rarest cases^ genersdly only occurring after 
liirterTa^ of years, to meet, in the analysis of a mineral, with li 
ec^istittitot preyiously quite unknown, the discovery of which means 
^ ^^ sdifi^e Mine Miat of a ^w element. 

In » phyfo-cheudc analysis, on the other hand, it is Uti un- 
cemmon to obtain constituents tinkndwn before. It therefe!re 
(jiStir^ ^ML St very fertile field foi discoireries, though it ought not 
t^ h^ oyerloe^ed, that th^ aceiirate decision in rejgard to the 
odrreetness of such a discovery is lEdostly no easy task, because it 
depends on the purity and quantity of the material, which is not 
alWayd So obtainable. 

6. During the analysis of minerals a decomposition of the con- 
stituents, as regards their elements, need of course not be appre- 
hended; the occurring changes consist only in the absorption or 
liberation of oxygen, sulphur, a few other elements — and volatile 
acids ; the relations of these to the object of examination, whether 
they are constituents of the same or not, are already answered 
satisfactorily by other operations of the analysis. 

The phyto-chemic analysis, on the contrary, is never safe against 
irretrievable losses, and this is the more impeding, because those 
constituents are mostly lost, on the determination of which the 
success of the whole operation mainly depends. The causes of 
such losses are eitber the easy decomposibility, or the volatility, 
or the solubility of many organic substances. To avoid such 
losses must be the incessant endeavour of the analytic operator, 
if he will not run the risk of losing the fruits of perhaps months 
of toil. 


In the preceding six paragraplis, on which it would be easy to 
enlarge, I have explained sufficiently, that the execution of a 
phyto-chemic analysis is one of those operations, the just perform- 
ance of which demands in a high degree circumspectness and 
accuracy. But the real value of such work is only obtained, when 
the necessary chemical elementary knowledge is previously gained; 
and as such I must designate the complete theoretical and prac- 
tical acquaintance with the qualitative and quantitative inorganic 
analysis, with the principal laboratary operations, with the charac- 
teristics of the most important groups of organic bodies, and with 
their elementary analysis. He, who undertakes a phyto-chemic 
analysis without being famished with these treasures of knowledge, 
enters helpless the field of research, and has, irrespective of loss of 
time and means, no chance of results, while he may introduce 
dubious or incorrect data into scienca Ancient phyto-chemic 
analysts have sometimes in these respects committed themselves 
enormously; but the modem operators ought not on that account 
to relax, but ought to remember, that we are justified in de- 
manding from them something better than from their predecessors, 
,and that perhaps the limits of their own exertions may in not too 
distant a time be considerably surpassed. At all events, the 
endeavours of the chemical worker must be incessantly directed 
towards the goal of perfection, and in this spirit I shall welcome 
also every contribution to the improvement of this work. 

PART i. 



My original intention was to bring this work into a kind of 
systematic form — ^into a number of natural groups ; but I relin- 
quished this purpose on account of very many great difficulties. 
A very large number of the vegetable substances, treated on in 
the following pages, are as yet so imperfectly investigated, that it 
is impossible to determine their real constitution; consequently 
they could not have been brought into any system at all. More- 
over, not a few of the better-known substances have properties, 
which leave it doubtful to which of the groups they belong. For 
instance, there are many dyeing substances, which possess all the 
properties of resins or acids, and therefore can be placed just as 
well among the resins as among the acids, and had to be looked 
for sometimes amongst the resins, sometimes amongst the dyeing 
substances, and sometimes amongst the acids. A special index 
might have alleviated this difficulty; still, the system would not 
have been better for all that. 1 preferred, in order to follow out the 
practical object, to bring all the names into one alphabetical order; 
and to facilitate consultation by tables of synonymes. 

The nature of a substance will be taught by its description. A 
thorough investigation is wanting for a satisfactory result, and 
herein lies an invitation to fill out gaps, and sometimes very con- 
siderable ones, in our knowledge of vegetable compounds hithei*to 
considered peculiar. Whoever devotes his time to the solution 
of such problems deserves more praise, I firmly believe, than he 
who engages in the examination of vegetables not analysed before. 


[Abieten* Liquid hydrocarbon, obtained by distillation from the 
resin of Pinus Sabiniana. It is a colourless oil of a penetrating 
orange-like odour, of 0*694 sp. gr. at 15°, boiling at 101®. Dis- 
solves very little in water, in five parts alcohol of 95%. It 
forms no compound with hydrochloric acid gas, and is slowly 
decomposed by warm nitric acid. It absorbs a great quantity of 
chlorine, and becomes thick. The A. is an excellent solvent for 
fats and volatile oils, except castor oil, though the latter dissolves 
two-thirds of its own volume of Abieten. Canada balsam dis- 
solves two parts Abieten, Peru balsam one-fifth its volume. 

Abletic Acidf The constitution of colophony, i.e., of the 
resinous substance exudated from coniferous trees by incisions of 
the stem, and which is fused afterwards in order to volatilise the 
essential oils, is, according to Maly, materially different, and 
especially much less complicated than it was heretofore considered* 
It is not a mixture of several isomeric acids (sylvic, pinic, pimaric 
acids = C40 H30 O4 ), besides indifferent resins, but consists in the 
main (more than 90%) of a peculiar acid in the anhydrous form, 
named by the author Abietic acid, and composed according to the 
formula Cgg H62 Og . It is a bibasic acid, and crystallises slowly 
from a solution of colophony in common alcohol (of about 70%), 
as hydrate = Css Hgl 08 + 2 HO in crusty masses. The anhydrous 
acid fuses at 100°, the hydrate not under 165°, without losing 
water; and even in higher temperatures it does not lose more 
water, until, through long-continued heating, it assumes a yellow 
or brown colour and becomes decomposed. The so-called sylvic 
acid was imperfectly purified abietic acid, the pinic acid nothing 
but genuine colophony, and pimaric acid appears to be nothing 
else but abietic acid. 

AbsintIlill = C4o H28 Og . The bitter ingredient of Artemisia 
Absinthium. Precipitate the decoction with tannic acid, mix the 
washed precipitate with oxyd of lead, dry, treat with alcohol, 
digest the solution with animal charcoal and evaporate. The 
remaining Absinthin has the appearance of slightly yellow drops 
of oil, but solidifies to a hard, indistinctly crystallised mass. It 
is friable to a powder, not influenced by the atmosphere, neutral, 
not aromatic, of a very bitter taste, fuses at 120° to 125°; dis- 
solves very little in cold and sparingly in hot water, readily in 
alcohol, ether and alkalies; yields no sugar with diluted acids, and 
dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with a brown colour, which 
changes slowly to a green-blue and becomes dark-blue by a few 
drops of water, but separates grey flakes by an excess of the 

Acetic Acid = C4 Hs O3 + HO. Discovered in the juice of 
many plants, and especially of trees. Its properties are well 

known. The salts formed by it are all soluble in water, most of 
them readily so; they pan be recognised with certainty by the 
blood-red colour they acquire with salts of oxyd of iron, by 
the smell of acetic acid they emit when heated with sulphuric acid 
and alcohol, and by the odour of alkarsin (oxyd of kakodyl), 
when heated dry with arsenious acid. Its production and quanti- 
tative estimation can, as it belongs to the volatile acids, only be 
effected by distilling the liquid in question with sulphuric acid 
until the distillate no longer shows any acid reaction. Should the 
liquid contain much organic matter, phosphoric instead of sul- 
phuric acid has to be used, since towards the end of the operation, 
the latter acid is decomposed by the organic matter into sulphur- 
ous acid, which, in passing over, would contaminate the acetic acid. 
The distillate has to be saturated with soda, dried, heated until it is 
fused and weighed. One hundred parts by weight of this anhydrous 
salt contain 62-00 parts acetic acid. The result will be more 
exact by digesting the acid distillate with an excess of carbonate 
of baryta, finely ground in water, and filtering after the acid 
reaction has disappeared. The filtrate has to be precipitated with 
sulphuric acid, and the resulting sulphate of baryta has to be 
weighed; One himdred parts of the latter salt represent 43 '78 
parts acetic acid. 

Achilleic Acid. Peculiar acid of Achillea Millefolium. In 
order to obtain it, precipitate the decoction of the herb by acetate 
of lead, decompose the deposit by sulphuret of hydrogen, over- 
saturate the acid liquid (containing green colouring matter and 
lime) with carbonate of potash, filter off from the lime, digest 
with animal charcoal, decompose the potassium salt with acetate 
of lead and the lead compound with sulphuret of hydrogen. A 
colourless liquid, without smell and of very acid taste; its density 
is 1'0148 in the utmost concentration, not volatile at 80°, is 
assuming a darker colour by protracted heating; crystallises in 
colourless prisms, soluble in two parts water, when exposed to the 
atmosphere; the solution is not precipitated by the acetate, but 
becomes turbid by the subacetate of lead; yields crystallisable 
salts with alkalies. 

AcUlleill. The preparation designated by this name is 
nothing but an alcoholic extract of Achillea Millefoliimi, which has 
been treated with animal charcoal and evaporated to dryness. It 
has a yellow-brown colour, a peculiar smell and a bitter, not dis- 
agreeable taste similar to milfoil, the plant yielding it. It 
becomes moist by exposure to the atmosphere, and dissolves easily 
in water and in alcohol; in ether only when mixed with a few 
drops of acetic acid. 

[AcUlleln (see Ivain). The evaporated, aqueous extract, on 
treating with alcohol, yields up Achillein, Mosdiatia and organic 

e 2 

acids. Moscliatin is thrown down by addition of water, and the 
acids by subacetate of lead. Brittle, brown-red, hygroscopic mass 
of a bitter taste, easily soluble in water, less so in alcohol; in- 
soluble in ether. Contains nitrogen. Planta Reichenau.] 

AcidSf All organic acids as yet investigated are combinations 
of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen — seldom without hydrogen, 
and more seldom still with nitrogen; they have an acid reaction 
and mostly an acid taste, and form salts with the bases. They are 
very widely diffused, and it is highly probable that there exists 
no vegetable organism, which does not contaia one or the other; in- 
deed, experience has shown that many plants contain more than 
one. They exist very seldom in the free sta:te in the organism, 
but nearly always either partly or entirely saturated by anorganic 
or by organic bases (alkaloids) ; in the event of the basic access 
being incomplete, they are the cause of the acid reaction of vege- 
table extracts. The substance found combined with fat acids, and 
which serves as substitute for bases, is oxyd of glyceryl. 

Acids are either volatile or not, as in the case of alkaloids. The 
volatile acids are always obtained by . distillation with a fixed 
mineral acid, preferably phosphoric acid. For fuller information 
see section ix.. Division III., Part II., where the way of their 
estimation is also indicated. The particulars for ascertaining, pre- 
paring and estimating non-volatile acids will be found in sections 
• iL and viii. The discovery of fat acids coincides in section ii. 
with the exanunation of fats. 

Acolyctin* The root of Aconitum Lycoctonum contains no 
aconitin, but in its stead two other organic bases, the one of 
which has been termed Acolyctin, and the other, present in less 
quantity, Lycoctonin. In order to isolate the Acolyctin, evaporate 
or distil the alcohol from the tincture (treated beforehand as under 
*' Aconitin," according to Geiger and Hesse, first with lime and 
afterwards with sulphuric acid), remove from the residue — diluted 
with water, if necessary — all resinous matters, decolourise with 
animal charcoal, add carbonate of soda in sufficient quantity for a 
decidedly alkaline reaction and bring to dryness. Grind the 
substance, extract with chloroform or absolute alcohol, filter, add 
some water, evaporate to a syrup, shake repeatedly with ether 
(which dissolves the Lycoctonin), dry and pulverise. Whitish 
powder of a bitter, not acrid taste, readily soluble in water, in 
diluted and concentrated alcohol and in chloroform, but not in 
ether; of alkaline reaction. When ether is added to the alcoholic 
solution, the whole of it will either be converted into a paste, or the 
Acolyctin will fall down as a white substance when more diluted. 
It separates in drops on the bottom of the vessel when ether is 
added to its solution in chloroform. The aqueous solution of the 
pure Acolyctin and of its salts is precipitated by the carbonates of 

alkalies. Ammonia has no effect on it at first, but after it has 
been kept for some time the whole solidifies to a colourless jelly. 
Tannic acid precipitates white, acetate of lead likewise, but an 
excess of it re-dissolves the precipitate. Subacetate of lead 
occasions no turbidness in the alcoholic solution, but a considerable 
one in the aqueous solution. Molybdate of ammonia produces a 
strong white turbidness with sulphate of Acolyctin. Chloride of 
gold yields a pale yellow precipitate; concentrated sulphuric acid 
causes no change of colour. 

Aconellin = Naucotin. 

Aconltic Acid = C12 H3 O9 + 3H0. In the herb of species 
of Aconitum and Delphinium Consolida, according to Baup also in 
Equisetum (see Equisetic Acid). Extract with water, saturate with 
carbonate of soda, precipitate the sulphuric and phosphoric acids 
with acetate of baryta, filter, precipitate with acetate of lead, 
wash the precipitate and decompose it in the moist state by sul- 
phuret of hydrogen, separate the liquid by filtration from the 
sulphide of lead, concentrate by eyaporation, and leave it to 
crystallise. It appears in white warts and needles, without smell, 
of a pleasant acid taste, fuses at 140° and decomposes in higher 
temperatures, dissolves readily in water, alcohol and ether. The 
salts of the alkalies and alkaJine earths are readily soluble, most 
of the other salts only with difficulty. 

Aconltln = O0O H47 NO14. Specific alkaloid of the root of 
Aconitum NapeUus, A. ferox and probably of other species of this 
genus of Banunculacese. Extract with hot water, acidulated by 
sulphuric acid, press out, evaporate to a syrupy consistence, saturate 
not quite sufficiently with carbonate of soda and add a sufficient ^ 
quantity of calcined magnesia to give it a faint alkaline reaction, 
shake several times with ether, mix the ethereous solutions and 
distil off the solvent, heat the remnant with water and add diluted 
sulphuric acid by drops until it is dissolved, drive off the last 
traces of ether, leave to cool, filter, precipitate the filtrate with 
ammonia, collect the white flocky precipitate occasioned thereby, 
wash and dry without application of heat. White, voluminous, 
dull, amorphous, electric powder without odour, but even in the 
most minute particles of remarkably irritating effect upon the 
mucous membranes of the nose; of at first faintly bitter, after- 
wards long-lasting acrid, burning and lastingly harsh taste. It 
fuses at 80-85° under loss of 25 per cent, (water) and decomposes 
in higher temperatures, while emitting vapours of acid reaction. 
It dissolves in 1316 parts cold and in 43 parts boiling water, and 
these solutions have a neutral reaction; very readily soluble in 
alcohol, ether, benzol, chloroform and sulphide of carbon, and 
these solutions have a faint alkaline reaction when concentrated; 

it also dissolves in diluted acids, but without yielding crystal- 
Usable salts. It dissolves colourless in concentrated sulphuric 
acid ; and chromate of potash originates in the solution pale purple- 
red zones, similar to those which are produced by subjecting strych- 
nin to the same process, but much paler. Its solution in 
concentrated nitric acid is gold-yellow. Caustic potash, ammonia 
and carbonate of potash give a white precipitate; carbonate of 
ammonia, bicarbonate and phosphate of soda none; chloride of 
mercury, sulphocyanide of potassium and tannic acid a white one, 
picric acid a yellow one, tincture of iodine a red-brown, chloride 
of gold a yellow-white, and chloride of platinum none. 

Acorn Sugar = Quercit. 

Adansonin = O48 Hse O33. The bitter ingredient of the 
bark of Adansonia digitata and A. Gregorii. In order to obtain 
it in a pure state, evaporate the alcoholic extract to dryness, boil 
with water, mix with finely ground oxyd of lead, filter, evaporate 
nearly to dryness, shake with ether and leave the ethereous liquids 
to evaporate without heat. Fine, white needles of a smell similar 
to that of aloes or gentian, of extremely bitter taste, fusible by 
heat, but becoming afterwards carbonised; dissolves in six parts 
cold and three parts boiling ether, also readily soluble in absolute 
and in common alcohol and perceptibly in water. The solutions 
do not become turbid by alkalies and by metallic salts. Chloride 
of iron imparts to the alcoholic solution a greenish tinge. 

.Hsculin = C42 H24 O26 + 3 HO. In the bark of -^sctilus 
Hippocastanum; its occurrence in other plants (in the quassia, 
sandalwood, &c.) has to be further proved yet. Exhaust with 
alcohol of 80°, distil off the bulk of the alcohol and leave the 
rest to stand in the cold for a few weeks. The -^., which will then 
have separated, has to be washed with ice-cold water and recrystal- 
lised repeatedly in ether-alcohol. Snow-white, fine crystalline 
needles, often globularly arranged and of the appearance of a 
loose powder, inodorous, of slightly bitter taste and of acid re- 
action. It fuses at 160° under loss of the water, and is decomposed 
in higher temparatures; dissolves in 672 parts cold, already in 
12^ parts boiling water. The cold saturated solution is colourless 
and of a faint blue fluorescence, which becomes more marked after 
the addition of well-water; it loses this property by acids, but re- 
covers it through alkalies and alkaline earths. It dissolves in 
diluted acids or alkalies more readily than in water; the alkaline 
solution appears blue in the reflected and yellow in the trans- 
mitted light. Dissolves in 120 parts absolute alcohol, in 100 
parts alcohol of 82%, in 80 parts rectified alcohol, and in 24 
parts boiling absolute alcohol. It changes into sugar and sescule- 
tin (C18 He Og ) when boiled with diluted acids. 

[Agaric Add together with A(^aric Resin have been prepared 
by G. Fleury from Polyporus officinalis by extracting with ether. 
Agaric resin is brown-red, pulverised light-brown; insoluble in 
water, easUy soluble in ether and in absolute alcohol, less in alco- 
hol of 70%, also in methylic alcohol, chloroform, acetic acid, in- 
soluble in benzol and sulphide of carbon ; easily soluble in am- 
monia and diluted potash-ley. It is only slightly bitter and fuses 
at 89-7^. 

Agaric Acid crystallises in fine, white needles, fuses at 145*7°, 
not sublimable, dissolves easily in strong alcohol, less in chloro- 
form, very little in ether and acetic acid, still less in sulphide of 
carbon and benzoL Water dissolves very little of it, but assumes 
an acid reaction. Its centesimal composition is C = 63'44^ H = 
9-75,0 = 26-81.] 

Agaricin* Solid, crystallisable fat, contained in mushrooms 
(Agaricus campestris and many other species)^ fusing between 
148-150°, is not affected by caustic alkalies. 

A^OStemmin* Alkaloid alleged to exist in the seeds of 
Lychnis Githago. Obtained by extracting with alcohol of 40 per 
cent, containing acetic acid, and by precipitating with calcined 
magnesia. The precipitate to be treated with alcohol and left to 
crystallise. Yellowish white, minute scales, fasible by heat and 
slowly soluble in water, of perceptibly alkaline reaction and 
yielding crystallisable salts with acids. 

[AilaBtiC Acid, prepared by Narajan-Dagi from the bark of 
Ailantus excelsa. The decoction of the bark is freed from 
lime by oxalic acid, from gum and colouring matter by sub- 
acetate of lead; the liquid is then evaporated after treating with 
sulphuret of hydrogen. Reddish brown, very bitter, deliquescent 
mass of wax-consistence, very easily soluble in water, less in 
alcohol and ether, insoluble in chloroform and benzol.] 

Albninin* The widest distributed of the protein-substances 
and found in the sap of all vegetables, but occurring also in the 
solid or curdled state. When these juices are heated to the 
boiling point or only to 75°, the albumin loses its solubility and 
separates in almost white flakes, frequently coloured green by 
chlorophyll. By treating the coagulated mass successively with 
alcohol, ether and water containing hydrochloric acid, the albu- 
min remains after drying as a yellowish or grey-white trans- 
parent mass, which swells up in water without dissolving in it, 
and by its behaviour coincides with protein (see Protein-sub- 
stances). In order to determine the quantity of albumin con- 
tained in a liquid, coUect after the latter has been purified in the 
above manner in a weighed filter, and dry at 120°. 

Alismillt An acrid and bitter substance, occurring in the 
roots of Alisma Flantago, but only obtained in the extractive 
form, and has as jet not been closely examined. 

Alizarin = C2o He Oe + 4 HO. In the root of Rubia tinc- 
torum. Boil the pulverised root (madder) with water, precipitate 
the decoction with sulphuric acid, and boil the well-washed pre- 
cipitate with chloride of aluminium, in order to dissolve the dyeing 
substances. The solution, when mixed with a little hydrochloric 
acid, separates red flocks consisting of Aliziarin, purpurin and 
resin. These flocks have to be dissolved in alcohol, or in diluted 
liquor of ammonia under addition of freshly precipitated alumina, 
which combines with the dyeing matters. This compound has to 
be boiled with concentrated solution of carbonate of soda, whereby 
purpurin is dissolved with deep-red colour, while Alizarin-alumina 
remains in the residue. The latter has to be freed from resinous 
matter by washing with warm ether, and is then decomposed by 
boiling with diluted hydrochloric acid. The remaining Alizarin 
has to be recrystallised in alcohol. It appears in long translucent, 
dark-yellow prisms of great lustre, of neutral reaction, and of 
bitter taste; loses the water at 100° to 120°, turns opaque, darker 
red, fuses afterwards, and sublimates at 215° in orange-red 
needled; dissolves little in water, with purple colour in alkalies, 
with blood-red colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, and is precipi- 
table by water without change, with red-yellow colour in sulphide 
of carbon, and with gold colour in alcohol and in ether. 

[From the tubers of various Australian Droserae a substance 
has been obtained, which in physical properties closely resembles, 
and probably is identical with. Alizarin. — ^Baron von Mueller 
and Rummel.] 

Alkaloids* Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, 
with or without oxygen, mostly of alkaline reaction, and able to 
form salts with acids. Considering the short time (about fifty 
years), which has elapsed since their existence has been discovered, 
their number is rather considerable, and becomes greater con- 
tinually, though only the minor portion of the plants as yet 
treated for such have given positive results, perhaps because either 
too little raw materisd has been employed, the quantity of alka- 
loids in vegetables being comparatively small, or because the 
proper method has not been adopted, or was not known, as is 
partly the case even at present. Investigations in this branch of 
phyto-chemistry are nevertheless so far progressing, that I may 
venture some remarks regarding the approximate number and 
distribution of alkaloids. 

The classification of plants into natural groups satisfies not only 
the botanist to a high degree, but also the chemist, for, just as the 
former comprises all the plants that show a certain harmony in 



regard to morphology and anatomy into one separate group, so 
the latter observes that the individuals of such a group resemble 
each other by containing certain widely-distributed substances in 
exceedingly large quantities (for instance, tannic acid, starch), or 
by yielding certain compounds of peculiar character in regard to 
smell, taste or effect on the animal organism, substances which are 
either confined to one family or only present in but few others. 
Of such substances, which appear to link together dilferent 
families, each group contains either one or more, and amongst 
them are of high consequence the alkaloids. The number of 
orders or suborders of plants amounts to about 400; when we admit 
that on the average each of them contains two or three specific 
alkaloids, it follows that the whole vegetable kingdom produces 
about 1000, of which I need scarcely say only the minor portion 
(about one-fifth) has become accurately known. In making this 
computation, it has not been left out of regard, that some of the . 
vegetable families (Labiatse, Compositae) are at least largely free 
of alkaloids, that some have only one in common (for instance, 
Berberin belongs, as far as our knowledge goes, alike to 
Anonaceee, Berberidese, Cassiese, Menispermese, PapaveracesB, 
Kanunculacese, Kutacese), and that some families contain more 
than two or three alkaloids (Ginchoneae^ Papaveracese, 
Solanacese, &c,). 

Whereas the presence of an essential oil in vegetables is imme- 
diately recognised by the smell, general indications for the pre- 
sence of alkaloids are wanting. Indeed, all the alkaloids known 
at present possess a very perceptible taste, which is mostly bitter and 
acrid, both to the highest degree; and those among them that are 
volatile have also a specific; odour; but these characteristics of 
taste and smell are shared by many other substances devoid of 
alkaloid properties. On the other hand, it would be unwarrant- 
able to conclude from little or no taste the absence of alkaloids in 
a plant, as the alkaloid, when only present in minute quantities, 
may not be detected by means of tasting. In this case, the 
isolation of the alkaloid is often surrounded by the greatest 

Before examining any vegetables on alkaloids, it must be decided 
first, if the latter are volatile or not. When a herb is endowed 
with ^ strong smell, that becomes more striking by adding a solution 
of caustic potash, the presence of a volatile alkaloid is evident. 
The non-volatile alkaloids are not so easily found out, since they 
may not be recognised by the taste; consequently, an alkaloid, 
before it can be considered as such, must be isolated in almost a 
pure form. Their estimation and isolation become therefore 
simultaneously necessary. This process of isolation serves, at the 
same time, for determining the quantity. 



The fact that every aqueous extract of vegetables reddens the 
litmus-paper shows, that the akaloids are not present in the £ree 
state in the organism, but bound to acids as salts. Generally, these 
salts dissolve readily in water, except the tannates, which dissolve 
slowly or not at all. In the latter case, i.e., when tannic acid is 
present, the extraction, in order to be exhaustive, has to be carried 
on by means of a very diluted minei'al acid (100 parts water to 
about two parts of sulphuric or hydrochloric acids). Alkalies and 
alkaline earths decompose all these salts easily by combining with 
the acid and leaving the alkaloid free, whereby the latter, accord- 
ing to its nature, is either volatilised or remains in the solution or 
is precipitated. By these characteristics is also indicated the way 
for obtaining the alkaloids in general. 

The volatile alkaloids are at ordinary temperature liquid^ colour- 
less, of a strong specific odour of the plant used for their prepara- 
tion, mostly hefvirr tha. water (of t^ose which are kno4, 'only 
coniin is lighter than water), of alkaline reaction^ readily soluble 
in water, alcohol, ether and acids. 

The non-volatile alkaloids are mostly white, seldom yellow, 
without odour, mostly of an eminently bitter or acrid taste, of 
amorphous or crystalline structure, heaVier than water, fusibk or 
not, slowly or not at all soluble in water, but readily so in acids 
and mostly in alcohol too, and partly in ether, of feeble alkaline 
reaction even in the saturated alcoholic solution. 

Alkanna-red = Anchusin. 

Alchornin* Peculiar substance, obtained from the bark of 
Alchomea latifolia by extracting with alcohol, treating the extract 
with ether, and evaporating the ethereous solution. White, pointed 
crystals; readily soluble in alcohol, ether and oil of turpentine, 
but not in alkalies and diluted acids. Its existence has been re- 
peatedly questioned. 

Aloin = 084 His Oi4 + HO. In the aloes (the dried juice of 
the leaves of various species of the genus Aloe). In some sorts of 
aloes it exists in the amorphous form, and can therefore not be ob- 
tained pure. Best adapted for its isolation is the Barbadoes aloe. 
Extract with cold water, evaporate in vacuo to a syrup, leave to 
cool, collect the separated crystalline grains, press and recrystallise 
in water of not more than 66°. It appears in sulphur-yellow grains 
when crystallised in water, and in concentrically radiated needles 
when crystallised in alcohol, of at fi.rst sweetish, afterwards intensely 
bitter taste, without odour and of neutral reaction. It loses the 
water on the waterbath, and when left there for a longer time it 
loses more water and becomes partly converted into a brown, amor- 
phous resin. Afterwards it fuses and decomposes gradually. Dis- 
solves in 600 parts of cold water, readily in alcohol, ether and 


alkalies. When any of these solutions are boiled, the Aloin becomes 

Alnchi-Resin. From an unknown tree of Madagascar. Almost 
white on the outside, of black marble appearance on the inside, 
opaque, solid, friable, of strongly aromatic, pepperlike smell and of 
bitter taste. Contains volatile oil, a resin easily dissolving in 
alcohol, another resin more difficult to dissolve in alcohol (the 
latter crystalline to about 20%), an acid in the free state, an amor- 
phous bitter substance and a salt of ammonia. 

Alyxia-Stereopten. Exudates on the inner surface of the 
bark of Alyxia Reinwardti.* White, hair-shaped crystals of the 
odour of cumarine, of faintly aromatic taste and of neutral reaction. 
It sublimates at 75° to 87°, fuses in higher temperatures and becomes 
brown afterwards ; dissolves little in cold, better in warm water, 
readily in alcohol, ether, acetic acid, oil of turpentine, caustic alka- 
lies and carbonates of alkalies. 

Amanitill* The alleged poisonous ingredient of the Fly- 
Agaric (Agaricus muscarius), obtained as yet only as extract, con- 
sequently impure. 

[Ambrosillf A fossil resin, exudation of probably coniferous 
trees of South Georgia. Resembles amber, yields on melting suc- 
cinic acid and a fragrant volatile oil. Dissolves copiously in oil of 
turpentine, alcohol, ether, chloroform and carbonate of potash, in 
less quantity and without decomposition in concentrated mineral 

Ammoniacnin. Gum- resinous exudation of Dorema ammo- 
niacum. Yellowish white, half-transparent lumps, friable at low 
temperature, of concheous fracture, disagreeable smell, faintly bitter 
and acrid taste. Contains about 70% resin, soluble in alcohol and 
solution of alkalies, 18 gum, 4 bassorin, and a light volatile oil. 

Amygdalin = C40 H27 NO22 -t 6 HO. Found in many plants 
belonging to Rosacese, but its presence has been partly deduced 
from the fact, that these vegetables produce hydrocyanic acid, 
when distilled with water. Amygdalin has been obtained in 
two different modifications, viz., (a) in the crystalline form 
from the seeds of Prunus Amygdalus, Prunus Persica, Prunus 
domestica,PrunusLaurocerasus,PrunusPadus, and from the leaves, 
flowers and bark of the latter; (6) in the amorphous form from the 
leaves of Prunus Persica and Prunus Laurocerasus and from the 
seeds of Prunus Cerasus. Its presence has been deduced from the 
hydrocyanic add in the distillate of the following plants : — Prunus 
capricida (leaves), Pr. spinosa (flowers and seeds), Pr. virginiana 
(Imrk); Amelanchier vulgaris, Cotoneaster vulgaris, Crataegus Oxya- 

* Doubtless also in others of the many Australian, Indian, and Polynesian species 
known in the root of A. ruscifolia. — F. v. M. 


cantba, Pyros aucuparia^ hybrida and tonnmalis (all flowers); 
Spirsea Aruncus, Japonica, sorbifolia (leaves). 

The best material for the production of Amygdalin are bitter 
almonds. These have to be separated from the bulk of fat-oil by 
pressing; they are then extracted with strong alcohol and the latter 
removed by distillation. The residue is separated from the oil 
floating upon it, and mixed with half its volume of ether. The 
Amygdalin subsides, and has to be pressed and recrystaUised in 
alcohol. It crystallises in alcohol with four equivalents water in 
colourless scales of mother-of-pearl lustre (in water with six equi- 
valents water in prisms), is without odour, of at first sweetish, 
afterwards bitter taste, and of neutral reaction. It loses the whole 
of the water at 120'', liquefies at 200°, turns brown and decomposes, 
while evolving the odour of burnt sugar (caramel), afterwards of 
hawthorn and at last of animal empyreumatic substances. It 
dissolves at 8 to 12° in 15 parts water, in boiling water in un- 
limited quantity; at 8 to 12°, in 904 parts alcohol of 0*819, in 148 
parts alcohol of 0*939, in 12 parts boiling alcohol of 0*939; not 
in ether. Its aqueous solution separates by adding dissolved 
emulsin into hydrocyanic acid, oil of bitter almonds (Cu He O2 ) 
and grape sugar (Dextrose). 


Amyrin, See Arbolabrea Eesin. 

Aaacahuit Tannic Acid = Cie H12 Oio. In the Anacahuit 

wood (from Cordia Boissieri). Precipitate the aqueous infusion with 
acetate of lead, treat the precipitate with acetic acid, filter, pre- 
cipitate the filtrate with ammonia, wash the precipitate and 
decompose under water by sulphuret of hydrogen, filter and 
evaporate. The solution is of a faint astringent taste, precipi- 
tates chloride of iron with black-green and glue with brown 


Anacardic Acid = C44 H32 07 . Obtained in combination 
with lead in the preparation of Cardol. Wash with alcohol, de- 
compose with hydrosulphide of ammonia, filter off from the 
sulphide of lead and decompose the filtrate by sulphuric acid. 
White, crystalliue substance without smeU in low temperature, in 
higher of a peculiar odour and of faintly aromatic, afterwards 
burning taste. It remains unaffected by heat at 150°, decomposes 
at 200°, leaves greasy spots on paper; its solution in alcohol has a 
decidedly acid reaction; dissolves readily in alcohol and in ether, 
with faint blood-red colour in concentrated sulphuric acid.* Yields 
with bases partly crystalline, partly amorphous salts. 

Anchnsin = 0a6 H20 Og (Alkanna-red). The red dyeing 
matter of Anchusa tinctoria. Remove foreign colouring matters 
by extracting with cold water, dry, exhaust with alcohol, distil 


the latter off firom the tmcture (after adding a few drops of 
hydrochloiio add, in order to prevent the red matter from turning 
green), evaporate on the water-bath to a thickish mass, shake with 
ether, which assumes a dark-red colour, and with water; remove 
the aqueous stratum and repeat the operation with fresh water 
untiL the ethereous stratum has so far diminished as to become of 
a thick fluidity, and evaporate the ether. Dark red-brown, 
resinous, brittle mass of neutral reaction, fuses below 60% vola- 
tilises by careful heating in violet-red vapours similar to those of 
iodine and condenses in voluminous flocks under partial decompo- 
sition. 'Noi soluble in water, but readily in alcohol and better 
still in ether and oils with red, in concentrated sulphuric acid 
with amethyst-colour, in alkalies with blue colour, and precipitable 
in the latter solution by acids in brown-red flocks. The alcohoUo 
solution decomposes and becomes green with ammonia. 

Andirin* Bitter substance of the wood of Andira anthel- 
mintica, yellow-brown, soluble in water, alcohol and ether; only 
known in the impure state. 

Anemonic Acid = C30 H14 O14. See Anemonin. White, 

amorphous powder, without taste, of acid reaction, insoluble in 
water, alcohol, ether^ oils and diluted acids, combines with alkalies 
in yellow colour. 

Anemonill = C30 H12 O12. In the herb of Anemone nemo- 
rosa, pratensis, Pulsatilla, Ranunculus bulbosus, Flammula, 
sceleratus*. The aqueous distillate of the above herbs, when kept 
for some time in contact with the volatile oil, obtained by the 
same operation, separates crystals of Anemonin and a white 
pulverulent substance (Anemonic acid). Of the two substances 
only Anemonin dissolves in alcohol^ therefore it can be easily 
separated. It appears in colourless, glossy prisms of the klino- 
rhombic form, without odour, of highly poignant and burning 
taste when fused, of neutral reaction; softens at 150^ and decom- 
poses afterwards (formerly believed to be volatile), dissolves very 
little in cold water, dissolves in hot water and separates in crystals 
on cooling; dissolves little in cold, readily in boiling alcohol; not 
in cold, little in boiling ether; in chloroform; in fixed and volatile 
oils ; in aqueous alkalies under decomposition. 

Anethol = C20 H12 O 2 . Constitutes almost entirely the 
volatile oils of Foeniculum officinale, of Artemisia Dracunculus, 
of Pimpinella Anisum and of Illicium anisatum. It occurs in 
the solid and in the liquid state. The former is obtained by 
pressing the oil of the first, third or fourth of the above plants at 
0° and by re-crystallising; the liquid is obtained from the oils of 
the first or second herb by distilling, collecting the distillate of 

* And numerouB other plants of the order.— F. y. IL 



206-225° and rectifying until of a constant boiling point. The 
solid form appears in white laminae, smells more faintly and plea- 
santly than anis-oil, fuses at 16°, boils at 220°, has at 12° a 
density of 1-044, at 25° a density of 0*984, The liquid form 
from fennel-oil does not congele at -10° and boils at 225°; the 
liquid from Tarragon-oil boils at 206°. 

Angelic Acid = Cio H7 Os + HO. Ingredient of the root of 
Angelica Archangelica, of the Sumbul root (from Euryangium 
Sumbul) and also of the essential oil of the flowers of An- 
themis nobilis, the less volatile part of which in boiling with 
alcoholic solution of caustic potash secedes into angelate and 
valerate of potassa. It volatilises with the steam by distil- 
ling the roots of Angelica with water, but may be obtained 
more completely by boiling the roots with milk of lime, perco- 
lating, concentrating the liquid and distilling with sulphuric acid. 
The distillate has to be saturated with carbonate of soda; is then 
evaporated, again distilled with sulphuric acid and kept in the 
cold for some days. Collect the crystals, wash with cold water 
and re-crystallise. It forms translucent, colourless prisms and 
needles of peculiarly aromatic smell, and very acid, burning and 
aromatic taste; fuses at 45°, and boils at 190°; dissolves slowly in 
cold, most readily in hot water, alcohol and ether. Its salts are 
mostly soluble in water; the lead, silver and copper salts slowly; 
the oxyd of iron salt is insoluble. 

Angelicin* Crystalline resin of the root of Angelica Arch- 
angelica. The alcoholic tincture of the above root separates in 
evaporating into two liquids of different density, the denser one 
being aqueous of light-yellow colour, and containing much sugar; 
the lighter supernatant one brown and resinous. The latter has, 
after washing with water, to be saponified by caustic potash ; this 
is dissolved in alcohol, subjected to carbonic acid, evaporated and 
treated with ether, which dissolves Angelicin and leaves it pure 
after evaporating. Fine, colourless needles, without smell; of 
at first imperceptible, aftenyards burning and aromatic taste, 
easily fusible, not volatile, soluble in alcohol and in ether. [Ac- 
cording to the latest researches of B. Brimmer, AngeUcin has 
been found to be identical with Hydrocarotin.] 

An^Sturln. In the genuine Angustura bark from Galipea 
officinalis and G. Cusparia. Obtained by extracting with alcohol 
and evaporating. Fine, white crystals of a bitter and faintly 
acrid taste, little soluble in water, more in alcohol and in acids, 
not in ether and volatile oils ; is precipitable by tannic add. 

Aninie* Exudation of the stem of Bursera gummifera and 
Trachylobium Homemanni Yellow, transparent, of pleasant smell, 
especially on warming^ and of mastic-like taste; softens in the 


mouth. Contains volatile oil and two crystalline resins, the qne ot 
which dissolves readily, the other slowly in alcohol. 

Annatto Red = Cie His O2 . The resinous dyeing matter of 
Annatto (the pulp of the fruit of Bixa orellana). Extract with 
water, and remove the aqueous solution containing yellow dyeing 
matter and impurities, dry the residue and extract with alcohol, 
evaporate the tincture, treat with ether and bring the solution to 
dryness. Bed, amorphous, soluble in alcohol, ether and ley of 
potash; turns blue with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Anthocyan* Exhaust with alcohol, evaporate and treat with 
water; precipitate the blue solution with acetate of lead, decom- 
pose the green precipitate by sulphuret of hydrogen, filter and 
evaporate; extract with absolute alcohol and precipitate the 
solution by ether, which throws down the Anthocyan in flocks. 
Of amorphous form, soluble in water and in alcohol, turns red 
with acids, green with alkalies, yields with alkaline earths and 
oxyd of lead green compounds insoluble in water. 

Anthoxanthein. Extract with alcohol, evaporate, exhaust 
with water, evaporate again, treat with absolute alcohol, dilute 
the solution with water, precipitate with acetate of lead and 
decompose the deposit with sulphuric acid; the Anthoxanthein 
remains dissolved, and is obtained by evaporating as an amorphous 
mass, soluble in water, alcohol and ether; becomes brown by 
alkalies, and reassumes a pale colour with acids. 

Anthoxantllill. Extract with hot alcohol, filter while hot, 
and leave to stand in the cold; the A. subsides but mixed with 
fat, removable by heating with a little alkali, decomposing by acids 
and extracting with cold alcohol, which dissolves the fat acid. 
Amorphous, resinous substance of a beautiful yellow colour, 
insoluble in water, dissolves with gold-colour in alcohol, ether and 
oils, little in alkalies. 

Antiarill = 028 H20 Oio + 4 HO. In the sap of the Upas- 
tree (Antiaris toxicaria) which forms an ingredient of the 
Javanese arrow-poison. The above sap, mixed with ajcohol to 
prevent decomposition, has to be concentrated and exhausted with 
boiling alcohol, the filtrate is evaporated to honey-consistence, 
and boiled with water. The A. crystallises in the hot solution, 
and is purified by rinsing and re-crystallising. Beautiful, silvery 
leaflets, similar to the malate of lime, losing the water at 112°, 
fusing at 220°, and decomposing afterwards, of neutral reaction, 
without smell; dissolves in 254 parts cold and in 27 parts boiling 
water, in 70 parts alcohol and in 2792 parts ether, more readily 
in diluted acids and alkalies than in water; not precipitable by 
tannic acid. 

AntirrlliBic Acid=I>ioiTALic Acid, volatile. 


Apil]l=:024 Hu Oig. In the leaves of Apium graveolens and 
Oarum Peti^pselinnm. Boil the green herb (gathered before the 
floral season) three times with water, percolate, wash the dark- 
green jelly obtained on cooling with cold water, dry, treat several 
times with boiling alcohol, mix the tinctures with water, distil ,the 
alcohol, percolate, press the remaining thickish mass, edulcorate 
with alcohol and boiling ether, and dry. Delicate, white powder, 
without taste or smell, fuses at 180° without loss of weight, 
decomposes in higher temperatures, dissolves readily in boiling 
water and congeals to a jelly on cooling or when mixed with cold 
water (even one part Apiin in 1500 parts water yields on cooling a 
thin jelly); dissolves in 390 parts cold alcohol, more readily in 
boiling alcohol, not in ether. The solution in boiling water assumes, 
even when highly diluted, a deep blood-red colour with sub-sulphate 
of iron. Yields sugar when boiled with diluted acids; dissolves 
readily in caustic alkalies and their carbonates with yellowish 
colour; precipitable by acids as a jelly. 

Aporetln, Erythroretln and Phfleoretin. Brown or black 

resins, obtained in analysing the root of rhubarb; they appear 
to be products of decomposition. 

Apyrin. Alleged alkaloid of the seeds of Attaka funifera. 
Precipitable by oversaturating with ammonia the extract prepared 
with diluted hydrochloric acid. White powder without smell or 
taste, little soluble in water. 

Arachidic Acid=:C4o H39 O3 + HO. In the fat-oil of Arachis 
hypogaea. Saponify the above oil by a solution of caustic soda, 
decompose the soap with hydrochloric acid, macerate the fat acids 
with alcohol, percolate, press the remnant and dissolve it in boiling 
alcohol, collect the laminae formed on cooling and recrystallise until 
they fuse at 75°. Minute, glossy laminae, assuming a porcelain ap- 
pearance by keeping, fusible at 75°; not soluble in water, scarcely in 
cold, readily in hot alcohol, very easily in ether. Its salts are 
similar to stearates and palmitates, and dissolve as a rule spar- 

Arbolabrea Resin* Presumptively from Oanarium commune. 
Soft, grey-green, of a strong smell similar to turpentine, cubebs and 
fennel, behaves similar to elemi. Contains a light green-yellow 
volatile oil, a readily soluble and a sparingly soluble crystalline 
resin. By treating successively with alcohol of different strengths 
four different crystalline resins have been extracted, named Amy- 
rin, Brein, Breidin and Bryoidin. 

ArblltIn=:C24 Hie Ou-l-HO. In the leaves of Arctostaphylos 
TJva ursL Precipitate the decoction with subacetate of lead 
and evaporate the filtrate, freed from lead by sulphuret of hydro- 
gen, to the point of crystallisation; the crystals have to be 


purified by reciystallising with animal charcoal. Long, colourless 
tufts of needles of silky lustre, losing the water at 100°, of bitter 
taste, fusing at 170°; slowly soluble in cold, most readily in boiling 
water, sparingly in alcohol, scarcely in ether, not precipitable by 
metallic salts; do not reduce the salts of copper; separate when 
boiled with diluted sulphuric acid into grape-sugar and hydro- 
kinon (=:Ci2 He O4, Kawalier^s Arctuvin); become transformed 
into kinon and formic acid by heating with superoxyd of manga- 
nese and sidphuric acid. 

ArctuTin. See Arbutin. 

Aribin=C46 H20 N4 4- 16 HO. In the bark of Pinckneya 
pubens. Extract with water and sulphuric acid, concentrate, re- 
move the gypsum, neutralise almost completely with carbonate of 
• soda, precipitate with acetate of lead, filter, treat with sulphuret 
of hydrogen, filter, precipitate with carbonate of soda and shake 
repeatedly with ether. Add hydrochloric acid to the ethereous 
solution^ collect the chloride of A. precipitated thereby, purify by 
recrystallising, shake its aqueous solution with carbonate of soda 
and ether, and leave the eliereous solution to crystallise. Colour- 
less, quadrangular, fiat columns; effloresce when exposed to the 
atmosphere, turn white and opaque at 100° under loss of all the 
water; may also be obtained crystallised anhydrous in colourless 
rhombic pyramids and columns of great lustre ; of alkaline reaction 
and of remarkably bitter taste. A. fuses at 229°, sublimates by 
careful heating below the fusing-point in very fine long needles (empy- 
reumatic products appear only by quickly heating) ; dissolves in 7762 
parts cold, more abundantly in hot water, readily in alcohol, less 
in ether, also in amyl-alcohol. Yields with acids easily crystal- 
Usable salts, precipitable by caustic alkalies and their carbonates. 

Ariclll=C46 H26 N2 Os (isomeric with Brucin) ; according to 
Pelletier: C20 H12 NO 3. In the Quina de Cusco (from Cinchona 
pubescens). Extract with acid water, treat the liquid with milk 
of lime, wash and dry the precipitate and treat with alcohol, filter 
hot, and purify the A. formed aftw cooling by recrystallising in 
alcohol under aid of animal charcoal. Rigid needles, without teste 
at first, afterwards of aromatic and acrid, and, when dissolved in 
acids, of very bitter taste; of alkaline reaction, unalterable at 150°; 
fuses at 188° without loss; decomposes in higher temperatures; 
dissolves sparingly in water, more readily in alcohol than cincho- 
nin, less than quinin, also in ether, in nitric acid with green 
colour. Its salts are easily crystellisable and precipitable by caustic 
: alkalies and their carbonates; the precipitetes dissolve a little in 


Aniicill=C4o H30 Og. The bitter ingredient of Arnica mon- 
tana, obtained from aU parts of the plant. From the root : Boil with 


water, press, exhaust the remnant with alcohol, digest the tincture 
with oxyd of lead, remove the dissolved lead from the tincture by 
means of sulphuret of hydrogen, distil off the alcohol, bring the 
remnant to dryness and extract the A. by ether. The ethereous 
solution, when mixed and agitated with a solution of caustic potash, 
delivers up resin, fat and dyeing matter. Separate from the ley, 
treat with animal charcoal and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the 
remnant in weak alcohol and evaporate the filtrate or precipitate 
with water. From the flowers : Exhaust with ether, distil off the 
solvent, extract from the remnant the A. by alcohol of 0*850, and 
purify the solution by animal charcoal. Gold-coloured amorphous 
mass of bitter taste ; dissolves little in water, readily in alcohol, 
ether and alkalies; yields no sugar on treating with diluted acids. 

Amotta Red=ANNATTo Eed. 
Arthaiiitlii= Cyglamin. 

Asafcetida, Gum-resinous exudation of Ferula Asafoetida. 
Conglutinated grains of white colour, turned rose-red, violet 
and brown by the atmosphere; friable in the cold; of nauseous 
garlic odour and of acrid, bitter taste. Contains about 50% resin, 
20 gum and 4^ volatile oil. The resin is partly soluble in alcohol 
and ether, and partly insoluble in the latter. 

Asarabacca Camphor = Asabon. 

Asaron = C40 H2« Oio. In the root of Asarum Europaeum,* 
seems to be identical with Asarit. Distil the dried root with eight 
parts water until three parts have distilled over. The A. will be 
found partly in the neck of the retort and at the bottom of the 
distillate in little white grains, partly crystallising in the distillate 
when left to stand cold. Pellucid, quadrangular, tabular crystals 
of pearly lustre and of 0*95 density, without smell or taste; fuse 
at 40^, sublimate in small quantities mostly undecomposed in 
fumes of strong odour that provoke coughii^^, dissolve little in 
hot water, readily in alcohol, ether and volatile oils, begin to boil 
at 280°, but become decomposed while the temperature rises to 
300% without distilling in the least. 

Asclepladin, Emetic substance of the root of Yincetoxicum 
officinale, obtained by extracting with strong alcohol Pale 
yellow, bitter, amorphous, hygroscopic matter, non-nitrogenised^ 
readily soluble in water^ alcohol and ether-alcohol; without alka- 
line properties. 

Ascleplon = O40 Hgi Oe . In the milky juice of Asclepias 
Syriaca. Warm the juice, treat the coagulated mass with ether, 
evaporate the extract and purify by recrystallising in absolute 
ether. White, cauliflowerlike mass or tufts of needles when 

* And doubtless in other species.— F. v. IL 


slowly evaporated; without smell or taste; fuses at 104°, decom- 
poses in higher temperatures, not soluble in water and in alcohol, 
readily in ether, less in acetic acid and volatile oils. 

Af9Iiani(rln=C8 Hg Ng Oo + 2 HO. Widely diffused in 
^erms and young shoots, as yet specially in Liliacese, BoraginesB, 
Malvaceae (plants rich in mucilaginous sap), Graminese and Legu- 
minosse, also occurring in beet-roots, potato-sprigs and hop-shoots. 
The best material for its preparation is the juice or the aqueous 
extract of the respective vegetable substances, but as A. can not 
be obtained by precipitation and as its quantity is generally incon- 
siderable, the liquid has to be concentrated and kept in the cold 
for several days. The Asparagin separates in small crystals 
which have to be purified by recrystallisation. It forms colour- 
less, hard, recto-rhombic prisms without odour and of insipid 
•cooling taste, soluble in 40 parts cold and four parts boiling 
water, also in weak alcohol, not in absolute alcohol and ether, 
loses the water of crystallisation at 100° and fuses in higher tem- 
peratures, while swelling considerably and emitting ammonia and 
3, faint homy odour. 

AspartiC Acid = Cg He NO7 + HO. Lermer observed the 
occurrence of asparagin in the decoction of the germs of barley- 
malt, when evaporated to syrup consistence ; but when the above 
syrup had been kept for some time, no asparagin could be ob- 
served, but in its stead aspartic acid combined with magnesia. 
Since the asparagin (=:08 Hg ^"2 Oe ) behaves like the amide of 
aspartic acid, and when boiled by itself in aqueous solution, but 
more readily under co-operation of acids or bases, is converted into 
aspartate of ammonia (Cg Hg N2 Oe + 2 HOzzNH* O-fCg Hg 
2^07 ) from which the ammonia is instantly expelled by stronger 
bases; it is easily explained how the asparagin disappears by-and- 
bye in the syrup of malt and an aspartate takes its place. Though 
it follows herefrom that originally no aspartic acid but only aspa- 
ragin was contained in the malt, I thought it advisable not to 
pass by the above acid, as it might occur in phytochemical ana- 
lyses, no matter if pre-existing or originated in the course of the 
a.nalytic process.* 

The aspartic add would have to be looked for in the precipitates 
occasioned by neutral or basic acetates of lead. After decomposing 
the aoid precipitates by sulphuret of hydrogen and concentrating 
the liquid, it would separate, as it is little soluble in water. It 
forms a white, shining crystalline powder without smell and 
of acidulous afterwards broth-like taste, becomes decomposed by 
heat, whUe evolving amiaoida and a homy odour, and swellii^ 
oonsideral^y; dissolves in 128 parts cold, readily in hot water, still 

* According to Scheibler, the asparagin of beet^roots reM>pear8 aa aspartic acid in the 
iTtolMBOg obtained in the numufacture of beet-root sugar.— F. v. M. 



less in weak alcohol, insoluble in strong alcohol. Most of its salts> 
dissolve in water. 

Aspernla Tannic AcId=Cu Hg Os . In the herb of As- 

perula odorata and Gralium Mollugo*. Precipitate the aqueous 
extract with acetate of lead, treat the precipitate with acetic acid,, 
filter, precipitate the filtrate with ammonia^ wash the precipitate, 
decompose under water with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter and 
evaporate. Faintly brownish, amorphous mass of acidulous, 
acerb taste, dissolves in water and alcohol, slowly in ether, imparts 
a dark-green tinge to chloride of iron, does not precipitate glue 
and tartarated antimony. 

Athamantin=C24 H15 O7. In Peucedanum Oreoselinum^ 
Desiccate the alcoholic extract of the roots or seeds, treat with 
ether, decolourise the ethereous tincture by animal charcoal and 
leave to evaporate spontaneously. Dissolve the crystalline rem- 
nant in alcohol, dilute with much water and recrystallise the pre- 
cipitate, obtained after some time, in alcohol. Colourless, long- 
needles, when heated of a peculiarly rancid, saponaceous odour, of 
at first somewhat bitter and rancid, afterwards faintly harsh taste, 
fusible at 79% decomposes in higher temperatures while yielding 
valerianic acid; insoluble in water, easily soluble in weak alcohol 
and ether, more copiously in volatile and fixed oils and without 
decomposition in sulphuric acid; separates by diluted sulphuria 
acid and by alkalies into valerianic acid and oreoselon. {See^ 

Atherosperniin = C30 H20 NO 5. Alkaloid of the bark of 
Atherosperma moschatum. Extract with warm water,' acidified 
by sulphuric acid, press and precipitate with carbonate of soda. 
Wash and dry the precipitate and extract with sulphide of 
carbon. Distil with water containing sulphuric acid, precipitate 
the remaining liquid with ammonia, wash and dry the deposit. 
A white, voluminous, highly electric powder of crystalline appear- 
ance under the microscope, and of a pure and lasting bitter teste. 
It assumes a yellowish colour in the direct sunlight; fuses at 128°, 
and decomposes in higher temperatures, while emitting a smell 
of putrid meat, and afterwards a faint odour of Jierrings. Water 
dissolves only traces of it, but acquires a bitter taste ; ether dissolves 
at 16° Viooo, when boiling 1/100; alcohol of 93% at 16° V'32, 
at the boiling point half its weight. The cold alcoholic solution 
shows a decidedly alkaline reaction. Of greater solving power 
are chloroform, sulphide of carbon, oil of turpentine and other 
essential oils and diluted acids. Chlorine-water effects a yellow 
solution, not changeable by ammonia. Iodic acid shows towards 
A. the same reaction as towards morphin and oxyacanthin, viz., 

* And many congreneric plants. — F. v. M. 


it becomes deoxjgenised, and iodine is set free. The neutral 
solution of the chloride of A. gives a white pi'ecipitate with 
•caustic alkalies and the carbonates thereof, and with the iodide, 
ferrocyanide and sulphocyanide of potassium, and with chloride of 
mercury; a yellowish white with bi-iodide of potassium; a lemon- 
jellow with picric acid; a sulphur-colour with ferrocyanide of 
potassium; a dirty-yellow with phospho-molybdic acid; an ochre 
yellow with chloride of gold; a pale greenish-yellow with chloride 
of platinum, and a yellow or orange precipitate with nitrate of 

Atherosperma Tannic Acid=02oHu O4. In the bark 

of Atherosperma moschatum. Precipitate the decoction of the 
bark with acetate of lead, treat the precipitate with acetic acid, 
precipitate the filtrate by ammonia, decompose the precipitate 
wnder water by sulphuret of hydrogen, and evaporate the filtrate. 
Yellow liquid of faintly acid and astringent taste; greens the 
^ts of oxyd of iron. 

Atropin=:C34 H23 NOe. In all parts of Atropa Belladonna, 
Datura Stramonium, D. arborea, and very likely also in the other 
species of this genus. Bruise the whole plant just when it begins 
to blossom, under addition of a little water, press, boil the liquid, 
strain, evaporate to syrup consistence, add soda-ley in excess, 
shake, add twice its volume of alcohol of 90%, agitate repeatedly 
for two days, leave to stand, decant the spirituous liquid, 
acidify by sulphuric acid, distil off the alcohol, render the 
remnant alkaline by soda-ley, shake with ether, decant the 
«thereous liquid, distil off the ether, dissolve the remnant in 
^cohol, filter and leave to evaporate slowly. When coloured 
still, it has to be redissolved in alcohol and treated with animal 
charcoal. Fine white needles without odour (when moist and 
imperfectly purified of a nauseous, somewhat tobacco-like smell), 
of nauseous and lasting bitter taste; fuses at 92° without loss of 
weight, decomposes in higher temperatures for the greater part 
under emitting vapours of alkaline reaction, while a small part 
sublimates imchanged; dissolves in 300 parts of cold and in 50 
parts boiling water, in 8 parts 'cold and in equal parts boiling 
^cohol, in 60 parts cold and in 40 parts boiling ether; the 
alcoholic solution shows a decidedly alkaline reaction. Caustic 
alkalies and the carbonates dissolve it also, but decompose it on 
heating. Dissolves easily in chloroform, oils, glycerin and 
•diluted acids. Concentrated nitric acid effects a pale-yellow 
solution, which becomes of an orange-yellow colour on heating. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it without colour, but 
becomes brown on heating while emitting an odour of orange and 
sloe flowers. 


AT6IliB« Peciiliar protein substance of oats (Avena sativa). 
To prepare it, grind the grains with water, dilute the pasty mass, 
with water, strain after twelve hours, filter the liquid, precipitate 
with acetic acid, dissolve the precipitate in diluted liquor of 
ammonia, precipitate again with acetic acid and purify the preci- 
pitate by means of alcohol and ether. The Avenin is greyish-white,, 
dissolves readily in water, does not coagulate by heat, dissolves . 
also in an excess of acetic and hydrochloric adds. 

AzuIeil'=Ci6 Hi2 4- HO. Ingredient of volatile oils and 
causes the blue and the brown or yellow-green colour of them, in 
the latter cases when mixed with a yellow resin. It distils with 
difficulty and can be obtained in the pure state by repeated 
fractional distillations and rectification. It boils constantly at 
302^, has a density of 0*910; its vapour is also of blue colour. 
In the blue oil of chamomil there is scarcely 1 per cent, of 
Azulen; the patchouly oil (from Pogostemon Patchouly) with 6 
per cent, and the wonnwood oil with 3 per cent. Azulen are not 
of a blue colour, because they contain a comparatively large 
quantity of yellow resin. 

Balsams. Natural combinations of resins with volatile oils> 
viscid or flidd at ordinary temperatures, becoming thicker and 
and often solid by age. 

Balsam of Copaiva=CopAivA -Balsam. 

Balsam of llIace=MACE Balsam. 

Balsam of McccaziMEccA Balsam. 

Balsam of Ntttme|p=NuTMEG Balsam. 

Balsam of Peru=:PERu Balsam. 

[Balsam of Slndor. Three varieties have been examined, two 
of which are the exudations of the stem of Sindora species, the 
third probably originating from a kind of Dipterocarpus. The 
latter balsam is light-brown, thickish, of the odour of Copaiva ' 
balsam, and of 0*9221 density at 27*5°. By distillation with 
water it yields a beautiful red-brown, translucid resin, and a 
volatile oil of light-yellow colour, thin fluidity and 0*914 spec, gr., 
boiling at 246° to 255°, soluble in 4 to 5 parts cold, and 1 to 1^ 
parts warm alcohol, of acid properties. The two other kin(& 
of balsam are distinguished from the first by not yielding; 
up their volatile oil to the vapours of water. The volatile 
oils, obtained by heating the balsams to about 255°, are 
of a yellowish or greenish-yellow colour, 0*904-907 spec. gr. 
and soluble in alcohol. The resin was in one case brittle, yellow- 
brown, soluble in alcohol^ chloroform, ether and oil of turpentine^ 
producing with alcohol a brilliant varnish on glass ; in the other 


case the resin was transpai^nt, brittle, dark-brown, and soluble in 
hot alcohol only with difficulty, but easily soluble in ether and 

Bases, Orj^nic = Alkaloids. 

Basilicum Stearopteu = C20 H22 Oa. Obtained by the 
distillation of Ocimum Basilicum with water. The oil floating 
on the water solidifies almost entirely to a white, crystalline mass. 
When recrystallised in alcohol it appears in quadrangular prisms 
of a fiednt odour of the oil; when recrystallised in water, in 
tetrahedrons almost devoid of taste ; it is neutral, dissolves little 
in cold, readily in hot water or alcohol, in six parts of ether, also 
in acids and alkalies. Isomeric or identical with the hydrate of 
oil of turpentine. 

Bassla Fat, from the seeds of Bassia butyracea, B. longifolia 
and B. latifolia. Yellowish, slowly decolourised by light, of the 
consistence of butter and of 0*958 spec, grav., fuses at 27° to 
29°, dissolves little in alcohol, readily in ether; contains olein, 
myristin, palmitin and steariu. (The last-mentioned was errone- 
ously distinguished as Bassic acid). 

Bassorin = C12 Hio Oio. Ingredient of Bassora-gum, Traga- 
canth and similar gummous exudations of plants (cherry-gum, 
anacardia gum), insoluble in water and swelling in it; can only 
likely be object of phytochemical analyses in exudations of the 
above and similar kinds. When such an exudation is treated 
with cold water, it swells up considerably and dissolves partially ; 
by straining and repeatedly treating with fresh water, the soluble 
part is removed, but the remaining portion contains, like the 
vegetable mucus, always more or less lime-compounds which can 
only be removed by repeatedly treating with water containing 
hydrochloric acid. When dry, the Bassorin is yellowish-white, 
solid, brittle, transparent, without taste, swells in cold water to a 
transparent jelly, without dissolving, but dissolves by continued 
boiling to a gummous liquid, yields with diluted sulphuric acid 
gum and sugar, with nitric acid, mncic and a little oxalic acids. 

Bay Oil, obtained by distilling the berries of Laurus nobilis 
with water. Greenish-yellow, of a thickish consistence, of the 
odour of bay-berries and turpentine, of faintly acid reaction, and 
0*932 density. It consists of two polymeric hydrocarbons, 
C20 H16, boiling at 164° and of 0*908 density, and Cao H24, boiling 
at 250° and of 0*925 density, and of lauric acidizG24 H24 O4. 

Bay Oil from Guiana. Obtained by incisions, from the stem 
of an unknown tree. When rectified and desiccated, colourless, 
of the smell of oil of turpentine and lemons, of aromatic pungent 
taste, of 0*864 density, boils at 150° to 163°. 


Bdellium. Exudation of the stem of Balsamodendron Africa- 
num and B. Roxbui-ghii. Red-brown, more or less transparent, 
viscous or hard, of a myrrhlike odour, and of bitter taste. Con- 
tains about 60% resin, fusing at 55° to 60^ 10% gum, 30% 
baasorine, and a volatile oil. 

Beblric Acid. In the fruit of the Bebir-tree (Nectandra 
Rodiei). Concentrate the cold aqueous exti-act of the fruit, filter 
when cold, precipitate by ammonia bebirin and siperin and 
mix the filtrate with nitrate of baryta. The impure precipitate 
has to be washed with cold water, is dissolved in boifing water, 
and left to crystallise. The crystals, purified by recrystallisation, 
are dissolved in boiling water, and precipitated by acetate of lead; 
the precipitate is washed and decomposed by sulphuret of hydro- 
gen, and the filtrate is evaporated over sulphuric acid. At last it 
has to be purified by dissolving in ether and evaporating in vacuo. 
Deliquescent, white, crystalline mass of wax-lustre, fuses at 
150% and sublimates somewhat above 200° undecomposed in tufts 
of needles. Its combinations with potash and soda are deliques- 
cent, and soluble in alcohol; those with baryta, lime and magnesia 
dissolve very little in water; the lead compound is little soluble 
even in boilmg water. 

Bebirin^Cas II21 NOe. In the bark and fruit of the Bebir- 
tree (Nectandra Rodiei), besides perhaps a second alkaloid (Sipi- 
rin) and a peculiar acid; also in the bark and leaves of Buxus 
sempervirens. Exhaust with boiling water containing sulphuric 
acid, concentrate, leave to cool, separate from the deposit contain- 
ing tannic acid and sulphate of lime and precipitate the filtrate 
with ammonia. The dark-green precipitate is washed, dried 
at the atmosphere (whereby it becomes black through tannic 
acid) and dissolved in diluted sulphuric acid. The solution is 
treated with animal charcoal and again precipitated by ammonia, 
which occasions a white precipitate. Dry, dissolve in alcohol, 
evaporate and treat the remnant with absolute ether, which dis- 
solves the Bebirin and leaves behind the sipirin. Both sub- 
stances have to be purified by treating their alcoholic solutions 
with animal charcoal. White, highly electric powder of strong 
and lasting bitter and faintly resinous taste, loses nothing of its 
weight up to 120**, fuses at 180°, decomposes in a higher tempera- 
ture, dissolves in 6650 parts cold and in 1466 parts boiling water, 
in 6 parts absolute alcohol, also readily in weak alcohol, in 13 
parts ether; of decidedly alkaline reaction, saturates acids com- 
pletely and forms amorphous salts, separates iodine from iodic 
iodic acid. Its salts have a very bitter and somewhat astringent 
taste, are precipitated by caustic alkalies and the carbonates 
thereof; the precipitates redissolve in liquids of potash or of 


ammonia a little more copiously than in those of other precipi- 
tating agents. 

Belladonnin, Second alkaloid of Atropa Belladonna; it is 
the yeUow resin-like substance that prevents the crystallisation of 
the atropin. Mode of isolation: Dissolve the crude atropin in 
water by means of an acid, neutralise with carbonate of soda in 
order to remove a fluorescent substance of bluish colour, filter 
and add to the filtrate small quantities of carbonate of soda as 
long as, according to the temperature and concentration of the 
liquid, a conglutinating resinous or oily substance is formed. The 
precipitation of a pulverulent body, occurring afterwards, has to 
be avoided. Collect the precipitate on a linen cloth, rinse with 
water, dissolve again in acid water, decolourise as much as possible 
with animal charcoal, filter and, in order to prevent contamination 
hj atropin, precipitate as carefully as before with carbonate 
of soda, collect, dissolve in absolute ether and evaporate. A 
colourless or in thicker layers yellowish, gum-like mass, drying 
with difficulty, of not very bitter, but burning-acrid taste, fuses 
by heat and decomposes afterwards under emission of heavy 
white fumes of the odour of burning hippuric acid; dissolves 
readily in ether and in alcohol, little in water; of strongly 
alkaline reaction; dissolves also readily in acids while saturating 
them completely, but is less basic than atropin. Its sulphate 
yields vdth ammonia a white pulveriilent precipitate that becomes 
soon glutinous, a property in which it resembles hyoscyamin. 
Tannic acid also precipitates the sulphate of B. white. The solu- 
tion of B. in weak alcohol is precipitated by nitrate of silver, 
chloride of gold and bi-iodide of potassium. 

Benic Acid=C44 His 0$ + HO. In the oil of Behen, from 
Moringa oleifera. The fat acids separated by hydrochloric acid 
from the soap obtained by means of soda-ley are pressed and 
the remnant crystallised in alcohoL Shining, white needles^ 
jdmilar to stearic acid; fuse at 76^. 

Benzoic Acld=Ci4 Hs O3 -f- HO. Contained in large quanti- 
ties in the benzoin and other aromatic resins and balsams, mostly 
accompanied by cinnamic acid; in small quantities in difierent 
odoriferous seeds and roots; often confounded with cumarin. It 
is obtained best and without much loss by boiling the respective 
substance (finely contused when in a dry state) with milk of Ume 
and water, filtering, evaporating the filtrate, oversaturating when 
cold with hydrochloric acid, collecting the crystalline deposit, 
pressing, dissolving in the least possible quantity of hot water, 
percolating, crystallising, collecting and drying. White 1a,minffi 
and needles of mother-of-pearl lustre, mostly of faintly benzoic 
odour and of slightly add taste, which fuse at 120% boH at 239% 
but begin to volatilise already at 145% while emitting vapours 




which irritate the eyes considerably and provoke coughing. The 
acid dissolves in 200 parts cold and in 24 parts boiling water, in 
two parts of cold and in equal parts of boiUng absolute alcohol, in 
25 parts ether, also readily soluble in fixed and in volatile oils, and 
witliout change and readily in concentrated sulphuric acid. Almost 
all its salts dissolve in water and mostly readily so; the lead salt 
and some other metallic salts dissolve sparingly, the salt of oxyd 
of iron is insoluble. 

Benzoilli Exudation of the stem of Styrax Benzoin and S. 
officinale. Yellowish or brownish, often undermixed with white 
almond-shaped masses, brittle^ of peculiar pleasant smell and acrid, 
balsamic taste, fuses easily while emitting vapours of benzbio 
acid, yields to water only traces of benzoic acid^ dissolves 
readily in alcohol and in acetic acid and partly in ether. It 
contams, besides 18 to 20 per cent, of benzoic acid and a little 
volatile oil, four resins, distinguishable by the different degrees of 
solubility. Some kinds contain also cinnamic acid. 

Berberin=C4o H17 NOg + 9H0. Discovered (1824) in the 
bark of Geoffroya inermis and called Jamaicin; afterwards 
(1826) found in the bark of Xanthoxylum Clava Herculis and 
called Xanthopicrit ; 1835 obtained from the bark of the root of 
Berberis vulgaris and called Berberin, but only lately recognised 
in its true nature. Occurs, according to recent observations, also 
in the following plants and appears to be very widely distributed : 
in the flowers of Berberis vulgaris, in an Indian and Mexican 
species of Berberis, in the bark of Xylopia polycarpa, in the root 
of Jateorrhiza Columbo and in the wood of Coscinium fenestra- 
tum; in Jeffersonia diphylla, Leontice thalictroides and Podo- 
phyllum peltatum; in Coptis Teeta, C. trifolia, Hydrastis. 
Canadensis and Xanthorrhiza apiifolia. — Boil the bark of the 
root of Berberis with water, evaporate to honey-consistence,, 
treat with boiling alcohol, add one-eighth water, distil off the 
alcohol and leave the remaining liquid to stand for some 
days in the cold. Strain the mass, hardened by fine yellow 
needles, press and recrystallise in hot water. This product 
being chloride of Berberin, has to be converted into the 
sulphate, its solution mixed with solution of baryta until alkaline, 
subjected to carbonic acid and evaporated. Draw out the B. with 
alcohol and precipitate the solution with ether or recrystallise in 
water. Fine, yellow needles of a pure and lasting bitter taste; 
loses the water at 100®, fuses at 120° to a red-brown resin and de- 
composes in higher temperatures, has a neutral reaction, dissolves 
slowly in cold water and alcohol, readily in both when hot, not in 
ether, readily in alkalies with brown colour; forms with acids 
crystallisable salts of mostly gold-yellow colour, neutral and 


B6tlllill=C5o H40 O4. In the epidermis of the bark of 
Betula alba. Exhaust the dry bark &rat with boiling water and, 
after it has been dried again, with boiling alcohol and filter while 
hot; when cold the B. separates and has to be recrystallised in 
ether. Voluminous white flocks or warty masses, without smell 
or taste j fuses at 200^ with an odour of heated birch-bark; may be 
sublimated in a current of air; insoluble in water; dissolves^ 
120 parts cold and in 80 parts hot alcohol, also in ether, oils and 
alkalies and precipitable from the latter by acids; soluble in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid and precipitable by water. 

Betuloretic Acid =072 Hee Oio. Covers as a white resin the 
young shoots and the upper surface of the young leaves of 
Betula alba, and is obtained by removing it mechanically. It has 
to be purified by dissolving in hot alcohol; evaporating; dissolving 
in ether, which leaves behind a black substance; evaporating; dis- 
solving the residue by solution of carbonate of soda, and preci- 
pitating by an acid. White flakes or white friable mass softening 
in the mouth, fusing at 94°, in alcoholic solution of very bitter 
taste and acid reaction; dissolves also in ether and alkalies, and 
with beautiful red colour in concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Bicahyba Fat^ from Myristica Bicahyba, similar to Nutmeg 


Bohelc Acid=Ci4 Hg Oio + 2H0. Found as yet only in 
small quantities in the black tea (from Thea Chinensis), besides 
much iron-bluing tannic acid. The aqueous extract of tea is pre- 
cipitated by acetate of lead; filtered; the filtrate (containing 
acetate of lead) saturated by ammonia, the yellow precipitate 
collected, washed, mixed with absolute alcohol, pervaded with 
sulphuret of hydrogen ; filtered, and the filtrate evaporated in a 
vacuum. Pale yellow, very hygroscopic substance, similar to 
gallo-tannic acid; fuses at 100°; dissolves in every amount in water 
and alcohol; the solution imparts a brown colour to chloride of 
iron without precipitating it. 

Boletic Acid=FuMARic Acid. 

Bonie6Il=C2o H16. Constitutes (contaminated with a little 
resin) the camphoric oil of Dryobalanops Camphora, and forms the 
non-oxygenised constituent of the oil of Valeriana. The portion 
of the latter oil which, in rectifying, distils first, has to be distilled 
again with recently-melted caustic potash, whereby valerol remains 
as valerate of potash and bomeol and Bomeen distil over, from 
which all bomeol may be separated by repeated fractional distil- 
lations, retaining only the first distilling portions. The Borneen 
is a colourless oil of turpentine-like odour, lighter than water; 
boils at 160°. 


Borneol or Solid Borneo Camphor =€20 His O2. In the 

excavations of the stem of Dryobalanops Camphora, also occurring 
in the crude oil of valerian. White, pellucid, easily friable, small 
crystals, lighter than water (according to other authorities, heavier 
than water), of the smell of camphor and pepper, and of burning 
taste, boils at 212% and is converted by heating with nitric acid 
into ordinary camphor ^€20 Hie O2. 

Botany Bay Gum Resin. Exudation of the stem of various 
species of Xanthorrhcea. Red-yellow, often with a green-grey 
rind, brittle, of shining fracture, of pleasant balsamic odour and 
acerb aromatic taste, fuses easily and bums with the smell of 
storax. Contains in. the main a resin, soluble in alcohol, ether, 
alkalies, alkaline earths and oils ; some volatile oil, a little benzoic 
acid and bassorine. Yields by treating with nitric acid a large 
quantity of picric acid. 

Brasilin=± C44 H20 O14. The dyeing substance of the Brasil-wood 
and the Sappan-wood (from Peltophomm Linnsei, Csesalpinia Crista 
and C. Sappan). Cannot be obtained directly from these woods or 
only with difficulty ; has been obtained from the crystalline deposit 
occurring in a cask filled with extract of sappan-wood, by dissolving 
in absolute alcohol and crystallising under exclusion of light and aii*. 
Amber-yellow or brownish rhombo-hedra or klino-rhombic short 
prisms, obtained in straw or gold coloured needles with 3 at. water 
from a weak alcoholic solution, which lose the water at 90° while 
turning brown, dissolve in water, alcohol and ether; the reddish 
aqueous solution assumes a deep carmine colour by traces of alka- 
lies or of alkaline earths. 

Brassic AcidizERucic Acid. 

Breidin, Brein and Bryoidin. See Aebolabrea Eesin. 

Brindonia Tallow, from the seeds of Garcinia Indica. Al- 
most white, fuses at 44°, contains olein and stearin. 

Bnicin=C46 H26N2 Og+SHO. Distribution and prepara- 
tion — JSee under Strychnin. The mother-ley obtained after the 
first crystallisation of the strychnin, containing the whole of the 
brucin and only a little strychnin, has to be mixed with as 
much bi-oxalate of potash as to constitute ^/so of the weight of 
the seeds of Strychnos Nux vomica employed, and is then 
evaporated to dryness. Grind the dry mass, treat with abso- 
lute alcohol for two days, if possible at 0°; filter; wash out 
with absolute alcohol ; dissolve the remainder in water ; remove from 
the solution the last traces of alcohol; digest with hydrate of mag- 
nesia for some days; filter; extract the remnant without previous 
drying with alcohol of 90%, and leave to evaporate. The Brucin 
crystallises by slow evaporation in colourless quadrangular prisms, 
often with a yellowish tinge and efflorescent at the air, fusible by 


heat tinder loss of water and decomposed in higher temperatures. 
It is of an intensely bitt<er taste, dissolves in 800 parts water, 
most readily in alcohol, not in ether, easily in chloroform, in 70 
parts of glycerin, very little in volatile, still less in fixed oils, 
•without colour in concentrated sulphuric acid; with rose-red 
colour in chlorine-water, and changing to a dirty-yellow by ammonia 
without turbidity. Nitric acid yields a vividly red solution, which 
becomes yellow on warming, and is coloured purple-violet and 
precipitated by subchloride of tin. 

Bry0Ilill=C96 Hso Osg. The bitter substance of the root of 
Bryonia alba. Treat the alcoholic extract of the root with cold 
water, precipitate the solution by acetate of lead, filter, remove 
from the filtrate the lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, neutralise 
with carbonate of soda, precipitate with tannic acid, dissolve the 
precipitate in alcohol, and mix intimately with hydrate of lime, 
digest, filter, decolourise with animal charcoal and evaporate. 
Colourless, very bitter substance, friable to a white powder, dis- 
solves readily in water and alcohol, not in ether; yields with 
diluted acids sugar and other products. 

Bupllthalmum Stearopten, Obtained by distilling the 
flowers of Buphthalmum salicifolium (of a pleasant roselike odour) 
with water and cooling the distillate to 0°, at which temperature 
the stearopten separates. Yellow, silky, pointed crystals, melting 
by the warmth of the hand to a yellowish oil of a faint but 
pleasant odour, of faintly acid reaction, readily soluble in alcohol. 

BatyrlC AcIdizCs H7 O3 + HO. Asyetonlyfoundinthepulp 
of the fruits of a few trees — Ceratonia Siliqua, Sapindus Saponaria, 
Gingko biloba,Tamarindus Indica — ^but undoubtedly widely diffused 
throughout the vegetable kingdom. It is obtained by distilling the 
respective substances with water containing a little sulphuric or 
phosphoric acid. The distillate, in whieh the presence of butyric 
acid may by the odour of rancid butter be easily detected, 
has to be mixed with carbonate of baryta; concentrate; filter 
when of neutral reaction, and bring to dryness. The remnant 
(butyrate of baryta), when dried at 100°, is anhydrous, and contains 
50*77% acid. In order to isolate the acid, the salt is dissolved in 
three parts of cold water, mixed with one-third of its weight of 
concentrated sulphuric acid, well stirred, filtered off from the 
sulphate of baryta and rectified. In order to remove traces of 
water, the acid has to stand for some days over chloride of 
calcium, and is then decanted and rectified. 

Colourless liquid of a penetrating smell of rancid butter and 
acetic acid and of strong and pungent sour, afterwards sweetish 
taste, has a density of 0*96 to 0-98, boils at 164*^, is inflammable, 
mixes in every proportion with water, alcohol and ether. Ita 


compounds are all soluble in water, and have, when moist, the 
odour of fresh butter. Butyric acid is not unfrequently con- 
taminated by acetic acid, and may be recognised by the formation 
of acetic ether, when heated with sulphuric acid and alcohol, but 
the exact separation of the two acids from each other is very 
difficult and has as yet not been carried out to satisfaction. 


Cacao Fat. Obtained by pressing the prepared beans pf 
Theobroma Cacao. White or yellowish-white, as hard as mutton 
tallow, of 0*90 specific gravity, of a faint cacao-like odour and 
mild taste, fuses at 30^, contains olein, stearin and a little 

Caffeic Acid or Coflca Tannic Acid=Ci4 Hg O7. In the 

seeds and leaves of Goffea Arabica, in the root of Chioccoca 
racemosa, in the leaves of Ilex Faraguayensis. Exhaust the 
pulverised coffee-seeds with ether, boil the remaining powder 
with alcohol of 40%, mix the alcoholic filtrate with twice its 
volume of water, remove the precipitated fatty flocks, boil, add 
solution of acetate of lead and boil for a few moments, in order 
to make the precipitate less voluminous and more easy to collect. 
Wash the precipitate with diluted alcohol, decompose under water 
with sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporate the filtrate on the 
water bath. Brittle substance, friable to a yellowish powder, of 
faintly acid and somewhat astringent taste, dissolves readily in 
water and in alcohol of any strength, little in ether, imparts a 
green colour to chloride of iron. Its compounds wiiJi lime and 
baryta are yellow and turn green at the atmosphere (by the 
formation of a new acid called Viridic acid=zCi4 He O7). 

Caffeine C16 Hjo N4 O4 + 2 HO. In the fruit and leaves of 
Coffea Arabica, in the leaves of Thea Chinensis, of Ilex 
Faraguayensis, in the fruit of FauUinia sorbilis, of Lunanea 
Bichi. Its preparation from the coffee-seeds is done in the 
following way. Mix five parts seeds, ground as finely as pos- 
sible, with one part hydrate of lime, digest with 25 parts alcohol 
of 80%, filter and mix with alcohol, distil off' the alcohol and 
leave the remnant to become cold, remove the oil, evaporate 
and purify the crystals by recrystallising. It forms long, flexible, 
white, silky needles without odour and of faintly bitter taste, 
loses the water of crystallisation at 100^, fuses at 177°, sublimates 
at 384° undecomposed (according to more recent observations: 
fusing at 224° to 228° and sublimating already at 177°); dissolves 
in about 60 parts water of 20°, in 9*5 parts boiling water, in 21 
parts alcohol of 0.825, in 645 parts ether, in 9 parts chloroform; 
the solutions have a neutral reaction. It is also dissolved by volatile 


oils but not by fixed oils. Tannic acid precipitates the aqueous 
solution. When evaporated with hydrochloric acid and chlorate 
of potash (or with chlorine-water), it leaves a remnant which 
reddens the skin like alloxan and imparts to it a peculiar smell ; 
the solution of the said residue, when mixed with alkalies and 
salts of sub-oxyd of iron, acquires an indigo-blue colour, and 
Ammonia imparts to the residue a purple-red (murexid) colour 
which does not turn violet by alkalies (distinction from uric acid). 
[J. Williams gives the following method for preparing OaJSein. 
Mix finely-pulverised guarana with one-third hydrate of lime 
«iid moisten with water. After an hour or two exsiccate at a 
gentle heat, and exhaust with boiling benzol; filter and evaporate^ 
but not to dryness. Treat with boiling water and digest on the 
water-bath to the expulsion of all traces of benzol. Filter 
through wet paper, and evaporate to a small bulk, from which the 
C. will separate after twenty-four hours pure and colourless, — 
According to H. M. Smith, Cafiein is contained to the amount 
of 0*133% in the leaves of Ilex Cassine L. — ^Thomson avers that 
in roasting cofiee a great amount of Cafiein is lost, which may be 
regained by adapting to the burner a tube of about three feet length 
wherein the vapours of C. are allowed to condense. One pound 
of coffee yields on an average 76 gi'ains of Cafiein. C. is insoluble 
in a concentrated solution of potassic carbonate. By treating an 
infusion with subacetate of lead, concentrating and adding car- 
bonate of potash, the C. is precipitated and may be obtained pure 
by dissolving in alcohol and evaporating. By passing the gas, 
■evolved from chlorate of potash and hydrochloric acid, into an 
aqueous solution of Cafiein and evaporating to dryness on the 
water-bath, a blood-red residue is obtained. One part Cafiein in 
1000 parts of water may thus be detected.] 

Cailcedrin. Bitter substance of the Cailcedra-bark (from 
Elhaya Senegalensis). Extract with hot water, evaporate to a 
honey consistence, treat with alcohol of 33° Baum6, add to the 
solution sub -acetate of lead which precipitates a red dyeing 
matter, filter, remove from the filtrate the alcohol by distillation, 
dissolve again in a little alcohol, remove the lead by sulphuret of 
hydrogen, evaporate, shake the aqueous liquid with chloroform 
and bring the latter solution to dryness. A yellowish, gum- 
resinous, brittle, very bitter substance, mollifies easily in hot 
water, dissolves readily in alcohol, also in ether, chloroform, little 
in water, of neutral reaction, yields a voluminous white precipi- 
tate with ether. Consists of 64-9 C, 7*6 H and 27*5 O. 

Calendulin. A substance, similar to vegetable mucilage, 
in the fiowers and leaves of Calendula officinalis. It is obtained 
by treating the alcoholic extract, after it has been freed from a 
green, waxlike substance, with water; a voluminous, slimy 


masB remains, which does not dissolve in cold and only spaiingly 
in boiling water; it is transparent, yellow and brittle when diy, 
and swells up in water. It dissolves readily in alcohol, acetic 
acid and caustic alkalies, not in ether, oils and other diluted acids ; 
is not precipitable by tannic acid. 

Californin. Neutral, bitter substance of the so-called Quina 
California (from Cascarilla hexandra). Extract the bark with 
alcohol, evaporate the extract, dissolve in water, precipitate the 
solution by acetate of lead, filter, remove from the liquid the excess 
of lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate, treat with strong 
alcohol, agitate with charcoal, filter and add ether, which precipi- 
tates the Californin. When dry, it is gold-yellow, amorphous, 
dissolves abundantly in water and alcohol, not in ether; of 
salicin-like taste, does not become coloured with sulphuric acid; 
not precipitable by tannic acid, chloride of platinum, chloride of 
mercury, chloride of iron and acetate of lead. 

Calluna Tannic AcId=:Cu H7 O . In Calluna vulgaris. 
The alcoholic extract of the herb is distilled, the residue mixed 
with water, filtered, and precipitated by acetate of lead. The 
sediment has to be treated with diluted acetic acid, the filtered 
solution is precipitated boiling hot with sub-acetate of lead, and 
the deposit decomposed under water by sulphuret of hydrogen; 
the liquid is filtered and evaporated in a current of carbonic acid 
gas. Amber-yellow mass, dissolves in water and alcohol, greens 
the salts of oxyd of iron. 

Camphor =:C2o H16 O2. Contained in all parts of Cinna- 
momum Camphora; obtained by distilling with water and 
sublimating the raw product. A tough, white, transparent or 
translucid substance of crystalline-granular structure of the 
octahedrons form, of a peculiar, penetrating smell and bitter, 
aromatic taste, of 0*988 to 0*998 specifio gravity at ordinary 
temperature, at 0°= 1*000, fuses at 175°, boils at 204° and 
sublimates undecomposed, dissolves in about 1000 parts water, 
most readily in alcohol, ether, wood-spirit, aceton and oils. 

Camphor Oil (volatile) from Cinnamomum Camphora. Of 
sherry-colour, has a densityz=0*94:5, deposits much camphor in the 
cold and when left to evaporate by itself. By repeated rectifi- 
cations a distillate free from camphor is obtained i=C2o Hie O, 
which is as clear as water, of great light-refracting power and 
very mobile, of the odour of camphor and oil of cajeput and of 
0*91 specific gravity, and leaving a resin but no camphor, when 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously. 

Camphor Oil from Borneo, obtained from Dryobalanops. 



[Cftnailba Wax, the coating of the leaves of Copemicia oerifera. 
It is yellow, harder than be^s' wax, of 0*99907 specific gravity 
and 84° fusing point. Contains, according to N. Stony-Waskelyne, 
amongst other ingredients, Melissin.] 

Cane-Snpir (conunon sugar) =Ci2 Hu On. Diffused through- 
out the vegetable kingdom, but especially in the stalks of Graminese, 
in succulent roots (beet-roots for instance), in the sap of the stem 
of several trees (maple, birch, lime, palm, walnut), in fruits 
(always accompanied by other sorts of sugar), in seeds and flowers. 
On a small scale it is obtained best by boiling the respective 
vegetable substance, reduced to a proper state, with alcohol of 
90%, filtering and keeping cold for rather a long time, to form in 
crystals. It crystallises in large, pellucid klinorhombohedra, is the 
hsuxlest kind of sugar, of a pure sweet taste, has a density of 1 '589 
to 1*630, fiises at 160° without loss of weight to a clear, pale- 
yellow Hquid, turns brown above 180° under loss of weight. 
acquires a bitter taste, swells up, becomes darker and is finally 
reduced to coal; dissolves in one-third part cold, in any quantity 
of hot water, little in strong alcohol, not in ether. The aqueous 
solution is tolerably permanent in the cold, but is converted into 
grape-sugar and firuit-sugar by continued boiling, or more readily 
by heating with diluted (not oxydising) acids, but gives rise to 
coloured humus-like products when treated so for a longer time ; 
it becomes black by concentrated sulphuric acid and yields with 
nitric acid in the heat much oxalic, but no mucic acid. When 
boiled with alkalies and alkaline earths, the cane-sugar does not 
become perceptibly brown; its aqueous solution, mixed with car- 
bonate of soda and boiled with subnitrate of bismuth, does not 
colour the latter. Cane-sugar does not reduce the alkaline tartai'ate 
of copper when boiled with it; ferments with yeast only after being 
converted into grape-sugar; is not precipitated by acetate of lead 
unless ammonia be added. 

QtuintUative estimation of Come Sugar. — Since its isolation in 
the pure state is always connected with loss, methods have to be 
applied which permit an estimation even in presence of other 
matters; these are commonly, fermentation or treatment with an 
alkaline solution of tartarate of copper. 

1. By fermentation with yeast. — ^The quantity of sugar may be 
estimated either by the weight of the carbonic acid or of the 
alcohol formed by this method. One hundred parts cane-sugar 
were formerly supposed to yield after combining with 5*26 parts 
water: 51*44 parte carbonic acid and 53*82 parts alcohol; but 
according to Pasteur's direct estimations only 49*12 parts carbonic 
acid and 51*01 parts alcohol are formed, while the rest of the 
sugar is used up in the formation of glycerin and of succinic 
acid. This way of estimation can^ of course, only be applied in 



the absence of other kinds of sugar capable of fermentation, wbicli 
is a rare case. When other fermeni»,ble sugars are present, they 
m&j be destroyed by heating with an alkali (hydrate of lime), 
afterwards the whole has to be addified again and mixed with 

2. By treating with an alkaline solution of tartarate of copper. 
— ^The mode of operation is similar to that indicated under Starch, 
t.6., convert the cane-sugar into grape-sugar by heating the respec- 
tive substance for two horn's with water containing 2°/^ sulphuric 
acid, saturate the acid liquid (cold) with soda-ley and determine 
the amount of the grape-sugar by means of the copper solution. 
One hundred parts grape-sugar, as found by the above method, 
correspond to 95 parts cane-sugar. K, besides the cane-sugar, 
other kinds of sugar be present which directly reduce the solution 
of copper, the latter have to be determined first ; afterwards a 
new portion has to be treated with acid and the whole of the 
sugar estimated as above. The first quantity, when subtracted 
from the second, will represent the amount of cane sugar, converted 
into grape-sugar by the acid. 

Caoilt€h01lC=C4o Hs2. It is probably contained in every milky 
juice of plants but has been obtained on a large scale chiefly 
from Hevea elastica, Castilloa elastica, 0. Markhamiana, Han- 
comia speciosa, XJrceola elastica, Yahea Madagascariensis, Y. 
Comorensis, Y. gummifera, Y. Senegalensis, Landolphia Owariensis^ 
L. Heudelotii, L. florida, Willoughbya edulis, W. Martabanicay 
Ficus macrophylla, Ficus elastica and some other species of these 
genera. The commercial india-rubber is purified by dissolving in 
chloroform and precipitating with alcohol. White and opaque as 
long as it contains water in its pores, but colourless and trans- 
parent after prolonged drying at the atmosphere^ only in thicker 
layers of a yellowish colour; elastic; without taste and smell; 
fuses at 160^ and decomposes in higher temperatures; does not 
dissolve in water, but swells up in hot water and becomes sticky ; 
insoluble in acids and in alkalies; swells up in cold and more so in 
boiling alcohol without dissolving, dissolves only partly in sulphide 
of carbon and in anhydrous ether (to about two-thirds), readily and 
completely in chloroform. 

Capric Acid=C2o Hw O3 -f- HO. In the oil of the Cocoa- 
nut (See Caproic Acid). One hundred parts by weight of the 
Oaprate of baryta, consisting of scales of fat-lustre, are decom- 
posed by a mixture of 47*5 parts concentrated sulphuric acid 
and 47*5 parts water, and the separated fat-acid crystallised 
in alcohol. — White mass, consisting of fine needles, of a faint 
goat-like smell, similar to caproic acid, of ah acid, burning and 
disagreeable taste; has a density of 0*910, fuses at 30 to 46^, boils 
above 100° and volatilises without decomposition, dissolves in lOOO 


-parts cold and a little more copiously in hot water, most readily in 
alcohol and in ether. Its salts are fatty to the touch, and dissolve, 
with the exception of those of the alkalies, sparingly in water, the 
«alt of baryta in 200 parts cold water and contains, when dried at 
100^ 68.037o acid. 

Ca^roic Aeid=Gi2 Hu Os + HO. Discovered, besides 

-other aromatic acids, in the oil of the fndt of Cocos nucifera, in 

the root of Arnica montana aud in the flowers of Orchis hircina. 

It is obtained from the above oil by saponifying with soda-ley, 

distilling with sulphuric acid, neutralising the distillate, containing 

caproic, caprylic and capric acids, with baryta, and evaporating. 

The caprate of baryta crystallises first, afterwards the caprylate 

.and last the Caproate. which are purified by recrystallising. In 

•order to separate the Caproic acid from the salt of baryta, 100 

parts of the latter have to be treated with a mixture of 29*63 

parts concentrated sulphuric acid and 29*63 parts water. Decant 

the Caproic acid floating on the surface after 24 hours, treat the 

residue once more with a like mixture of acids, desiccate the 

whole of the decanted acids by chloride of calcium and rectify. — 

Limpid, thin oil of sweat-l^e odour and of pungently add 

.and afterwards more sweetish taste of nitrous ether than 

butyric acid ; of 0*930 spec, grav.; not solidifying at - 9°, boils at 

about 200°, dissolves in 96 parts water, in every proportion in 

.alcohol and ether. Its salts are aU soluble in water, least so 

those of the heavy metals. The Caproate of baryta dried at 100® 

is anhydrous and contains 58*28^^ acid. 

Caprylic Acid=Ci6 His Os 4-HO. Occurrence — See Caproic 
Acid. Decompose the Caprylate of baryta by diluted sul- 
phuric acid; the Caprylic acid rises to the surface like an oil, 
is poured oflf, washed with water and distilled. — Colourless 
liquid of sweat-like odour, and very acid and acrid taste, of 0*911 
-density, solidifies below 12° fuses at 14° to 15°, crystallises 
on slowly cooling in crystalline leaflets, boils at 236°, dissolves in 
400 parts water at 100°, and on cooling separates again almost com- 
pletely, mixes with alcohol and ether in every proportion. The 
«alts, except those of the alkalies, dissolve slowly. The baryta 
<x>mpound, when dried at 100°, is anhydrous, and contains 
63*80% acid. 

Capsicln. A substance obtained from the Chillies or 
Cayenne pepper (the fruit of Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. 
fastigiatum, C. frutescens, C. longum) and representing the acridity 
of the latter, but as yet not prepared in the pure state. Obtained 
by extracting with alcohol, treating the alcoholic extract with 
^ther, and evaporating the ethereous solution. — ^Yellow or red- 
brown, soft, of at first balsamic, afterwards extremely burning 

D 2 


taate, dissolves little in water, readily in ether, alcohol, oil of 
turpentine and alkalies. Capsicum contains also a crystalline^ 
resin, which, perhaps, is Capsicin in a purer state, and does not 
dissolve in water and ether. 

CapsnlsesciC Acid=:C26 H12 Oie. (Might be called ^sculic- 

acid. F. V. M.)* ^ ^e capsules of the ripe fruit of -^sculus Hip- 

pocastanum. Sublimates undecomposed ; isomeric with triacetyl- 
gallic acid, behaves like the latter towards salts of oxyd of iron^ 
and likewise reddens the solution of caustic potash. 

Caranna. Exudation of the stem of Bursera gummifera.. 
Dark-brown or green-brown, transparent at the edges, viscous, or 
solid and brittle, smells faintly like ammoniacum, of a bitter taste, 
and, when warmed, of a pleasant, balsamic odour, fuses readily.. 
Contains 96% resin, which readily dissolves in alcohol, ether and 

Carapln. Bitter substance of the bark of Carapa Guianensis^ 
Is very similar to cailcedrin and tulucunin, and also prepared iix 
a like manner. Amorphous, resinous, readily soluble in alcohol 
and chloroform, less so in ether and water. It differs from 
tulucunin by striking no decided colour with acids. It consists of 
55-04C, 6-54H and 38420. 

Cardol=C42 H30 O4. The acrid, oily ingredient of the peri- 
carp of Anacardium occidentale, Semecarpus Anacardium and of 
several other species of both genera. Free the nuts from 
the mild oily seeds, contuse the pericarp, exhaust with ether,, 
distil off the latter, and free the residue from tannic acid 
by washing with water. Dissolve the remaining mixture, 
of about 90% anacardic acid, 10% Cardol, and a little of 
an ammonia compound in 16 to 20 parts alcohol, digest 
the solution with freshly-precipitated hydrated oxyd of lead, 
whereby ammonia is evolved and a violet compound of lead is 
precipitated; filter again, and distil off the alcohol. Cardol of 
a dark claret colour remains behind, the slightly-concentrated 
alcoholic solution of which is mixed with water to turbidness and 
afterwards with an aqueous solution of acetate of lead, boiled and. 
decolourised by adding subacetate of lead in minute quantities, 
whereby a brown, sticky precipitate is formed. The lead is 
removed from the solution by means of sulphuric acid, the 
alcohol distilled off, and the remaining Cardol washed with 
-^ater.— Yellow, in thicker layers reddish oil of 0*978 density at 
23°, without smell in the cold, when warm of a faint, pleasant 
odour, neutral, irritates the skin and raises blisters; does not 
volatilise without decomposition; insoluble in water, readily soluble 
in alcohol and ether, bums with a bright but very sooty, smoking^ 
jfiame dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with red colour,. 


:also in strong potash-ley, which solution becomes red at the 
sir, and precipitates the salts of the earthy and the heavy 
metals with red or violet colour. 

Carminic A€id=G28 Hu Die. Occurs, according to Belhomme, 
in the flowers of Monarda didyma. 

Carotlll=C86 H24 O2. In the root of the cultivated Daucus 
"Oarota. Press the bruised roots and precipitate the liquid with 
^diluted sulphuric acid under addition of a little tannic acid. The 
precipitate, consisting of Carotin, Hydrocarotin and chiefly of 
albumin, is pressed, boiled six or seven times, when half dry, 
with ^ve to six times its quantity of alcohol of 80% 
w^hich dissolves hydrocarotin and mannit, and is then exhausted 
hj boiling six to eight times with sulphide of carbon. Distil 
^ff the bulk of the sulphide of carbon and mix the residue with 
An equal volume of absolute alcohol, leave to stand quiet and to 
•crystallise. The crystals of Carotin are washed at first with 
alcohol of 80°/q, afterwards with absolute alcohol until the 
latter assumes only a slight yellow tinge. — Dark-red, microscopic, 
•quadrangular, tabular crystals of velvet lustre and free of water, 
the latter combining with it below 0° to a colourless, very unstable 
hydrate, which disunites at a few degrees above 0°; smells, espe- 
cially when warmed, strongly like Iris-root, becomes of a vivid 
red at 100°, similar to metallic copper, fuses at 168° to a thick 
dark-red fluid, of amorphous structure when cold; is destroyed in 
liigher temperatures, becomes readily discoloured by light and 
loses completely its faculty of crystallising; does not dissolve in 
water or in alkalies, scarcely in alcohol^ while the amorphoiis C. 
<lissolves in it; slowly soluble in ether and chloroform, readily in 
-sulphide of carbon, benzol and oils, in concentrated sulphuric 
jacid with beautiful purplish-blue colour and precipitable from it 
hj water in dark-green flocks as amorphous Carotin. 

€artliamm or Carthamic AcidziC28 Hia Ou. The red 

pigment of the flowers of Carthamus tinctorius. Exhaust the 
:flowers first with cold water, press out, mix the remaining maas 
with water containing 15°/o crystallised carbonate of soda, 
allow to stand for a few hours, press, neutralise the red alkaline 
liquid almost completely with acetic acid, throw down the C. on 
cotton which is left in the liquid for twenty-four hours, wash the 
-cotton with pure water and withdraw the C. from it by macerat- 
ing in water containing 5^0 crystallised soda for half an 
hour. The solution, when mixed with citric acid, throws down 
the C. in flocks, which must be collected and dissolved in strong 
^cohol; on evaporating the latter solution, the C. subsides. — Dark 
brown-red. amorphous powder of a green metallic lustre, not 
volatile, dissolves very little in water with a faint red colour, in 


alcohol with beautiful purple oolouTy not in ether and oiLs, readiij^ 
in solutions of the hydrates and carbonates of alkalies with deep 
yellow-red colour^ precipitable by adds; in concentrated sulphuric 
add blood-red. 

Carthamns-YellOW. Is withdrawn from the safflower by 
water. Predpitate the aqueous liquid, acidulated by acetic add,, 
with acetate of lead; remove the white deposit, neutralise the- 
filtered liquid with ammonia, decompose the dir^ orange-yellow 
predpitate by diluted sulphuric add, remove from the yellow 
filtrate an excess of sulphuric add by means of acetate of baryta, 
evaporate the filtrate in a retort to a syrup, and withdraw the C. 
by absolute alcohol. This solution is to be evaporated under- 
exclusion of the air to the consistence of syrup and mixed with 
water, whereby decomposed C. subsides and the unaltered C. 
remains dissolved. The solution is of a dark brown-yellow colour 
and of add reaction, of a bitter and salty taste, decomposes- 
readily, when allowed to stand or warmed in contact with the air, 
and throws down brown substances. 

CarvenizCao Hie. In the oil of caraway, besides carvol;; 
is thin, limpid, of a £aint pleasant taste and smell, has a density 
of 0-861, boils at 173^ 

Carvol=C2o Hu O2, contained, besides carven, in the oil or 
caraway. Isolate fix)m the crude oil by ofb-repeated fractioned 
distillation, the part which distils at 225 to 230°. Limpid, thin,, 
of the odour of carven, and of 0*953 density; boils above 250°. 

Caryophyllic Acid=:C2o Hn O3 + HO. In the oil of clovesy 
besides a hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of turpentine, likewise 
in the oils of pimento and of cinnamon-leaves, in the oils of 
Canella alba and DicypeUium caryophyllatum. It is usually 
obtained from the oil of cloves by heating with ley of potash^ 
whereby the hydrocarbon is volatilised,; adding sulphuric or 
phosphoric acids to the remaining liquid and distilling the 
caryophyllic acid. It is a colourless oil of the smell and taste of 
cloves and of 1*068 density^ boils at 242^ to 251° has an acid 
reaction, dissolves little in water, readily in alcohol, ether and 
acetic acid. Its compounds are mostly crystaJlisable and, except 
the salt of baryta, readily decomposed by water and alcohol. 

Cai70phylllll=02o Hie O2. In the cloves (from Eugenia, 
oaryophyllata). Crystallises in the alcoholic tincture in white, 
silky, spherically united needles, is without taste or smell and of 
neutral reaction^ begins to evaporate at 280% without melting, 
and sublimates completely ; not soluble in water and sparingly in 
cold alcohol, but dissolves in boDing alcohol and readily in etiier,. 
little in diluted acids and in alkalies. 


Cascarillin. Bitter ingredient of the bark of Crotoii 
Eleuteria and Croton Sloani Precipitate tiie aqueous extract 
witk acetate of lead, remove the lead from the filtered liquid hy 
means of sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate, digest with animal 
charcoal and concentrate until a pellicle forms on the surfGuse, 
wash the subsiding mass with alcohol and recrystallise in boiling 
aloohoL — ^White, fine needles and tabular crystals, neutral^ bitter, 
fusible, non-nitrogenised, not volatile, very slowly soluble in 
water, more readily in alcohol and ether, with purple-red colour 
in concentrated sulphuric acid. 

Castin* Bitter substance of the seeds of Yitex Agnus castus 
(to be looked for in the numerous other species of the genus). 
Separates in crystals from the alcoholic tincture, dissolves little in 
water; soluble in alcohol and ether, precipitable by alkalies. 

Castor Oil. Obtained by pressing the seeds of Ricinus com- 
munis. Almost colourless, with a slight green-yellow tinge, of 
thick fluidity, of indifferent smell and mild afterwards a little acrid 
taste, has a density of 0*960, does not congeal at - 15°, but yields in 
the cold a little granular matter; dissolves in any quantity of 
absolute alcohol and ether, thickens at the air and becomes dry at 
last; begins to boil at 265°, yielding various products. It 
consists in the main of the glycerid of the ricinoleic acid. As 
regards the solid fat there are different opinions; Bonis asserts 
that it is the glycerid of a peculiar acid called by him Isocetic 
acid, on account of its having the same composition as the cetic 
acid of spermaceti. 

Cateehin or Catechnlc Acid = C12 He O5 + 2 HO. In the 

Catechu — the aqueous extract of the wood of Acacia Catechu, of 
the nuts of Areca Catechu, and of the leaves of Nauclea Gambir; 
also in the kino — ^the hardened juice of the stem of Pterocarpus 
Marsupium. To prepare it, exhaust finely pulverised catechu with 
cold water first and boil it afterwards with eight times its quantity 
of water in a tubulated retort, while adding subacetate of lead, 
until the solution is of a wine-yellow colour; filter the boiling 
liquid and allow to cool under exclusion of the air. The white 
granular mass which will have formed after 24 hours has to 
be washed with cold water imtil every trace of lead is removed; it 
is then pressed and dried in the vacuum. — A white, granular sub- 
stance, consisting of fine needles, and after trituration representing 
a white loose powder, but of a partly yellow-brown colour when 
the air in drying was not completely excluded; without smell and 
of a sweetish taste; dissolves in 16,000 parts of cold and in four 
parts boiling water, readily in alcohol, in 120 parts cold and in 
seven parts boiling ether; all these solutions have an acid reaction. 
It imparts a dark-green colour to salts of oxyd of iron, yet pro- 


duces no turbidity in a solution of glue, unless it be previously 
treated with nitric acid, whereby a brown substance is precipitated. 

Catechu Tannic Acid* In the Catechu (see Catechin) [also 
in the bark of the Prickly Banksia of Western Australia.] Not 
known in the pure state; is a product of decomposition of catechuic 
acid (not the substance from which the latter is formed, as for- 
merly stated). Macerate the catechu with ether, agitate the 
solution with water, decant the ethereous liquid and evaporate to 
dryness; dissolve in water and allow the catechuic acid to 
C]?ystallise. The mother-ley contains nearly pure Catechu tannic 
acid. It precipitates the salts of oxyd of iron with a dirty-green 
colour, also glue. 

Cedrin. The bitter ingredient of the fruit of Simaba Cedron. 
Remove a fatty substance by treating with ether, and dissolve the 
bitter substance by means of alcohol. White, silky needles, still 
more bitter than strychnin, little soluble in cold, readily in boil- 
ing water, of neutral reaction. 

Cellulose. See Fibrin. 

Centanrin = Cnicin. 

■ Ceradia Resin = C40 H28 O 4 . From Othonna furcata. Ajnber- 
yellow, smells like elemi, has an acid reaction when dissolved in 

Cerasin. See Cherry Gum. 

Ceratophyllin.* In Parmelia physoides [and probably also in 
other Parmelias]. Pour lime-water on the lichen washed before 
in cold water, let stand no longer than 15 hours, and precipitate 
the slightly yellow solution with hydrochloric acid. Wash the 
deposit with cold water and dry, exhaust with boiling alcohol of 
75°/q, and boil the residue that has not been dissolved, with a con- 
centrated solution of carbonate of soda. The C. is said to form in 
crystals when the solution has cooled down. — ^Thin white prisms 
of at first faintly afterwards strongly rancid and burning taste ; 
fuses at 147° and sublimates in laminae; dissolves more readily in 
hot than in cold water; also in cold concentrated sulphuric acid 
unaltered, readily in alcohol, ether and alkalies, and precipitable from 
the latter solution by acids; becomes purple- violet by choride of 

Cerealin. Ingredient of the bran of the grains of cereals, 
possessing in a high degree the faculty of converting starch into 
dextrin — ^therefore a kind of diastase. To obtain it, treat the bran 
with several changes of diluted alcohol in order to remove foreign 
matters; afterwards exhaust with cold water, filter and evaporate 

« This term is apt to lead to a very different plant and might advantageouBly be changed 
to Farmelin.— F. v. M. 


at 40° to dryness. The remaining Cerealin is WTnilar to albumin^ 
amorphous, nitrogenised, soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, 
«ther and oils. The aqueous solution curdles at 75°, and at the 
«ame time the C. loses its activity. 

Ceropinic Acid = Cge H34 Os. In the bark of Pinus sylvestris. 
Obtained in the same manner as indicated under Pinocorretin, 
and purified by recrystallising in alcohol with aid of animal 
•charcoaL White powder, consisting of microscopic crystals, fuses 
at 100° and congeals like wax. 

Cerosin = C48 Hso O2. Wax-like substance which forms on 
the surface of the stalks of the sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum) 
and is easily collected by scraping. To purify it, digest first with 
cold alcohol^ dissolve afterwards in boiling alcohol and allow to 
>crystallise. It forms pale-yellow light laminse of mother-of- 
pearl lustre, without odour and of 0*961 sp. gr., is hard, easily 
Mable, fuses at 82°; insoluble in water and cold alcohol, readily 
soluble in boiling alcohol and congealing, when cold, to an 
♦opodeldoc-like mass; insoluble in cold, slowly soluble in hot ether, 
<K)mbines slowly with alkalies. 

Ceroxylin or Ceroxylon Resin = C40 H32 O 2 . It is contained in 

the Palm-wax, obtained by scraping the stem of Ceroxylon Andi- 
oola and boiling the substance with water. It is obtained pure by 
boiling the Palm-wax with alcohol, filtering while hot and allowing 
the liquid to cool. The wax is then removed and the mother-ley 
^vapo^ted to form crystals. The ciystallised resin appears i^ 
white, fine needles, melts above 100°, dissolves little in cold, 
readily in hot alcohol, also in ether and volatile oils. 

Cetraric AcidzzCse H16 Oie. In the Iceland-moss (Cetraria 
Islandica). Boil with alcohol under addition of carbonate of 
potash, strain, precipitate the decoction with diluted hydrochloric 
:acid and water, and remove from the deposit foreign matters as 
lichenosteanc acid, thallochlor, &c,y by successively treating with 
boiling alcohol of 42% and ether, mixed with oil of rosemary or 
•camphor. From the remaining grey-white mixture of Cetraric acid 
and an indifferent white compound, the former is dissolved by a 
>cold aqueous solution of bicarbonate of potash, and has to be 
precipitated with hydrochloric acid and recrystallised in the lea^t 
possible quantity of boiling alcohol — Snow-white, loose tissue of 
43hining, hair-shaped needles, very bitter, not volatile, loses at 100° 
nothing of its weight, turns brown at 125° and decomposes; does 
not dissolve in water, but imparts to it a faint, bitter taste when 
boiled; is slowly soluble in cold, readily in boiling alcohol, little in 
•ether, not in oils; most readily in the hydrates and carbonates of 
alkalies; the bright-yellow solutions have a very bitter taste, and 
are precipitable by acid& 


Chelerythrln = Css H17 NOg- In the root of CHaudtuft 
lateum and allied species, also in all parts of Ghelidonium majus, 
Esdischoltzia Califomica and Sangainaria Canadensis (all plaiits 
of the order of Papaveracese). Production from the root of 
Ghelidodium majus : macerate with water containing sulphuric add^ 
precipitate the liquid with ammonia, edulcorate, press and dissolve 
the precipitate in alcohol addulated with sulphuric acid, add 
water and distil off the alcohol, precipitate the remaining liquid 
with ammonia^ wash the deposit and dry between blotting-ps^r at 
a gentle heat as quick as possible, reduce to powder and treat 
wiQi ether, which dissolves principally the Chelerythrin.' After 
evaporating the ether, a viscid, turpentine-like mass remains, 
which must be dissolved in the least possible amount of water, 
containing hydrochloric acid, in order to remove resin. The solu- 
tion is evaporated to dryness and rinsed with ether, which leaves 
behind chloride of Ch.; dissolve the latter in little cold water 
which leaves imdissolved in the main chloride of Chelidonin, 
evaporate and redissolve, &c., as long as chloride of Chelidonin 
is formed. From the last aqueous solution the Ch. is isolated by 
ammonia, and has, after rinsing and drying, to be purified by 
dissolving in ether and evaporating. — ^White grains of pearl lustre;, 
remains after the ethereous solution has been evaporated, as a tur- 
pentine-like mass which slowly solidifies to a shining, friable^ 
substance; without taste by itself, but the alcoholic solution tastes 
burning, acrid and bitter; its dust induces vehement sneezing; it 
softens resin-like at 65% is decomposed in higher temperatures, 
is of alkaline reaction; assumes slowly a yellow-white colour when 
exposed to the air and becomes red by traces of acid vapours;: 
does not dissolve in water, but most readily in alcohol, ether and 
oilsr With acids, which impart to it a beautiful orange-red tint, it 
forms crimson-red, neutral, partly crystallisable salts of a burning, 
acrid taste, readily soluble in water and precipitable by alkalies 
and by tannic acid. 

Chelidonic Acld=Cu H2 Oio+3 HO +2 Aq. As yet only 
found in Chelidonium majus, aud present in all parts. Is 
obtained when the aqueous extract is precipitated with nitrate of 
lead, the deposit washed and treated first with very diluted nitric 
acid (30 parts water and one part acid of 1*22 density), in order 
to remove other compounds of lead, and afterwards decom- 
posed boiling hot by sulphide of sodium. The excess of the latter 
is destroyed by means of an acid (acetic add), the filtered liqtiid 
is evaporated, and the add which will have separated is recrys- 
tallised. It forms small, colourless needles, dissolves in 166 parts 
cold and 36 parts boiling water, in 709 parts alcohol of 76°/^,, is 
without smell, of a strongly acid taste, is carbonised by heat, and 
predpitated white by salts of lead, nitrate of silver and the niiratea 


of mercniy; most of its salts dissolve in water and are easily 

ChelidOllin^Css Hi? Ks Oe + 2 HO. In Chelidoniummajns, 
principally in the root. After the extract of the root, prepared 
with water and sulphuric add and obtained for the production of 
chelerythrin, haa been precipitated by ammonia and the 
chdierythnn wiiJidrawn from the precipitate by ether — ^the 
leeidui has to be dissolved in the least possfble quanW.of water, 
containing some sulphuric acid and the solution mixed with double 
its volume of concentrated hydrochloric acid, which throws 
down chloride of Ch. This is decomposed by water containing 
ammonia; is purified by repeatedly dissolving in a little acidulated 
water, precipitating with hydrochloric acid and decomposing with 
ammonia, and is recrystallised in boiling alcohoL — Colourless, 
glassy, tabidar cr3rstals, of bitter taste similar to sulphate of 
quinin (according to others : acrid not bitter); loses the water at 
100% fuses at 130^ and is decomposed in higher temperatures; 
volatilises with the vapours of water, is insoluble in water, 
slowly soluble in alcohol and ether. Its salts are colourless,, 
crystailisable and of acid reaction, dissolve in water, have a 
strong and pure, bitter taste, and are precipitable by alkalies and 
by tannic acid. 

Chelidoxantllill. In the root, herb and flowers of Cheli- 
donium majus. Withdraw the chelidonin and chelerythrin from 
the root by water acidulated with sulphuric acid, exhaust the 
residuum with hot water, mix the liquid with acetate of lead and 
give access to sulphtu^t of hydrogen. The sulphide of lead, 
washed with cold water, yields to boiling water Ch., which is 
obtained on evaporating as a yellow, granular mass. This has to 
be digested successively with water, containing ammonia, and 
with ether to remove foreign matters; exhaust the remnant 
with absolute alcohol, filter, evaporate and rinse the remaining 
Oh. with cold diluted sulphuric acid, ammoniacal water and ether. 
Dissolve it in hot water and allow slowly to crystallise. — ^Yellow,, 
friable mass or yellow, short needles ; tastes very bitter ; dissolves 
yeiy slowly in ^Id, l4tter in hot ^r, imparting to it a strong 
yellow colour, slowly in alcohol, not in ether, in concentrated 
sulf^uric acid with yeUow-brown colour ; in the alcoholic solution 
it is precipitable by tannic acid. 

Chenapodill=:Oi2 Hig NOg. Peculiar, nitrogenised body,, 
closely related to the alkaloids, from Chenopodium albimi and 
other species of that genus. To obtain it, bruise the fresh 
plant gathered before flowering, press, heat the juice to 80% 
strain off from the, coagulated albumin, evaporate to honey 
consistence, mix with alcohol of 90%, boil for a few moments^ 


pour off the liquid, boil the residue with several changes of 
alcohol^ leave the alcoholic liquids to stand in the cold, strain off 
from the crystals of saltpetre, distil the alcohol and allow the 
residue, concentrated to a syrup-like consistence, to stand cold for 
a few days. The Ch., which will then have separated in granular 
crystals, must be collected, agitated with ether and recrystaUised 
in boiling alcohol. — White, lustreless, permanent powder, under 
the microscope, of the appearance of concentrically united needles, 
without taste or smell; it loses nothing of its weight at 100°, 
begins to sublimate at 200° in snow-white crystalline flocks, 
sublimates completely at 225°, becomes liquid, begins to boil and 
evolves a very penetrating nauseous odour. It dissolves in 11 
parts cold and in 3 to 4 parts boiling water, in 202 parts cold and 
in 77 parts boiling alcohol of 90%, is of neutral reaction; 
dissolves readily in diluted acids ; the chloride crystallises in cubes 
and is precipitated with a light-yellow colour by chloride of 

Cherry Gum. Exudation of the stems and branches of Prunus 
Amygdalus, P. Persica, P. Cerasus, P. domestica and P. Arme- 
niaca. It is a mixture of about equal parts of arabin and cerasin 
(compound of the metagimmiic acid = C12 Hn On with lime); and 
leaves the cerasin when treated with cold water as a colourless, 
peUucid eaaUy friable rna^, which sweUs up in cold water without 
dissolving, and is insoluble in alcohol. 

Cllica Red = Cie Hg O e . In the Chica or Carajuru, a pigment 
obtained from the leaves of Bignonia Chica in South America. 
Digest the chica with alcohol acidulated with sulphuric acid^ 
neutralise the extract with carbonate of anmiomia, wash the pre- 
cipitate with boiling water and dry at 100°. It turns brown at 
the light, is not soluble in water, readily so in alcohol with ruby- 
red colour, little in ether with yellow, in alkalies with dirty-red 
colour and precipitable by acids. 

Chlmapliilin. Yellow, crystalline compound in Pyrola (Chima- 
phila) umbellata. Agitate with chloroform the tincture of the 
herb prepared with diluted alcohol, let subside, throw away the 
upper stratum and allow the liquid beneath to evaporate; the 
substance, which will separate, has to be recrystallised in alcohoL 
In the purest state it is to be obtained by distilling the herb with 
water. The stalks yield more of it than the leaves. — Beautiful, 
gold-yellow, long needles, without smell or taste, fusible, sublimate 
unaltered; almost entirely insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, in flxed and in volatile oils; is carbonised by 
concentrated sulphuric acid, not altered by concentrated nitric or 
hydrochloric acids. The alcoholic solution is not affected by tannic 
acid or chloride of mercury. 

Cliinaniin = Quinamin. 


[CMratin = C62 H48 O30. Bitter substance, found hj Hoehn 
in all parts of Ophelia Chirata. Contained in the extract, pre- 
pared with alcohol of 60°/o* It forms a light-yellow, very hygro- 
scopic powder of a strong and lasting bitter taste, dissolves 
sparingly in cold, better in hot water, easily in alcohol and in 
ether, has a neutral reaction, does not act on alkaline copper solu- 
tion, forms a copious, white, flaky precipitate with tannic acid. 
With acids the Ch. separates into Ophelic acid and Chiratogenin = 
C26 H24 Oe.] 

Chloro^nic Acid (Payen)=CArFEic Acid. 

€llloro^Illll. A substance contained in the root of Eubia 
tinctorum, and distinguished by the green colour it assumes when 
boiled with acids, but as yet not obtained in the pure state. 
According to Kraus it appears to be identic with Rochleder's 
Rubichloric acid and with Runge's Rubiaceic acid. Remains, be- 
sides sugar and mineral substances, in the liquid obtained for the 
preparation of Rubian, afber the precipitate produced by acids 
has been filtered off. Precipitate the aqueous decoction of madder 
with oxalic acid, filter and neutralise the liquid with chalk, 
filter again and evaporate the liquid on the water-bath until a 
dark-brown thick syrup is obtained. The latter dissolves in water 
and leaves behind brown products of decomposition originated in 
the course of the evaporation (while the solution has an acid re- 
action on account of phosphoric acid, and assumes a green coloiu* 
when boiled with acids). Precipitate the solution witi subacetate 
of lead, remove the excess of lead in the filtered liquid by sul- 
phuret of hydrogen, filter again and evaporate over sidphuric 
acid ; a brownish-yellow, honey-like substance is obtained, which 
does not dry up again. This is Chlorogenin, mixed with a little 
sugar, which exists readily formed in the madder, and with the 
acetates of potash, lime and magnesia. It has a nauseous, 
sweetish and bitter taste, throws down a brown powder when 
evaporated in the aqueous solution, dissolves in alcohol, not in 
ether; emits an offensive smell when boiled with diluted hydro- 
chloric or sulphuric acid, becomes dark-green and throws down a 
dark-green powder. 

Chlorophyll is according to Fremy a mixture of a yellow and 
a blue pigment. By shaking an alcoholic tincture of chlorophyll 
with a mixture of two parts of ether and one part of moderately 
diluted hydrochloric acid, the ether dissolves the yellow matter, 
while the acid beneath assumes a beautiful blue colour. By 
mixing the two liquids by means of alcohol the green colour is 
restored. The yellow pigment, isolated in the above manner, is 
called by Fremy Phylloxanthin, the blue Phyllocyanin. Closer 
investigations of these two compounds are wanting. 


rAcoordisff to the researches made by Elraua, Sorby and others 
onShe ^ colouring matters of lef es. ^:;*rum^analysk ha. 
revealed the existence of at least ten different colouring substances 
more or less separable by means of sulphide of carbon^ alcohol 
and water, used in varying combinations. Amongst these substances 
are a blue-green and a yellow-green, called respectively blue 
and yellow chlorophyll, and five yellow substances : orange xantho- 
phyU, xanthophyll, yellow xanthophyll, orange lichnoxanthin and 
lichnoxanthin. As these colouring matters are rapidly decomposed 
by acids, Fremy's blue and yellow Chlorophylls are but products 
of decomposition. Of the above colouring matters, orange xan- 
thophyll occurs in considerable quantity in Oscillatoriae, blue chlo- 
rophyll in olive Algae, xanthophyll in Porphyra vulgaris (Algae), 
yellow xanthophyll in various pale-yellow flowers as Chrysanthe- 
mums, &c., and lichnoxanthin in Clavaria fuciformis. Xanthophyll 
and yellow xanthophyll give absorption-bands, not lichnoxanthin. 
On addition of a little hydrochloric acid to the alcoholic solutions, 
the first and the third of the three last-named matters fade slowly 
without altering their colour, while the second is changed into 
another yellow substance with two absorption-^bands and then into 
deep blue. These three yellow substances are all soluble in sul- 
phide of carbon, they exist in green leaves and also generally in 
yellow flowers though mixed in diflerent proportions.] 

[Solutions of Chlorophyll are decomposed by small quantities of 
hydrochloric acid, and yield on filtration a solid black residue and 
a yellowish-brown liquid. The latter, on addition of more hydro- 
chloric acid, assumes a deep-green colour and yields by filtration a 
yellow residue and a pure blue liquid. The above black matter 
shows, according to Filhol, a' crystalline structure of radiated 
needles under the microscope in the case of Monocotyledons, but 
is amorphous with Dicotyledons. It dissolves very sparingly in 
cold alcohol of 85%, abundantly on boiling, also in ether and ben- 
zol with yellowish-brown, in sulphide of carbon with yellow, in 
chloroform with violet, and in acetic acid with blue- violet colour. 
Concentrated hydrochloric and sulphuric acids dissolve it slowly 
with green colour, probably under decomposition. The solution 
of the crystalline black matter in acetic acid assumes a splendid 
green colour when mixed with traces of the acetates of copper or zinc 
and heated to boiling.] 

Cholestearin = Cis H24 O + HO. Exists, according to recent 
investigations, also in the vegetable kingdom and especially in the 
seeds and young parts of various plants (in malt, &c.) From peas 
it is obtained in the following manner. Digest with warm alcohol 
of 94%, evaporate to honey-consistence, dissolve in water, add 
oxyd of lead, boil until clear, allow to cool, throw away the water, 
treat again with hot alcohol, remove the lead in the tinctures by 


means of sulphuret of hydrogen, leave to crystallise in the cold, 
.and recrystalJObie the Ch. in aJcohoL — It forms large, white, leaf- 
like crystals of mother<of-pearl lustre, without smell or taste, 
lighter than water, loses the water when heated, fuses afterwards 
(at 137^) and distils by careful heating undecomposed. In higher 
temperatures it separates into various volatile products. It does 
not dissolve in water, little in cold alcohol and oil of turpentine, 
readily in hot alcohol, oils and ether; is not affected by caustic 

ChrysophftniC Acid = C20 Hs Oq (called also according to its 
origin Lapathin, Farietin or Parietic acid, Parmel-yellow, Hha- 
ponticin, Eheic acid, £.umicin). In the roots of the genus Bheum 
and Kumex, in Parmelia padetina and Squamaria elegans, and 
probably many other Lichenes. Digest the Parmelia parietina or 
the root of rhubarb with weak alcohol, containing caustic potash, 
^ve to the strained liquid access of carbonic acid gas^ dissolve the 
deposit in alcohol of 50% mixed with a little caustic potash, £lter 
and precipitate with acetic acid. Dissolve the precipitate, after 
filtering, in boiling alcohol, filter hot and add water, whereby 
yellow flocks of Chr. are separated, which have to be purified by 
recrystallisation in alcohol. — Delicate orange-yellow, felted needle^, 
similar to iodide of lead, of gold-lustre, almost without taste, fusing 
at 162°; sublimate partly unaltered by careful heating; scarcely 
soluble in cold, a little more in boiling water with bright yellow 
■colour, in 1125 parts alcohol of 85% at + 30°, in 224 parts boiling 
alcohol, in ether, glacial acetic acid, amylalcohol, remarkably well 
in benzol and oil of coal-tar, in concentrated sulphuric acid with 
beautiful red colour and precipitable without alteration by water 
with yellow colour, readily soluble in alkalies with red colour. 

ClirysopicTiii = Vulpulin. 

Clirysorhainilill = C46"H22 O22. According to Kane in the 
unripe so-called Yellow Berries (Grains of Avignon, from 
Khanmus tinctorius, R. infectorius, R. saxatilis, R. amygdalinus, 
R. oleoides); yet Gellatly did not succeed in obtaining it either 
from the ripe or the unripe berries. Obtained by extracting with 
ether, it represents beautiful gold-coloured, silky, concentrically 
united needles, dissolves scarcely in cold water, readily in alcohol 
and in ether; by boiling with water, xanthorhamnin is produced; 
it is not altered by acids and dissolves, apparently under decompo- 
sition, in alkaUes. 

Cicutln, Volatile alkaloid, occurring in all parts of Cicuta 
virosa, but as yet only obtained in the aqueous solution, and is 
very imperfectly investigated. 

[CicUten^Cao H16. A hydrocarbon contained in the volatile 
oil of the root of Water-hemlock or Cowbane (Cicuta virosa). It 


boils at 166^, rotates to the right and is of 0*87038 specific 
gravity at 18°. It dissolves in every proportion in alcohol^ 
ether, chloroform, benzol and sulphide of carbon, dissolves iodine, 
sulphur and phosphorus, and forms with water a crystalline 
hydrate. It absorbs chlorine in large quantities, producing a thick 
camphor-like liquid of the formula C20 H12 CI 4. — ^Van Ankum]. 

[Cinchona Alkaloids. F. E. de Yrij gives the following 
method for the separation and quantitative estimation of the five 
Cinchona alkaloids — Quinin, Cinchonidin, Cinchonin, Quinidin and 
the amorphous base, soluble in ether. — Mix at least five grammes 
of the piilverised crude alkaloid with fifty grammes ether, shake 
repeatedly and allow to rest till the next day. EUter and 
evaporate the ethereous solution. 

A. Portion soluble in etiier. Dissolve the residue in 10 parts 
proof spirit, mixed with 5% sidphuric acid. Add cautiously of 
tincture of iodine as long as a precipitate ensues. The precipitate 
contains the whole of the Quinin as herapathit. Collect on a 
filter, wash with proof spirit and dry at 100°. One part by 
weight contains 0*665 parts Quinin. 

The filtered liquid contains the a/morphous base. Add sul- 
phurous acid in alcohol until colourless, neutralise with caustic 
soda, drive away the alcohol on the water-bath and precipitate by 
slight excess of soda-ley. 

B. Portion insoluble in ether. Add 40 parts hot water and 
diluted acid, until only slightly alkaline and a sufficient quantity 
of tartarate of potassa et soda^ stir well and leave to rest till the 
following day, when Cinchonidin, if present, will have separated 
under the form of crystals of tartarate of Cinchonidin. Collect on. 
a filter, wash with a little water and dry at 100^. One part 
contains 0*804 Cinchonidin. 

The liquid after separation is mixed with dissolved iodide of 
potassium and stirred. Quinidin falls down as a coarse crystalline 
powder of hydriodide of Quinidin. Collect, wash with little water 
and dry at 100^. One part contains 0*718 parts Quinidin. 

The filtered liquid contains the Cinchonin, which is obtained by 
precipitating with soda-ley, washing with water and drying.] 

[Cinchona Oily Alkaloid, Howard's = C2o H12 NO 2. Found 
in the mother-ley of Quinin. Obtained by treating the mother-ley 
with ether, evaporating, dissolving in the smallest possible quan- 
tity of oxalic acid, crystallising and recrystallising under addition 
of animal charcoal. The alkaloid is i^parated by carbonate of 
potash or soda. — ^A yellowish oil of bitter taste, easily decompos- 
able by heat, readily soluble in alcohol and ether. Exhibits with 
chlorine water and ammonia the reaction of Quinin and Quinidin. 
Nitric acid produces a green-yellow colour. Of the salts the 
oxalate crystallises best, the other compounds are exceedingly 


soluble in water and partly of an oily nature. — ^Found by Howard 
in the bark of Cinchona sucdrubra.] 

CillcllOllidill=C20 Hi2 NO. In the Qnina rubra graoatensis 
(called originally Quina pseudoregia), &om Cinchona sucdrubra, C. 
Calisaya, C. officinalis, C. landfolia. Exhaust the bark reduced 
to powder, with water acidulated by hydrochloric acid, treat 
the solution with milk of lime^ collect the deposit, dry, pulverise, 
draw out with alcohol, evaporate the fluid, let crystallise and 
purify by recrystallising in alcohol. — Forms colourless, long, 
shining prisms; fuses at 167 to 170^ and decomposes in higher 
temperatures ; without smell, of bitter taste ; becomes electric by 
friction; dissolves in 3287 parts cold, and in 596 parts boiling 
water, in 88 parts cold and in 19 parts boiling alcohol of 0.833, 
in 398 parts cold ether of 0*740 ; the alcoholic solution has an 
alkaline reaction; dissolves readily in diluted acids, also in 
concentrated sulphuric acid without change ; dissolves colourless 
in chlorine- water, and ammonia produces in the solution a grey- 
white precipitate, soluble in an excess of ammonia with pale 
sherry colour. It saturates the acids completely, and forms well 
crystallisable salts, which are permanently precipitated by caustic 
alkalies and their carbonates, phosphate of soda, chloride of 
mercury, chloride of platinum, chloride of gold, iodide of 
potassium, sulphocyanide of potassium, nitrate of palladium and 
by tannic acid. 

Cuichoiiidiii=PAST£UB's Quinibiit. 

Ci]lchO]lill=C2o Hi2 NO. Prevails in the grey and brown 
and especially in the Huanoko Qtdna-barks, from Cinchona 
micrantha, C. nitida, C. Peruviana, C. Pahudiana, C. 
scrobiculata, C. cordifolia. Digest with water acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, press, concentrate the extracts, filter, precipitate 
with ley of soda, wash the deposit and dissolve it in acetic acid, 
precipitate again, dry the deposit, boil with alcohol and allow to 
crystallise. — Forms white pellucid needles of alkaline reaction, of 
sHghtly bitter taste, fuses only when decomposition is setting in, 
and evaporates partly undecomposed (according to others : it fuses 
at 150 to 160^ and sublimates partly in white needles); dissolves 
in 3670 parts cold, and in 2500 parts boiling water, in 126 parts 
absolute, and in 115 parts alcohol of 90% at 15°, in 40 parts 
boiling alcohol, in 600 parts cold and in 470 parts boiling ether, 
in 23 parts chloroform^ little in oils ; dissolves colourless in chlorine- 
water, and is precipitated white by ammonia ; dissolves colourless 
in concentrated sulphuric add and is not coloured on heating ; 
insoluble in alkalies. Neutralises the adds and yields mostly 
<»ystallisable salts, the solutions of which turn dark red- 
brown in the sunlight. 



Oinchovatlii = Aricin. 

Cliinamein = Oil of Balsam of Peru. 


Clnnamlc Acid=Ci8 H7 O3 + H O. In the balsam of Peru 
(from Myroxylon Pereirse), balsam of Tolu (Myroxylon toluiferum), 
liquid storax (from liquidambar orientalis), perhaps also in other 
odoriferous resins. May be prepared like benzoic acid. Crystal- 
lises in colourless klinorhombic prisms and needles, smells and 
tastes faintly like cinnamon, liquifies at 129°, boils at 300° and 
sublimates in pungent, cough-producing vapours ; dissolves little 
in cold, readily in boiling water, in alcohol and ether ; is of acid 
reaction; the aqueous solution evolves, when boiled with peroxyd 
of lead, or with chromate of potash and sulphuric acid, oil of 
bitter almonds and the remaining liquid contains benzoic acid. 
Its salts are soluble in water and crystallisable, very similar to 
the benzoates ; the least soluble is the silver-salt ; the lead-salt is 
also little soluble. 

Cissampelln = Bebirin. 

Cisso-Tannic Acid=C2o H12 Ow. The pigment of the red 
autumnal leaves of Yitus hederacea, occurs also in the ripe 
fruits of Fragaria vesca and its congeners. Treat the leaves with 
alcohol of 80%, add to the tincture one-fifth of water and distil 
the alcohol, evaporate the remaining liquid to honey consistence 
and treat with cold water, which yields a dark-red solution, while 
a kermes-red powder (see below) remains undissolved. The red 
solution has an adstringent and bitter taste, is coloured dark-green 
by chloride of iron, and is precipitated by glue, tartarated antimony 
and acetate of lead (olive-green by the latter). The solution 
becomes turbid by age and throws down the same kind of powder 
as forms on dissolving the extract. This red powder, insoluble or 
changed Cisso-Tannic Acid=:Cs2 H28 O26, is, when dry, dense, 
dark-brown, shining, brittle, of bitter and acerb taste, carbonises 
quietly when heated, is insoluble in water, readily soluble in 
alcohol with blood-red colour, in ammonia with dark brown-yellow 
colour; the alcoholic solution behaves towards chloride of iron, 
glue, tartarated antimony and acetate of lead like the original 

Citric AcidziCigHgOii + 3 HO + 2 Aq. Widely diffused, 
free and mixed with more or less malic acid in fruits, or bound to 
bases in various roots, herbs, barks, &c. It is precipitated from the 
extracts by acetate of lead ; the deposit, when decomposed by 
sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporated, yields the acid in crystals. 
Rectorhombic, translucent, colourless crystals, without odour and 
of a pure and strong acid taste, lose their lustre at the air, give 
up at 100° 2 eq. water, ftise at 150° and decompose in higher 


temperatures ; dissolve readily in water, alcohol and ether. 
Citric acid is distinguished from the similar tartaric acid by the 
following tests. It evolves on heating no smell of burning 
sugar, but a different empyreumatic odour ; it forms no scantily 
soluble acid salt with potash, and is not turbidified by lime-water 
in the cold, but yields with it when heated a precipitate, which 
disappears again on cooling. The salts of the alkalies are readily 
soluble in water, those of the other bases slowly or not in water. 
The salt obtained by acetate of lead and dried at 120° is =3 PbO + 
Ci 4- HO, and contains 32-68% acid. 

Clliclll=042 H28 O16. In the leaves of Carbenia benedicta, 
Oentaurea Calcitrapa and other Cynarocephalous plants of 
Oompositae. Is prepared like Salicin. Crystallises in white, 
silky needles, has a remarkably bitter taste; permanent at the air, 
neutral, fusible, not volatilisable without decomposition ; dissolves 
sparingly in cold, much better in boiling water, readily in alcohol, 
wood-spirit, scarcely in ether, not in oil of turpentine and in fixed 
oils, in concentrated sulphuric acid with beautiful red colour, 
turning black when heated. 

Cocain=C32 H19 NOg. In the leaves of Erythroxylon Coca. 
Exhaust with water of 60° to 80°, precipitate the liquid with 
acetate of lead, precipitate the filtered solution with a saturated 
solution of sulphate of soda, filter, concentrate, render slightly 
alkaline by means of carbonate of soda, and shake repeatejdly with 
«ther. Distil off the bulk of the ether from the ethereous solu- 
tions, leave the rest of the solvent to evaporate in the cold, 
and withdraw a part of the pigment from the remaining impure 
C. by distributing it in cold water. Now pour a thin layer of the 
impure chloride of 0. into Graham's dialysator made of 
parchment-paper, and leave to diffuse in three changes of water 
for three days, whereby most of the chloride of C. will be 
diffused into the water, while much of the pigment remains in the 
dialysator. Throw down the C. in the solution with carbonate of 
soda, dissolve in alcohol, add of acetic acid enough to render it 
a<;id, and allow to evaporate spontaneously over Sulphuric acid. 
The C. remains free of acetic acid, and is withdrawn from the 
remnant by ether, while the foreign matters are left undissolved 
and combined with acetic acid under the form of oily drops. — It 
crystallises in large, colourless klinorhombic prisms of at first 
somewhat bitter, afterwards cooling taste; of alkaline reaction, 
fuses at 98°, may be sublimated for a small part with careful 
heating, dissolves in 704 parts cold and a little more copiously in 
hot water, readily in alcohol, and better still in ether; readily in 
diluted acids, in concentrated sulphuric acid without colour, but is 
carbonised by heat; separates when heated with concentrated 
hydrochloric acid into benzoic acid and a new crystalline base of 

E 2 

sweetish bitter taste (Ec^nin). Forms with acids crystaUisablo- 
salts; liquor of ammonia, carbonate of ammonia^ and caustia 
potash produce in the chloride of C. solution white precipitateBy. 
soluble in excess of the reagent ; carbonate of soda gives a per- 
manent precipitate which becomes crystalline on keeping; th& 
bicarbonates of alkalies and phosphate of soda do not aiSect the 
solution; bi-iodiole of potassium causes a kermes-brown, picric^ 
acid a yellow precipitate, tannic acid (only when mixed with some 
hydrochloric acid) white flocks; Goca-tannic acid precipitates 

Coca-rTamiic Add. In the leaves of Erythroxylon Coca. It is 
obtained besides cocain, when the leaves are exhausted with 
alcohol acidulated with sulphuric acid; the tincture digested with 
hydrate of lime, filtered, neutralised with sulphuric acid and freed 
from the alcohol by distillation; in the remaining liquid the oooaia 
is precipitated by carbonate of soda, and can be removed by 
shaking with eth^^r, while the Coca Tannic acid, remains dis- 
solved in the aqueous solution. Evaporate from the latter any 
traces of ether; neutralise with nitric acid, remove the sulphuric 
acid by means of nitrate of baryta, the excess of the latter with 
carbonate of ammonia, neutralise and precipitate with acetate of 
lead; the washed deposit has to be decomposed under water by 
sulphuret of hydrogen, and the liquid is then evaporated. — Brown- 
red, amorphous, hygroscopic substance of slightly acerb taste,, 
fasible by heat, colours chloride of iron brown-green, precipitates, 
tartarated antimony, but not glue. 

CocCO^lc Acid. In the seeds of Daphne Gnidium. Digesi 
with alcohol, treat the alcoholic extract with water, and evaporate 
the aqueous solution. — Colourless, quadrangular prisms of a pecu- 
liar acidulous taste, the solution of which is not turbidified by 
lime-water, chloride of baryum, acetate of lead or subsulphate of 

Cocoa Oil, obtained from the fruit-seeds of Cocos nucifera hy 
boiling with water and skimming; is white, of butter-consistence,, 
of a rather disagreeable, somewhat cheese-like odour and mild 
taste, fuses at 20° to 22°, turns easily rancid, dissolves readily in 
alcohol, and contains, combined with glyceryl, much laurostearic, 
also oleic, a little palmitic, myristic, caproic, caprylic and capria 

[Coccognln* Indifferent substance, discovered by A. Cassel- 
mann in the fruits of Daphne Mezereum. The fruits are 
pulverised and freed from oil by pressing and treating with 
sulphide of carbon. The residue is then extracted three times 
with alcohol of 95% and the solvent distilled off. The extract is 
freed from resin by alcohol of 70% and the residue dissolved ii^ 


l)oilnig alcohol of 95^/^. The C. deposited on cooling is 
parified bj recrystallisations. — ^The G. appears as a white powder, 
under the microsoope as needlenshaped, sericeous crystals; of 
poignantly acrid taste and without- odour. It is insoluble in cold, 
very sparingly in hot water, readily soluble in alcohol^ insoluble in 
«ther; of neutral reaction. Alkalies dissolve it with yellow, 
afterwards red colour. Subacetate of lead forms with it on 
heating a yellow precipitate. It may be fused and sublimed by 
<*arefiil heating without any residue, while emitting the odour 
of cumarin.} 

Codeill = C36 H21 N0e+2H0. In the opium. Exhaust, 
according to Robertson-Gregory's method for obtaining the most 
important ingredients, the opium with water of 38°, evaporate the 
liquid under addition of pulverised chalk to a syrup, add chloride 
•of calcium in excess, and boil for a few minutes. Dilute the fluid 
cold with a moderate quantity of water, whereby resinous flocks, 
meconate of lime and dyeing substances are thrown down. Alter, 
•evaporate under addition of a piece of chalk to the point of 
crystallisation, and separate the liquid from the sediment The 
crystals, a mixture or double-salt of the chloride of morphin 
and Codein, obtained on cooling and concentrating, are freed from 
the black mother-ley by pressing and purifled by recrystallising. 
Dissolve these in water and add ammonia^ which precipitates the 
morphin. In concentrating the filtered liquid chloride of Codein 
crystallises first predominantly, and has to be freed from the bulk 
of chloride of ammonium by recrystallisation; it is then dissolved in 
hot water and decomposed by concentrated ley of potash, whereby 
a part of the Codein separates in the form of an oil, afterwards con- 
cealing, and another part crystallises on cooling. Wash with 
water, dissolve in ether, and evaporate und^ addition of water. — 
Forms small, white, silky scales, of little taste (its salts are bitt^), 
fuses at 100^ under loss of water, and decomposes afterwards; dis- 
solves in 80 parts cold and in 1 7 parts boiling water, more readily in 
^cohol and in ether, in liquor of ammonia about as much as in water, 
in concentrated sulphuric acid without colour and turning brown 
by heat^ in conoMitrated nitric acid under explosion with red 
colour, is not affected by chloride of iron and iodic acid. Combines 
with acids to mostly crystallisable salts which are almost insoluble 
in ether and not precipitated by ammonia or carbonate of soda, 
but are so incompletely by caustic potash. 

Colcllicill=:C84 Hio NOio. In all parts of Colchicum autum- 
nale. Exhaust the seeds with alcohol of 90%, evaporate to a 
syrup, and mix hot with twenty times its quantity of water. 
Allow to rest, remove the fatoil from the surface and precipitate 
the filtered liquid with subacetate of lead, remove from the filtered 
liquid the lead with phosphate of soda, and precipitate the Colchi- 


cin with tannic acid. Collect and wash the deposit and mix 
intimately in the moist state with oxyd of lead, dry the mixture 
by heat and exhaust with hot alcohol, evaporate the tincture to a 
syrup-like consistence and allow to dry over sulphuric acid in the 
vacuum. To get it completely pure, it must be thrown down re- 
peatedly with tannic acid and treated with oxyd of lead as above. — 
Light-yellow, brittle, adhering like a resin when triturated, of a- 
faintly aromatic hay-like odour; dissolves readily in water and 
alcohol, not in ether, has even in a very diluted solution a strong^ 
and lastingly bitter taste, is of neutral reaction, fuses at 140° and 
is decomposed by higher temperatures, yields an intensely yellow 
precipitate with mineral acids and alkalies, is thrown down b^ 
tannic acid, the chlorides of mercury and of gold; dissolves in 
concentrated sulphuric acid with dark-green colour which changes- 
soon into yellow and is altered by , nitric acid successively inta 
blue, violet, and brown, and lastly yellow again, which becomes- 
of a dark-red colour with ammonia. The Oolchicin possesses no 
basic properties, and is even changed into a weak acid when 
treated with a mineral add, and assumes thereby a crystelline 
appearance, but without dUenng its composition. This slightly 
acid compound has been called Colchicein; it forms white warty^ 
masses and needles, tastes much less bitter than Oolchicin, and 
is of a slightly acid reaction, but possesses the same poisonous, 
properties as the latter. 

C0l0C7Ilthill=C56 H42 O23. In the pulp of the fruit, less ia 
the seeds, of Cucumis Colocynthis. Treat the aqueous extract after 
drying with cold water, precipitate the filtered liquid with aeetate 
of lead, filter again and precipitate with sub-acetate of lead, strain 
and remove the excess of lead by stdphuret of hydrogen, precipi- 
tate with tannic acid, collect and wash the deposit^ mix it with 
hydrated oxyd of lead, warm and exhaust with alcohol, decolourise 
the tincture with animal charcoal, filter, dry and shake with ether 
(anhydrous)which leaves the C. in the pure state. — ^Amorphous, 
yellow, crystallises in white-yellow tufts when the alcoholic solu- 
tion is slowly evaporated, has an intensely bitter taste, bums when, 
heated, dissolves in 8 parts cold and in 6 parts boiling water, in 6 
parts aqueous and in 10 parts absolute alcohol, not in ether, in 
concentrated sulphuric acid with crimson-red colour ; secedes with 
diluted acids into sugar and another product. 

Colomblc Acid=C42 H22 O12 + HO. Besides colombin and 
berberin in the Oolombo-root (from Jateorrhiza palmata). 
Digest hot the dried alcoholic extract of the root with ttiiIIt of 
lime, saturate the filtered liquid with hydrochloric acid, which 
causes a yellow amorphous precipitate, remove from the latter the 
berberin by washing with water, and the colombin by boiling 
with ether, dissolve the rest in ley of potash and adduce carbonic 


acid gas, oyersaturate the fitered liquid with hydrochloric add, 
wash the white flocks, which will separate, with water and dry.*- 
Ajnorphous, pale straw-yellow powder, of strongly acid reaction, 
tastes less bitter than colombin, is almost insoluble in water, dis- 
solves with yellow colour in alcohol, very little in ether, better in 
acetid acid, with brown-yellow colour in potash-ley. 

Colombln=iC42 H22 O14. The indifferent bitter ingredient of 
the Colombo-root (from Jateorrhiza palmata). Exhaust with 
alcohol of 75°/q, distil off the alcohol from the tincture, evaporate 
to dryness on the water-bath, dissolve in water, shake with ether, 
evaporate the ethereous solution and purify the crystaUised C. by 
pressing and recrystallising in ether. — Forms white or transparent 
prisms and needles, without smell, very bitter, neutral; fuses like 
wax, decomposes in higher temperatures; dissolves little in cold 
water, alcohol and ether, in 30 to 40 parts boiling alcohol, in 
acetic acid^ a little in volatile oils, in alkalies and re-precipitable 
by acids; in concentrated sulphuric acid with orange, afterwards 
dark-red colour; not precipitable by metallic salts. 

Colophony. See Abietic Acid. 

C0]iessm=C25 H22 NO. In the seeds and bark of Wrightia 
antidysenterica. Exhaust the bark with water containing a small 
admixture of hydrochloric acid, precipitate the extract with am- 
• monia, treat the deposit with alcohol, evaporate the tincture to a 
syrup's thickness, bring to dryness with acetate of lead and with 
a little ammoni^ and treat Vith ether. The C. remains after 
evaporating. — ^White, amorphous powder of very bitter, acrid and 
rancid taste, is destroyed by heat, dissolves in alcohol, ether and 
chloroform; according to other observers it dissolves little in 
alcohol, ether and sulphide of carbon. 

C0Illiydbri]l=Ci6 H17 NO 2. Alkaloid of Conium niaculatum, 
existing besides coniin in the flowers and seeds. Exhaust with 
water containing a little sulphuric acid, saturate the moderately 
concentrated extract with an excess of lime or caustic potash, 
distil and saturate the alkaline distillate with sulphuric acid, 
evaporate to a syrup's consistence, shake with alkohol and evapo- 
rate the alcoholic solution, add potash-ley, shake with ether and 
let the ether evaporate from the ethereous solution. The residue 
when subjected to distillation yields at flrst oil-like coniin with a 
little ether and water and afterwards a dry crystalline substance. 
This when purifled by pressing, (fee, is pure Conhydrin. — It repre- 
sents colourless^ iridescent laminae of mother-of-pearl lustre, smells 
faintly like coniin, liquifies with a gentle heat and sublimates 
ah^eady below 100°, dissolves moderately in water, readily in 
alcohol and in ether, is of strongly alkaline reaction and dislodges 
the ammonia from its compounds. It yields with hydrochloric 


add an tmcrystalHsable salt (whereas chloride of coniin crystallises 
and is permanent at the air) ; is converted into coniin when heated 
with anhydrous phosphoric acid. 

[C01llferin=:C48 H32 O24 + 6 HO. Glucosid, detected by Th. 
Harfcig in the cambium liquid of coniferous trees, viz.: — Pinus 
Abies, P. picea, P. Strobus, P. Cembra, and P. Larix. It is 
obtained from the juice by boiling, filtering, and inspissating to 
one-fifth of its volume, when the C. after cooling separates in crys- 
tals, which have to be pressed and recrystallised from water or 
alcohol under addition of animal charcoal. — It forms white, seri- 
ceous, delicate needles or warty masses consisting of concentrically 
grouped spearlets. They lose their water of crystallisation at 100°, 
fuse at 185°, and congeal after cooling to a glassy mass. In higher 
temperatures, the C. turns brown and becomes carbonised under 
emission of caramel odour and a peculiar aromatic smell. It 
dissolves Uttle in cold, copiously in hot water, sparingly in strong 
alcohol, not in ether. The taste of the aqueous solution is slightly 
bitter. It turns the polarised light to the left. Sulphuric acid 
colours C. dark violet. The solution in hydrochloric acid, on 
heating and evaporating, throws down an intensely-blue body. 
Treated with chromate of potash and sulphuric acid, 0. is con- 
verted into vanillic acid, which might serve as a substitute for 

C)0Iliin=Ci6 Hi5 N. In all parts of Conium maculatum, 
most copiously in the seeds. DistU the latter with watet and an 
admixture of lime, saturate the distillate with sulphuric acid, 
evaporate almost to dryness, agitate the granular remnant with a 
mixture of two parts absolute alcohol and one part ether, 
evaporate the solution, distil the remaining ma«s with potash ley 
and desiccate with chloride of calcium. — Limpid, oily fluid of 
penetrating nauseous hemlock-odour, and of acrid, natiseous, 
tobacco-like taste, of 0*89 density, boils at 170°, has a strongly 
alkaline reaction, dissolves in 100 parts water; the solutLcoi 
becomes cloudy when warmed, and clears again on cooling; 
dissolves readily in alcohol, ether and oils, and neutralises the 
acids completely. The aqueous solution is precipitable by tansic 

CoilTallamarin=C46 H44 024* Precipitate the aqtieous 
decoction of the root of Convallaria majalis or the decoction of 
the whole herb, as obtained for the preparation of convallarin, 
with subacetate of lead, remove the lead from the filtered liquid 
by means of carbonate of soda, precipitate with tannic acid, wash 
and dry the deposit, exhaust with alcohol, remove the tannic acid 
by digesting the tincture with slaked lime, distil off the alcohol 
from the filtrate, free the remaining liquid from the rest of the 
lime by adducing carbonic acid gas and evaporate to dryness. 


The C. thus obtained, contains resin and mineral substances ; the 
former may be removed by means of ether; the latter by dis- 
solving repeatedly in water, precipitating with tannic acid and 
treating as above. — ^White powder, intermixed with small crystals 
of a peculiar, lasting, sweet-bitter taste ; is softened by heat and 
afterwards destroyed; dissolves readily in water and in alcohol, not 
in ether, is soluble unaltered in liquor of ammonia, assumes a 
beautiful violet colour with concentrated sulphuric acid ; is resolved 
hy diluted acids into sugar and a resin (Convallamaretin). 

ConyallaiilirrCsi H31 On. In Gonvallaria majalis. Boil 
with water the whole herb, collected with the roots whUe 
blossoming or shortly after the time of inflorescence, employ the 
decoction for the preparation of Convallamarin (see this), exhaust 
the remnant with alcohol of 0*84, precipitate the tinctures with 
subaoetate of lead, remove the lead from the filtrate by sulphuret 
of hydrogen, distil ofl^ the alcohol and let crystallise. The 
<:ryBtaL3, mixed with resin and chlorophyll, must be pressed and 
washed with ether. — Forms rectangular prisms, has a rancid taste 
when dissolved in water or alcohol, fuses at 100° and is after- 
wards destroyed, dissolves very little in water, readily in alcohol, 
not in ether, divides under the action of diluted acids iiito sugar 
and a reain (Oonvallaretin). 

ConvolvillllinCes H50 Os2* The main ingredient of the resin 
•of Ipomaca Purga. Boil the root first with water, afterwards 
with alcohol, add water to the tincture until it shows traces of 
-turbidity, boil with animal charcoal, filter and evaporate. The 
yeUowiah, brittle resin is reduced to powder, exhausted with 
•ether, dissolved in absolute alcohol and precipitated by ether. — 
Colourless substance, at 100*^ brittle and reducible to a white 
powder, without taste or smell, fuses at 150^ without loss and de- 
composes afterwards, has a slightly add reaction when dissolved 
in alcohol, dissolves very little in water, in any quantity of 
alcohol, not in ether or in oils, both fixed and volatile ones, 
xeadily iu acetic acid, in concentrated sulphuric add with carmine- 
xed colour, in alkalies and and alkaline earths under formation of 
an acid and not reprecipitable by acids, breaks up with diluted 
adds into sugar and aa oily product. 

Oopalva Balsam* Exudation of the stems of various kinds of 
Oopaifera. Is pale-yellow, of honey consistence, of 0*94 to 0*95 
-density, has a peculiar, unpleasant balsamic smell and an aromatic, 
bitter teste, of add reaction, dissolves copiously in alcohol of 90%, 
mixes with ether and oils in every proportion, dissolves mostly 
clear in liquor of ammonia and in potash-ley, hardens with 1-1 6th 
caustic lime or magnesia to a solid paste. Consists of volatile oil 
(up to 80%), of two resins, the one of which is prevailing and 
hard (copaivic acid), the other soft, and of metacopaivic acid. 


Copaiyie AcId=C4o H29 Os + HO. In the balsam of Copaiva. 
as hard resin besides a volatile oil and a soft resin. To prepare 
it, mix nine parts balsam with two or more parts liquor of am- 
monia of 0*95, and let stand cold in a closed vessel whereby at 
10° only after several weeks, at - 12*^ after twenty-four hours, white, 
shining needle-like crystals will be formed. Drain and shake the 
crystals with a little ether, which dissolves the balsam and leaves 
the crystals little altered, press and recrystallise in absolute 
alcohol. — Long, translucid or transparent, colourless crystals of 
faint smell and bitter taste, of acid reaction, insoluble in water, 
readi]y soluble in absolute alcohol, less so in aqueous alcohol and 
in ether, in permanent and volatile oils, in conLitrated sulphuric 
acid with red-brown colour ; also in potash-ley but reprecipitated 
by an excess of the solvent. 

€opaL Resinous exudation of several trees, viz., Valeria 
Indica, Hymensea Courbaril, Trachylobium Gaertaierianum, 
Cynometra Spruceana, Youapea phaseolocarpa, Bursera OopaJ, and 
other species of these genera. Shows, according to its origin, 
some physical and chemical distinctions, but is in general pale or 
brownish-yellow, translucid or transparent, hard and brittle, 
without taste or smell, heavier than water, fusible without- 
noticeable smell, but with a change of properties, yields in higher 
temperatures volatile oil and water. It dissolves little in absolute 
alcohol, more readily when exposed to the air for a long time^ 
more readily still after melting or with an admixture of camphor ; 
swells up in ether and dissolves completely, also in caustic alkalies^ 
copiously in chloroform, slowly in benzol and castor oil, partly in 
sulphide of carbon and in volatile oils. Five mostly acid resins 
have been obtained from Copal through the agency of different 

Copalchin. Alkaloid of the Copalchi-bark (from Croton 
niveus), of which is only known that it is distinctly crystalline, 
tastes similar to quinin, dissolves in ether, is precipitated white- 
by alkalies from its solution in acids, and behaves towards 
ilorine and anunonia like quinin (turns darken). 

Coriamyrti]l=C4o H24 O14. Bitter ingredient of the leaves 
and fruits of Coriaria myrtifolia. Precipitate the juice of the 
fresh or the aqueous extract of the dried plant with subacetate of 
lead, remove the excess of lead from the filtered liquid by means of 
sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporate to the consistence of syrup. 
The residue yields up to ether the C. which is obtained by 
evaporation, and purified by recrystallising in alcohol. — ^Forms 
white, four to six sided klinorhombic prisms, very bitter ; loses 
nothing of its weight at 200°, fuses at 220°, is decomposed by 
higher temperatures; of neutral reaction; dissolves at 22° in 
70 parts cold and a little more in boiling water ; in 50 parts cold^ 


very copiously in boiling alcohol, also in efcber^ benzol, chloroform^ 
scarcely in sulphide of carbon ; is converted by diluted acids into 
sugar and a resin. 


Comin or Cornlc Acid* Crystalline bitter substance of the 
root and bark of Ck>mus florida, and probably also in that of other 
species. The aqueous extract is repeatedly shaken with freshly 
precipitated oxyd of lead; filtered; evaporated to honey- 
consistence; treated with absolute alcohol, and the tincture 
evaporated. — Fine silky needle-like crystals of very bitter taste, 
readily soluble in water and alcohol, slowly in ether, of slightly 
acid reaction, not precipitable by alkalies, tannic acid, salts of iron 
and baryta, or neutral salts of lead; but precipitated by 
subacetate of lead and nitrate of silver. 

Cortici-pino Tannic Acid=Cn H7 O7 . In the bark of aged 
stems of Pinus sylvestiis. Distribute the lead-salt obtained in the 
preparation of Pinicorretin, in water, decompose with sulphuret of 
hydrogen, remove the sulphide of lead by filtration, and evaporate 
in a current of carbonic acid gas. — Bright red-powder, the aqueous 
solution of which turns green with chloride of iron. 

Corydalin=:C46 H29 NOr . Alkaloid of the tubers of Corydalis 
tuberosa and C. fabacea. Exhaust with water acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, press, throw down the liquid with carbonate of 
soda, collect the deposit, wash, dry, and exhaust with water and 
an admixture of hydrochloric acid, precipitate the filtered liquid 
with carbonate of soda, collect, wash and dry the deposit, shake 
with oil of turpentine, pour off the oil containing the C, shake it 
with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, precipitate the 
aqueous solution with carbonate of soda, collect, wash, and dry the 
deposit.— White voluminous strongly adhering powder, without 
smell or taste, very bitter when dissolved, assumes a citron-yellow 
colour when exposed to the sunlight, fuses at 70° without loss 
of weight, and decomposes in higher temperatures; insoluble in 
water, dissolves in nine parts of alcohol of 90% at ordinary 
temperature, and in equal parts when boHing hot, in three parts 
of ether, not in solutions of alkalies ; in concentrated nitric acid 
with yellow colour, and with the same colour in concentrated 
sulphuric acid, but changing slowly into violet; is precipitable by 
tannic acid, by the hydrates and carbonates of alkalies, the chlorides 
of mercury, of gold, and of platinum. Yields amorphous resinous 

Crata6(^in. Crystalline, bitter substance of the bark of the 
branchlets of Crataegus Oxyacantha. Obtained by boilrug with 
water, treating the decoction with caustic lime, &c. Crystallises 
in warty masses similar to grape-sugar, is grey-white, tastes very 


bitter, dissolves readily in water, less so in olcdbol, not in ether, is 
neutral, and contains no nitrogen. 

CrOClll=C58 H42 O30. The yellow pigment of the stigmata of 
Crocus sativus and of the fruits of Gafdeooaa grandiflora, also occur- 
ring in Fabiana imbricata. Bemove the fat substances of saf&on 
by ether, boil with water, precipitate the decoction with sub- 
acetate of lead, wash the deposit, and decompose under water by 
sulphuret of hydrogen, collect the sulphide of lead which retains 
the C, treat with boiling alcohol, and evaporate the solution. — 
Bright-red powder, wiiiout odour, decomposes above 100°, dis- 
solves in water with orange colour, readily in alcohol, with great 
difficulty in ether, i^eadily in diluted alkalies, turns blue with 
concentkted sulphuric, gW with mtdc, black4,n>wn with hydro^ 
chloric acids; changes when heated with diluted acids into sugar, 
aad a deep-red powder, which ' is sparingly soluble in water 

€rotOIl Oil* Obtained by pressing the seeds of Oroton Tiglium. 
Brown, of thick fluidity and of very rancid odour, irritates strongly 
the skin, and acts as a drastic ; becomes turbid at a moderate cold, 
and slowly changes at the air to a thick, yiscous mass. Dissolves 
in twenty-three parts alcohol of 85°/^, is not solidified by hypo- 
nitric acid. It contains Crotonol (substance irritating the skin), 
a product of decomposition of the latter, causing the smell, and as 
glycerids: stearic, palmitic, myristic and lauric acids; two or 
more liquid a<)ids belonging to the same series as olei<5 aci.d, but 
differing from the latter; also, angelic [Tiglinic acid, according to 
Genther and Froehlich] and crotonic acids. A mixture of the two 
latter acids appears to constitute the latrophic acid of Felletier 
and Caventon, and the Crotonic acid of the earlier chemists. 

Crotonol = Cig H14 O 4 . In the fat-oil of the seeds of Croton 
Tiglium, forming 4°/q of the oil ; is the ingredient which irritates 
the skin, but not the drastic principle. Shake the oil with an 
alcoholic solution of caustic soda sufficient to form an emulsion ; 
warm gently for a few hours, add water or a solution of common 
salt, and remove the oil, whiqh will form on the surface, by repeatedly 
filtering through wet paper. The aqueous liquid, when mixed 
with water and hydrochloric axrid, separates another oU which is 
to be dissolved in cold alcohol, digested with hydrated oxyd of 
lead until the acid reaction has disappeared (whereby a flocky, 
afterwards conglutinating precipitate is formed), and mixed with a 
little caustic soda and much water. A inilky liquid is produced, 
which becomes clear after the oil has subsided. Wash the latter, 
first by itself, and afterwards dissolved in ether, with water, and 
evaporate the ethereous solution in a vacuum. The Crotonol 
remains pure. Colourless or slightly wine-yellow, viscid, turpen- 
tine-like mass of a faint, peculiar odour; not distillable, is changed 


wLbb boiled with potash-ley into a brown resin, which does not 
rubify the skin. 

Cubebin^rOso Hie O^. Must not be confounded with cubeb- 
stearopten. The eubebe, freed from the volatile oil hj distillation 
with wat^ and pressing, are to be dried and exhausted with 
boiling alcohol. ^Evaporate the tinctures to honey-consistence, and 
remove foreign matters by treating with potash-ley; wash the 
reniaiiuiig C. with water, and purify by repeatedly recrystallisiBg 
in aloohoL — Forms small, white needle-like crystals or silky 
l»min«, neularal^ without taste or smell; fuses at 120^, loses at 
200^ nothing of its weight, and decomposes afterwards; dissolves 
scarcely in cold, very little in hot water, at 20° in 76 parts 
absolute, aiid in 140 parts alo<^ol of 0*850, in ten parts boiling 
alcohol, in 26 parts ether, little in chloroform ; but in oils, also in 
ao^c acid; is 'not changed by alkalies, becomes blood-red through 
concentrated sulphuric acid, and is destroyed by heat; is not 
changed by hot hydrochloric ax^id. 

ClinillliB=:Ci8 He O4. Found as yet in the following vege- 
tables: Aeranthus £ragrans, Kigritella alpina. Orchis purpurea, 
Anthoxanthum odoratum, Hierochloa borealis and other species 
of that genus; Asperula odorata, Dipterix odorata, Melilotus offi- 
cinalis and congeneric plants; fruit of Myroxylon toluiferum ; 
Hemiaria glabra, Liatris odoratissima; bark of Prunus Mahaleb. 
To prepare it, edbaust with alcohol, distil off the alcohol from the 
tinctures, let the remnant crystallise and recrystallise in water or 
alcohol. — Forms colourless silky leaflets, of very aromatic odour, 
of aromatic and pungent taste; fuses at 67°, boils at 270° and 
sublimates unaltered ; is of neuln^l reaction ; dissolves scarcely in 
cold, readily in boiling water, most readily in alcohol, ether, vola- 
tile and fixed oils ; yields by fusion with caustic potash salicylic 

<»CllIBillol=02o H12 O2. In the volatile oil of the seeds of 
Cuminum Cyminum and of Cicuta virosa besides CymenzzCso H14. 
To be looked for in many other Umbelliferse. The crude volatile 
oil is submitted to distillation; at 200® the whole of the cymen 
has distilled besides much Cuminol, the remaining oil is pure 
Ouminol which has to be distilled in a current of carbonic acid 
gas. — Colourless or yellowish oil of strong odour of cumin and of 
acrid, burning taste, of '9 7 2 density, boils at 220°. 

€ai1irlll=C2o Hi5 N. Alkaloid of the vegetable arrow-poison 
Curare of Soui^ America, obtained from Strychnos Guianensis. 
To prepare it, boil the curare under addition of a little carbonate 
of soda with absolute alcdiol, distil off the alcohol from the 
filtered tincture #nd dissolve the remnant in water; the aqueous 
solution is thrown down with chloride of mercury, the deposit 


washed and decomposed with sulphuret of hydrogen and the solu- 
tion containing impure chloride of 0. purified by repeatedly 
precipitating with chloride of mercury.— It crystaUises in 
colourless, quadrangular prisms of lasting bitter taste, becomes 
moist at the air, dissolves in water and alcohol in every propor- 
tion, less readily in chloroform and amylalcohol ; not soluble in 
anhydrous ether, benzol, oil of turpentine and sulphide of carbon ; 
has a slightly alkaline reaction, saturates the acids completely and 
yields ciystallisable salts; assumes with concentrated sulphuric 
acid a beautiful blue, with chromate of potash and sulphuric acid 
(like strychnin) a violet and with concentrated nitric acid a purple- 
red colour. 

Cnrcnmill. The yellow resinous pigment of Curcuma longa. 
Treat the root, exhausted by water, with alcohol, evaporate to 
dryness, treat with ether, which leaves a brown extractive sub- 
stance, and evaporate the ethereous solution. — Hed-brown, of a 
beautiful yellow colour when finely divided or dissolved, of acrid, 
pepper-like taste, fuses above 50°, dissolves little in boiling water, 
readily in alcohol, ether and oils, becomes brown-red by alkalies, 
yellow-red by boric acid, carmine-red by diluted sulphuric acid. 



CyclaiIlin=C28 Hie O12. The poisonous ingredient of the 
tubers of Cyclamen Europaeum; also, but in less quantity, in the 
roots of Primula veris, Anagallis arvensis, Limosella aquatica, 
and doubtless in many other Primulacese, ScrophularinsB and 
allied plants. Treat the bruised root with cold water, evaporate 
the liquid to honey-consistence, exhaust with alcohol and allow to 
evaporate. — Forms smaU, white crystals or white, amorphous, 
lustreless, friable mass, becomes brown in the light, swells up in 
damp air, has a very acrid, rancid taste and neutral reaction; is 
not volatile; dissolves in 500 parts water, becomes transparent in 
contact with cold water, afterwards viscid and dissolves readily ; 
the solution yields a froth like soap-water, becomes cloudy at 60° 
to 70° from the separation of coagulated C. and resumes its clear- 
ness when cold and kept for several days; dissolves in alcohol, 
wood spirit, acetic acid and glycerin, not in sulphide of carbon, 
chloroform, ether and oils, is completely precipitated by tannic 
acid, but not by metallic salts; dissolves in aUcalies, in diluted 
acids more readily than in water ; is decomposed by synaptase and 
yields sugar. 

Cylloodapline Fat, obtained from the fruit of Tetranthera 
calophylla. Fuses at 46°, contains 14% olein and 857o lauro- 


Cymen or Cyinol=C2o H14. In the volatile oils of Cuminum 
Ojminum, Cicuta virosa, Garum Ajowan, also in the oil of Thymus 
vulgaris and expected to exist in many other plants of Umbelli- 
ferse and Labiatse. That portion of ^e oil of cumin which dis- 
tils below 200°, has to be rectified over melting caustic potash, 
which retains the whole of the cuminol as cumate of potash. — 
Colourless oil of great light-refracting power, smells pleasantly like 
lemons; of 0*86 density; boils at 171°. 

Cynaplll. Alkaloid said to occur in ^thusa Cynapium, to 
crystallise in prisms, to dissolve in water and alcohol, but not in 
<ether, to possess an alkaline reaction and to yield a crystallisable 
salt with sidphuric acid. 

Cypems Oil = Oil of Otpebus esculentus. 

Cytisin. Alkaloid of the ripe seeds of Cytisus Laburnum. 
Throw down the aqueous extract with subacetate of lead, filter, 
precipitate with tannic acid, mix the deposit with oxyd of lead, 
dry, exhaust with alcohol, evaporate the tincture, saturate with 
nitric add, mix the well-crystallising salt with oxyd of lead, dry 
and exhaust with absolute alcohoL The pure C. crystallises in the 
latter as a colourless, radiated crystalline, deliquescent mass which 
sublimates undecomposed by careful heating; has a strongly alka- 
line reaction and saturates the acids completely. 

[Dambonlt = Cg Hg Oe . Variety of sugar, found by A. Girard 
in the Craboon caoutchouc, which is the exudation of Landolphia 
Owariensis and other species of that genus. It is obtained from 
the recently-inspissated juice by treating with aqueous alcohoL — 
It is white, of a sweet taste, easily soluble in water and aqueous 
alcohol, sparingly in absolute alcohol. It crystallises from alcohol 
in six-sided prisms, from water in oblique prisms with 1^ HO. 
It is not fermentable and does not reduce the alkaline copper 
solution. D. becomes carbonised by hot sulphuric acid, and is 
oxydised to oxalic and formic acids by hot nitric acid. Concen- 
trated alkalies are without any influence on D. even at 100° C, 
though they lessen its solubility in water. Lime-water, baryta- 
water, and acetate of lead produce no precipitates. Iodide of 
potassium forms with D. beautiful crystals of a double salt. With 
fuming hydroiodic and hydrochloric acids, D. separates into 
methyl compounds and a substance polymeric with glucose (Dam- 
bose=Ca He Oe ). Dambose is not fermentable and does not 
i^educe the alkaline copper solution,] 

Dammara Resillt (a) Indian, from Dammara orientalis, is pale- 
yellow, clear and transparent, sometimes with a white powder on 
the surface; it breaks easily with a concheous, shining fracture; 
almost without smell and taste, fuses at 73^ (according to other 
experiments at 150^), dissolves in alcohol and ether only partially, 


completely in volatile and fixed oils, not in acetic and h jdrochlorio 
adds, Hquor of ammonia and po^Eush-ley. Contains dammaryl, 
hydrate of dammaryl and dammarylic acid, described below. 
(6) New Zealand D., from Dammara australis, is of a pale amber 
colour, transparent inside, translucid in the outer layers and 
covered with an opaque crust, evolves on friction a turpentine 
odour, fuses in boiling water and does not appear to be chemically 
different from the Indian dammara. (The Dammaras of Australia 
and the South Sea Islands produce similar resins. — ^F. v. M.) 

Dammaryl =040 H32. In the Indian dammara-resin, which 
yields 137o of it, probably also in that of New Zealand. Exhaust 
with warm alcohol of 82°/o> which removes soluble resins, treat the 
rest with ether, concentrate the ethereous solution and throw the 
remnant into boiling water for a few seconds, collect and dry as> 
quickly as possible in a vacuum. — White, amorphous, magnesia- 
like powder of high lustre, not electric by friction, molMes at 
145°, fuses at 190° and becomes decomposed in higher tempera- 
tures ; does not dissolve in water or in alcohol, readily in cold 
ether and warm oils, not in alkalies; is easily oxydised by the air. 

Dammaryl HydratC=2 C40 Hsa + HO. Remains after 
treating the dammara-resin with alcohol and ether to the extent 
of 87o> as a grey, dough-like mass which retains the ether tena- 
ciously, and becomes after drying shining, brittle and easily fiiable ; 
mollifies at 205°, fuses at 215°; is insoluble in alcohol, ether, 
acetic acid, and alkalies ; dissolves completely in hot oil of 
turpentine, better in petroleum, little in fixed oils. 

Dammarylic Acid=046 H36 O3. Dammara-resin when 
treated with weak alcohol, yields to it 36%, By evaporating the 
solution, boiling the residue with water, to remove traces of 
alcohol, and drying, the hydrate of the acid =045 Hse O3 + HO 
is obtained as a white, highly electric powder, fusing at 56° and of 
acid reaction when dissolved. — By treating the resin with absolute 
alcohol, 46% are dissolved ; the dissolved part is the anhydrous 
acid, similar to the above, but whiter, fusing at 60° and of more 
acid reaction. 

Dapllllln=C62 Has Oss + 8 HO. Bitter glucosid of the bark 
of Daphne alpina and Daphne Mezereimi and others, also obtained 
from the flowers of these plants. Prepare an alcoholic extract of 
the fresh bark and exhaust the former with ether, boil the 
\mdissolved portion in water, allow to rest for twenty-four hours 
in order to remove the resin, throw down with acetate of lead^ 
r^nove the deposit and precipitate the D. in the liquid with sub- 
acetate of lead. Decompose the deposit under water with sul- 
phuret of hydrogen, evaporate the filtered liquid to the consistence 
of syrup, dilute, filter off from the resin, concentrate again, &c.. 


and lastly free the syrup-like liquid from any resin by frequently 
shaking with ether. The aqueous liquid, separated from the 
ether, consolidates soon afterwards to crystals of D. which have 
to be washed and recrystallised in hot water. — Colourless, 
rectangular prisms or needles of moderately bitter^ afterwards 
acerb taste, neutral ; lose the water at 100° and become opaque ; 
fuse at 200° and decompose in higher temperatures; dissolve 
little in cold, readily in hot water, a little more readily in cold 
alcohol than in water, most readily in boiling alcohol^ not in ether^ 
in the oxyds and carbonates of alkalies with gold-yellow colour ; 
are decomposed when boiled with diluted acids, also by emulsin 
and by yeast, into sugar and another crystalline product 
(Daphnetin=038 Hu Oig). 

]KltiS€i]l=C42 H22 O24. Bitter glucosid in the herb and root 
of Datisca cannabina. Exhaust the root with wood-spirit, 
evaporate to syrup-consistence, throw down resinous substances 
with hot water, evaporate the decanted liquid and let crystallise. 
The impure D. is pressed, dissolved in alcohol, mixed wiUi water, 
filtered off from tiie resin and obtained pure by evaporation. — 
Colourless needle-like or laminate silky crystals, soft and trans- 
parent like grape-sugar, neutral; fuses at 180° and is destroyed 
afterwards while evolving an odour of burnt sugar, dissolves 
little in cold, better in hot water, readily in alcohol, less so in 
ether; the solutions have a strongly bitter taste and neutral 
reaction ; dissolves in alkalies with yellow colour, and is in these 
solutions precipitated and discoloured by acids; decomposes on 
heating with diluted acids into sugar and DatiscetinizCso Hxo O12. 
Is precipitable by tannic acid, acetate and subacetate of lead, by 
the salts of oxyds of iron, of copper and zinc. 


Delpllilli]l= C48 H35 NO4 . Alkaloid of the seeds of Delphinium 
Staphisagria. Mix the bruised seeds with water so as to form a 
thin pulp, warm over the water-bath for several hours, strain, 
remove the bulk of the fat by pressing, digest the remaining mass 
with strong alcohol, press again, distil off the alcohol from the 
tincture, treat the remaining oleo-resinous mass with water to 
which some hydrochloric acid is admixed, precipitate the filtered 
liquid with ammonia, wash and dry the deposit and exhaust with 
ether, which leaves impure staphisagrin as a brownish resin and 
dissolves the D. without colour. The D. remains after evapo- 
rating as a transparent, resinous, slightly-coloured mass. To 
purify it completely, dissolve again in water and hydrochloric 
acid, precipitate with ammonia, dissolve the deposit in ether, and 
leave to evaporate by itself. The pure precipitated D. is entirely 
white; when obtained by evaporation from the ethereous solution, 
it has an amorphous resinous appearance. It has a lasting acrid 


taste and a strongly alkaline reaction, is almost insoluble in water, 
readil;^ soluble in alcohol, ether, and acids. 

Dentoeatecliuic Acid=OAT£CHuic Acid. 

Dextrin = Cia Hi© Oio. With this name a gum-like product, 
obtained from starch under the agency of diastase or acids, is 
designated, which differs from common gum by turning the 
polajrised light strongly to the right, while gum arabic turns it to 
the left, and by yielding no mucic acid with nitric acid. Neither 
are its solutions clouded by subacetate of lead, chloride of iron or 
silicate of potash. Consequently it ought not to be coloured (red) 
by iodine, a fact which must here be particulady stated, because 
such a property is sometimes ascribed to D., but which only 
takes place wBen it is contaminated with a kind of modified 
starch, as indeed often occurs with different commercial kinds 
of I). As is the case with gum, D. seems not to be wanting in 
any plant; yet it is often confounded with the former on account 
of its great similarity, and perhaps because it is constantly asso- 
ciated with it. — Its isolation and quantitative estimation corre- 
spond with that of gum. It will be easy from the above to 
distinguish it; but not when it is associated with gum, because 
it is distinguished from the latter more by negative tiian by 
positive qualities, except in the behaviour towards polarised light, 
which is entirely opposite to that of gum and becomes modified, 
when the two substances are mixed together. 

Dextro(|;lnco8e=:GRAP£ Sugar. 

Diastase. Nitrogenised ingredient of the germinated barley 
(Hordeum vulgare) which possesses in a high degree the properly 
of converting starch into dextrin and sugar. It is obtained when 
the contused malt is macerated with cold water, pressed, the 
liquid mixed with a little alcohol, the filtered liquor completely 
precipitated with alcohol, the deposit washed, redissolved in water, 
precipitated with alcohol, and lastly dried on a glass-plate at a 
very gentle heat. After triturating, it forms a white, amorphous 
powder without taste or smell; dissolves in weak, not in strong 
alcohol; is not precipitable by subacetate of lead. The aqueous 
solution when heated to the boiling point becomes cloudy and 
inactive; it even becomes decomposed on keeping and turns acid; 

Dica Fat obtained from the dica-bread (the seeds of Irwingia 
Barteri). Similar to Cacao fat; fuses at 30^ to 33^, contains 
laurin and myristin. 

Di^taletin = C44 Hss Oig. (According to Waltz, the 
Digitalin of HomoUe). In Digitalis purpurea and D. lutea, and 
doubtless several congeners; ingredient of the crude digitalin. 
The leaves are reduced to powder and freed from chlorophyll by 
etlier. They are then exhausted with alcohol, and the tincture is 


precipitated with alcoholic acetate of lead: the filtered liquid is 
freed from the surplus of lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, decolour- 
ised with animal charcoal and aUowed to evaporate spontaneously. 
— ^White, warty mass; has a very bitter taste when dissolved in 
cold water; fuses at 175^, and decomposes in higher temperatures; 
dissolves in 848 parts cold, in 500 parts at 45^, and in 222 parts 
boiling water, in 3^ parts cold alcohol of 0*85, in 2^/5 to 2^ 
parts at the boiling heat; in 1960 parts cold, and in 1470 parts 
boiling ether; changes into sugar^ and a resin when boiled with 
diluted acids. 

Di^taliC Acid, Bfon-Volatlle. In Digitalis purpurea. Eva- 
porate the aqueous infusion of the leaves to syrup-consistence, add 
alcohol of 92^/^ as long as a precipitate ensues, filter after a few 
days, distil off the alcohol and evaporate to the consistence of 
thick honey. Exhaust the latter with several changes of hot 
ether until it has nearly lost the bitter taste whereby d^gitalin or 
an allied substance and Digitalic acid are dissolved. Add to the 
ethereous tinctures by degrees, caustic baryta until alkaline, collect 
the yellow deposit, wash with ether until it has lost the bitter 
taste, afterwards with alcohol until the latter passes off colourless 
and decompose (the deposit) under water with (best an insufficient 
quantity of) diluted sulphuric acid. Evaporate the reddish, very 
acid, filtered liquid as much as possible under exclusion of the air, 
allow to stand cold, decant from brown flocks that will have sub- 
sided^ precipitate any traces of Digitalate of baryta with alcohol of 
95%, and evaporate the filtered liquid in a vacuum. The crystals, 
obtained from the brown mother-ley, are recrystallised in alcohol, 
if possible under exclusion of the air. — ^White needle-like crystals 
of not unpleasant acid taste, and of faint peculiar smell; fuses by 
beat, and is decomposed afterwards; changes also readily under the 
influence of light and air, especially in the presence of alkalies ; 
dissolves most readily in water and alcohol, less in ether. The 
salts of the alkalies, alkaline earths and of zinc oxyd dissolve in 

Di(^t4lic Acid, Volatile^: Cio H 9 O 3 + HO (of the same atomic 
composition as valerianic acid). In Digitalis purpurea. Distil 
the herb with water, saturate the distilled liquid with carbonate 
of soda, evaporate to dryness, dissolve in a little water, add oxalic 
acid and distU. The acid is floating on the distillate as a colourless 
oil of strongly acid reaction, smells like the bruised herb, faintly 
resembling valerianic acid, of disagreeable taste, forms with lead 
oxyd a crystallisable salt, soluble in water. 

Di^tali]l=C56 H48 O28 (according to Walta). Occurrence 
like Digitaletin. Exhaust the pulverised herb with water in a 
displacement apparatus, digest the liquids with lead oxyd and a 
little subacetate of lead until the latter test ceases to cause any 



cloudiness, throw down the lead in solution by sulphuric acid, 
neutralise with ammonia, precipitate with tannic acid, mix the 
washed deposit with hydrated lead oxyd, dry, exhaust with 
alcohol, decolourise (if necessary) with animal charcoal, and 
evaporate. — ^Yellowish, amorphous mass, very bitter, fuses at 137** 
and is destroyed in higher temperatures, dissolves in 125 parts 
cold and in 42 parts hot water, in 2^ parts cold and in 1§ parts 
hot alcohol, in 20,000 parts cold and in 10,000 parts hot ether, in 
80 parts chloroform, breaks up when boiled with diluted acids 
into sugar and two other products. 

[Di^talin, crystallised=Cfio H40 O30. Alkaloid, discovered by 
C. A. Nativelle in the herb of Digitalis purpurea, gathered in 
spring. To prepare it, add to 100 parts of the coarsely pulverised 
herb 25 parts acetate of lead and 100 parts water, and after 
twelve hours exhaust with water in a displacement apparatus. 
The residue is exhausted with 300 parts of proof spirit, and to the 
liquid is added a solution of 4 parts phosphate of soda. 
Remove the precipitate by filtering and drive off the spirit by 
distillation on a water-bath. By evaporating the residue on a 
water-bath to about one-tenth, a pitch-like mass is obtained, 
which is washed with water and left on blotting-paper to dry at 
the air. The two or three parts of the pitch-like body, obtained in 
this way, are dissolved in double their quantity of alcohol of 
60% and allowed to stand until yellow radiated crystals have 
formed, together with those of an inactive body. Separate the 
crystals from the mother-ley and wash with alcohol of 35% 
to remove the inactive principle. Dissolve the remaining crystals 
in boiling alcohol of 807o> hoil a few minutes with animal 
charcoal, filter, evaporate half the alcohol and allow to crystallise* 
Separate the crystals from the mother-ley and dry over a water- 
batL Finely pulverise the crystals and shake strongly with 20 
parts chloroform pure and especially free from alcohol. After 
twenty-four hours filter and distil to dryness. The remaining 
yellow Digitalin is dissolved in alcohol of 80®/o, boiled with a little 
washed animal charcoal and ciystaUised. After repeating the 
latter process several tiines, the Digitalin is obtained pur^ — D. is 
neutral, without odour, of an intense, lasting bitterness. It 
dissolves in chloroform in every proportion ; in twelve parts cold 
and six parts boiling alcohol, not so well in absolute alcohol. Ether^ 
benzol and water dissolve only traces. Sulphuric acid dissolves 
it with green colour which turns to a light-red through vapour 
of bromine and becomes green again on addition of water. 
Nitric acid dissolves it without colouration, but soon changing to 
yellow. Hydrochloric acid dissolves it with green-yellow colour, 
turning slowly to an emerald green. Heated above 100° it 
becomes very elastic; heated on platinum-foil it melts without 
colouration to a transparent mass, evolves copious white vapours^ 


iDeoomes brown and disappears completely. It acts as a strong 

Digitoleic Acid* In Digitalis purpurea. Precipitate the 
extract of the leaves cold with subaoetate of lead, boil the washed 
deposit with a solution of carbonate of soda for a quarter of an 
hour, saturate the brown filtrate with an excess of diluted 
sulphuric acid which throws down flakes that have to be collected, 
washed, dried and boiled with alcohol of 857o* Evaporate the 
alcoholic solution, treat the remnant of crystalline structure re- 
peatedly with etiber, and let the liquids evaporate. A green oil 
remains, which soon solidifies into a granular, crystalline mass. 
Dissolve in aqueous bicarbonate of soda, precipitate with acetic 
acid^ wash, dissolve in ether and evaporate. — Green, concentrically 
united crystalline needles, fusing at 30^, of no disagreeable odour, 
of bitter and acrid taste; has an acid reaction when dissolved in 
alcohol, leaves greasy spots on paper; little soluble in water, 
readily in alcohol and in ether, forms with the oxyds of metals 
insoluble yellow or green floccous salts. 

Diosmin. Bitter ingredient of the Buccii-leaves (from Barosma 
serratifolia, B. crenulata, B. betulina.) Crystallises from the 
alcoholic tincture, is insoluble in water, dissolves in alcohol, ether, 
volatile oils and diluted acids. 

[Ditamin* Alkaloid, obtained by Jobst and Hesse from Dita-bark 
(from Alstonia scholaris). Precipitate the aqueous decoction of the 
bark successively with acetate and subacetate of lead, remove the de- 
posit, treat the liquid with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter, acidulate 
the filti*ate and precipitate with phospho-tungstic acid. Mix the 
precipitate with excess of solution of baryta, shake witk ether and 
treat the ethereous solution of impure Ditamin with acetic acid. 
Acetate of D. is thus obtained, which is subsequently converted 
into the pure base. — It forms a white amorphous powder of a 
slightly bitter taste, easily soluble in ether, chloroform, benzol and 
alcohol. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it with reddish 
colour, which becomes violet on heating. Concentrated nitric acid 
dissolves it yellow, on gently heating dark-green, then orange-red 
under evolution of orange vapour. It melts at 75** to a yellow 
liquid, which at 130° becomes deep brown-red. Dissolved in 
alcohol it has an alkaline reaction and neutralises acids, forming 
solutions of very bitter taste, which are precipitated, yellow by 
chloride of platinum; impure yellow by chloride of gold; white 
by chloride of mercury, iodide of potassio-mercury, iodide and 
sulphocyanide of potassium, tannic and phospho-tungstic acids. 

By exhausting the Dita-bark with petroleum ether, the same 
authors obtained Echicautschin=C26 H20 O2, soluble also in 
chloroform, ether and benzol, sparingly even in boiling alcohol; 



^42 H35 02 and EcHiRETiN=C85 H28 O2, all of which are obtained 
from the dried petroleum-extract by means of boiling alcohoL 
Echitin is an indifferent body, crystallising in delicate white 
leaflets; Echitein is also indifferent and crystalline; Echiretin is 
resinous and closely resembles resins, obtained by Heintz from the 
milky juices of Brosimum (Galactodendron) utile and of Tabema- 
montana utilis.] 

DlUgOn'S-Uood* Exudation of different plants, viz. : — Calamus 
Itotang and some other species, Dsemonorops Draco, Dracsenau 
Draco, and Pterocarpus Draco. Dark red-brown, when pulverised 
carmine-red, without taste or smell, readily soluble in alcohol with 
red colour, also more or less completely in ether, oils, and alkalies, 
fuses at 210° and is destroyed in higher temperatures. The puri- 
fied resin is composed according to the formula C40 H21 Os . 

Bulcainarill = Ces H50 K029. Alkaloid, found besides solanin,- 
in the twigs of the bitter-sweet (Solanum Dulcamara). To pre- 
pare it, exhaust with alcohol of 80%, press, mix the tincture with 
water, distil off the alcohol completely, filter the remaining liquid, 
throw down with tannic acid, mix the washed deposit with newly- 
precipitated hydrate of lead oxyd, dry, triturate, draw out with 
alcohol of 90%, and let the tincture evaporate. — Pale-yellow, 
translucid, resinous, brittle, permanent mass, when pulverised 
white with a tinge of yellow; without smell, evolving the odour 
of fresh bitter-sweet when moistened with alcohol or water and 
warmed; tastes at first very bitter, afterwards lastingly sweet. 
When hefated to 100° the D., dried at the air, loses 8% of water, 
up to 120° it undergoes no further diminution of weight, but 
becomes a little sticky, at 165® it softens, above 200° it liquifies, 
but then already partially decomposed, by more heat it is reduced 
to coal, while emitting a very faint homy odour and evolving 
vapours of acid reaction. Water dissolves of the D. only V107& 
its own weight; the solution smells and tastes slighty like bitter- 
sweet, is of neutral reaction, is precipitated white by tannic acid 
not altered by other reagents. Alcohol of 90% dissolves Vio> 'W'hen 
warm considerably more; the solution has a faintly alkaline re- 
action and is precipitable by the chlorides of platinum and of 
mercury. Ether dissolves ^/i44o. In liquor of ammonia it swells 
up like a jelly without dissolving. 

[According to the latest researches of Dr. Geissler, the Dulca- 
marin, prepared as above, is not pure. To purify it, dissolve in 
water, allow to stand for some time, add to the filtrate acetate of 
lead, filter, wash the precipitate, suspend in alcohol and decompose 
with sulphuret of hydrogen. Evaporate the filtered liquid, dis- 
solve the remnant in alcohol and evaporate to dryness. The re- 
maining pure Dulcamarin has the composition C44 H34 Obq and 
behaves as a glucosid, separating into Dulcamaritinz=C32 H^e O12 


and glucose when boiled with dilute mineral acids. Dulcamarin 
forms a slightly yellowish powder, permanent, without odour, of 
at first Yery bitter^ afterwards lasting sweet taste. It melts by heat 
and decomposes at 205^. It dissolves in 30 parts cold and 25 
parts hot water, in 8^ parts cold and 5 parts hot alcohol; also in 
acetic ether. The solutions have a more or less red-brown colour 
and are neutral. The aqueous solution^ on shaking, gives a dense 
froth. It is insoluble in eiJier,Ghloroform, benzol, sulphide of carbon.] 

]Hllcit=i:Ci2 Hi4 Oi2. In a sweet product of unknown origin 
from Madagascar, dissolves in boiling water and crystallises on 
cooling. Also in Melampyrum nemorosum and probably in its 
congeners and named at first melampyrit. To obtain it from the 
last-named plant, the decoction is precipitated with acetate of lead, 
the filtered liquid boiled with lead oxyd, filtered and treated with 
sulphuret of hydrogen. -Remove the sulphide of lead and evapo- 
rate to a thin syrup-consistence, allow to recrystallise in the cold 
and purify the crystals of D. by repeatedly recrystallising in 
^ water. — Colourless, very lustrous, klinorhombic prisms, slightly 
sweet, not rotating; fuses at 182^, behaves otherwise in the heat 
like mannit, dissolves readily in water, scarcely in boiling alcohol, 
yields with nitric acid oxalic and mucic acids, behaves toward 
concentrated and diluted stdphuric acid^ alkalies, solution of 
copper, yeast and salts of lead like mannit. 

Ecbalin, Elaterid, Hydroelaterin and Prophetin, bitter and 

resinous substances of Ecballion Elaterium and Cucumis Pro- 
phetarum, closely related to Elaterin; their individuality has to 
be farther proved yet. 

Ecbolin. One of the three alkaloids (Ecbolin, Ergotin and 
Trimethylamin) of the ergot (the mycelium of Cordyceps pur- 
purea) of Secale cereale. Is obtained, when the aqueous extract 
is precipitated with acetate of lead, the excess of lead removed 
from the filtered liquid by sulphuret of hydrogen, the liquid con- 
centrated and chloride of mercury is added gradually imtil it 
ceases to produce a deposit. The latter is washed, decomposed 
with sulphuret of hydrogen, the filtered liquid (containing hydro- 
chloride of Ecbolin), after driving off the sulphuret of hydrogen, 
mixed with phosphate of silver and, after filtering, with hydrate 
of lime, any excess of lime removed by carbonic acid, and the 
filtered liquid evaporated with a gentle heat. — Brownish, amor- 
phous mass, slightly bitter, of alkaline reaction, dissolves in 
water and alcohol, little in wood spirit, not in ether and chloro- 
form; neutralises the acids completely and forms amorphous, 
mostly deliquescent salts. Is precipitable by phospho-molybdic 
acid, the chlorides of mercury, of platinum and of gold, by tannic 
acid, cyanide of potassium, bi-iodide of potassium, chlorine-water 
and ammonia, bromine-water. 


Elaic Acid= Oleic Acid. 

Elain = Olein. 

Elaterit, See Ecbolin. 

Elateiin = C40 H28 Oio. In the fruit of Ecballion Elaterium. 
Press the fruits, evaporate the juice to honey-consistence, treat 
with alcohol, precipitate the solution with alcoholic acetate of lead, 
remove the lead from the filtrate by sulphuret of hydrogen, evapo- 
rate and edulcorate the remnant with ether, dissolve the residue 
in alcohol, and throw down the.E. from the liquid with water.— 
Colourless, lustrous, tabular or needle-like crystals; tastes very 
bitter; fuses at 200°, decomposes in higher temperatures; has a 
neutral reaction; is insoluble in water, dissolves in 15 parts cold 
and in 2 parts hot alcohol, in 290 parts ether, little in oils, in 
concentrated sulphuric acid and precipitable from it by water 
without change, not in diluted acids and alkalies. 

Elecampaiie-Stereopten= Helenin. 

Elemi. Exudation of the stem of Bursera Icicariba. Tough 
light-yellow or greenish-yellow mass, has a fennel-like smell and 
aromatic bitter taste, sinks in water, dissolves with difficulty but 
completely in alcohol. Contains 60% readily soluble resin of acid 
reaction=zC4o H32 O4 ; 24% slowly soluble, crystalline resin, 
Eleinin=zC4o H33 O; and 12|^% volatile oil. 

EUagie Acid = C28 He O16 + 6 HO. In the Turkish nutgaUs 
(from Quercus infectoria), and, it appears, in the root of Poten- 
tilla Tormentilla. By fermenting flie pulverised nutgalls with a 
little water and at a moderate heat, the tannic acid changes into 
gallic acid, the products of decomposition of sugar andEllagic 
acid. Press out, boil the press-cake with water, and press and 
filter the liquid, milky, from separated K while still hot; a yel- 
low-white powder impure E. remains on the filter, it is dissolved in 
diluted potash-ley, and the filtered liquid evaporated at the air, 
whereby green-white scales of EUagate of potash subside, which 
have to be rinsed with water and decomposed with diluted hydro- 
chloric acid, which throws down the E. — Pale-yellow, light powder, 
consisting of microscopic needles, without taste, of slightly acid 
reaction, loses at 120° four equivalents and up to 200° two 
more equivalents of water, sublimates afterwards, without fusing, 
partly undecomposed in sulphur-yellow needles, dissolves even in 
boiling water very little, little in alcohol, not in ether, readily in 
^ fixed alkalies, little in liquor of ammonia, in concentrated sulphuric 
acid unaltered in the heat and re-precipitable by water. Ite salts 
easily decompose in the moist state, and only those of the alkalies 
dissolve in water. 


Ellietill=C4o H30 N2 Oio. Alkaloid of the different kinds of 
the Ipecacuanha-root, from CephseliB Ipecacuanha and poeaiblj in 
roots of other BubiacesB of emetic property. Boil with water, 
evaporate the decoction to dryness, treat with alcohol, filter and dis- 
til off the alcohol, evaporate'a^ain to dryness and exhaust with water 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid. Precipitate the solution with 
chloride of mercury, wash the deposit with cold water and dissolve 
in alcohol, precipitate the mercury with sulphide of baryum, 
remove the latter with sulphuric acid, dilute with water, distil off 
the alcohol, throw down the K with ammonia, wash with cold 
water and dry. — ^White powder, slightly bitter, of alkaline 
reaction, fuses at 50*^ and is destroyed in higher temperatures, 
dissolves slowly in cold, a little more in hot water, readily in 
alcohol, not in ether and oils, readily in acids, not in the hydrates 
and carbonates of alkalies ; becomes dark olive-green with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. Its salts are not crystallisable. 

[Glenard prepares Emetin by mixing the pulverised root or the 
extou^ with lime, exhausting with ether, evaporating the ethereous 
solution to dryness, dissolving the residue in dilute hydrochloric 
acid and precipitating the E. with ammonia. The composition of 
the E., dried at 110°, was found to be C„ Ha NO^. The chloride 
forms tufty, united needles, and is almost colourless.] 

ElIlodin=C4o H15 O13. In the root of Eheum Emodi, 
probably also in other species of this genus of Polygoneae. 
Macerate the root with water, dry again and exhaust with benzol, 
distn off most of the benzol, press the remnant converted into a 
crystalline pulp after cooling, treat again with benzol, which 
dissolves chrysophanic acid and leaves intact a reddish, sparingly 
soluble substance; dissolve the latter in hot. benzol, leave to cool 
and purify by recrystallising in hot and highly concentrated acetic 
acid and in hot alcohol. — Lustrous, deep orange-red, brittle, 
klinorhombic prisms ; does not fuse below 250^ and sublimates to 
a slight extent in yellow fumes. It dissolves, similar to chry- 
sophanic acid, in liquor of ammonia with violet-red colour, more 
readily in alcohol and amylalcohol, not so readily in benzol. 

Emulsin. The peculiar albuminous matter of almonds and of the 
seeds of some trees allied to Prunus Amygdalus; exists dissolved in 
the emulsions of thpse seeds, and causes ^eir milky appearance by 
suspending the fat oil. To the E. belongs the remarkable property 
of decomposing amygdalin into hydrocyanic acid and other pro- 
ducts. It is obtained, when an emulsion of sweet almonds is 
agitated with four times its volume of ether, and allowed to rest 
for a few days ; the clear aqueous solution is separated from the 
supernatant ether, and from insoluble particles; precipitated with 
alcohol and dried in a vacuum. — Homy substance, or when tritu- 
rated white powder without smell or taste, soluble in cold -^ater; 

but the solution coa^lates in the heat like common albumin, and 
ihe coagulated E. heta lost its power of decomposing amygdalin. 
See also Synaptase. , 

Emnlslii of Miistard^MYRosiN. 

Equlsetic AcId=C4 HOs +H0. As yet only found in some 
species of the genus Equisetum; it has also been named Maleic 
acid, because it is formed during the destructive distillation of 
malic acid (at 200°). To separate and obtain it, boil the com- 
minuted herb with water, neutralise the decoction with carboujate 
of soda^ remove sulphuric and phosphoric acids with acetate of 
baryta, precipitate the Equisetic acid with acetate of lead, wash 
the deposit, decompose with sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporate 
the filtered liquid. — It crystallises in large, klinorhombic prisms, 
tastes very acid, fuses by heat (according to Lassaigne at 47*5°, 
accordiug to Pelouze at 130°), and sublimes almost undecomposed, 
dissolves readily in water, aJcohol and ether. All its salts are 
soluble in water, except the neutral lead-salt and those of silver 
and copper. Its quantitative estimation is best effected through 
the neutral lead-sait, which is anhydrous when dried at 100°, and 
contains 30 '44°/^" acid. — According to Baup, Equisetic acid is 
identical with Aconitic acid, consequently tribasic, and having the 
formula C12 H3 09-1-3 HO; nor is it sublimable. See Aconitic 

ErgOtic Acid* Peculiar volatile acid of ergot. To obtain it, 
distil the extract prepared by cold water with sulphuric add, and 
remove any formic acid by gently warming the distillate. An 
acid Kquid remains, which, with lead, silver and baryum, yields 
salts, insoluble in water, but soluble in acids. 

Er^Otin* One of the three alkaloids (Ecbolin, Ergotin, and 
Trimethylamin) of ergot. Precipitate the aqueous extract of the 
drug with acetate of lead, free the filtrate from lead by sulphuret 
of hydrogen, concentrate the liqrdd and add pulverised chloride of 
mercury as long as a precipitate ensues; filter and precipitate the 
filtrate with phospho-molybdic acid, digest the precipitate, while 
still moist, with water and carbonate of baryta ; filter and evapo- 
rate the liquid to dryness. The Ergotin closely resembles ecbolin, 
but differs from it by not being precipitated by the chlorides of 
mercury and platinum (unless imder addition of ether-alcohol) and 
by cyanide of potassium. 

The name of Ergotin has been formerly applied to another dif- 
ferent substance of ergot, and prepared by boiling the pulverised 
drug, previously freed from fat by means of ether, with alcohol, 
evaporating the tincture, adding water to the residue, and collect- 
ing the separated flocky mass. Fine reddish-brown powder; 
smells specifically, especially when hot; tastes acrid, bitter, and 

arozoatie; decomposes by heat without fusing; dissolyes only by 
traces in water and in ether, with red>brown colour in alcohol, 
alBO in alkalies, not in diluted adds. 

[Erj^tiHin. An alkaloid, found by Touret in ergot. Treat 
the coarsely pulverised ergot with boiling alcohol of 86°/q, and 
remove the alcohol firom the tinctures by distillation on a water- 
bath. The residue, when cold, separates into three layers, a solid 
fat, an aqueous solution and resin. Wash the resin with ether 
and dissolve the fat in the latter, fUter, shake the solution re- 
peatedly with dilute sulphuric acid (1:15), then the separated acid 
Uquid with excess of potash-ley, finally with chloroform, and 
evaporate the latter solution under exclusion of air. The aqueous 
solution, obtained together with the fat, likewise yields E. It is 
filtered and subjected to distillation on an oil-bath, and in a 
current of hydrogen. When all the alcohol is expelled, the 
residue is rendered alkaline by carbonate of potash and distilled 
again. Impure trimethylamin passes over. The remaining 
syrupy liquid is acidulated, washed with ether, supersaturated 
with carbonate of potash, and treated as before with chloroform. 
— ^The E. is solid, soluble in ether, alcohol and chloroform, of 
strongly alkaline reaction, is precipitated by iodide of potassio- 
mercaiy, biiodide of potassium, phosphomolybdic and tannic acids, 
the chlorides of gold and platinum, and by aqueous bromine. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid colours it first orange, then deep 
violet-blue. It changes easily at the .air, its salts turning 
first pale, then darker red. Alkalies likewise decompose it, 
especially when warm, under formation of trimethylamin. The 
rapid spoiling of pulverised ergot seems to be attributable to the 
decomposition of the Ergotinin.] 

i!rieillol=:C2o Hie O2. It is a product of decomposition of 
ericolin, but exists ready-formed in the volatile oils of the Ericaceae, 
mentioned under Ericolin. The volatile oil of Ledum palustre, 
for instance, is a mixture, containing valeric and other volatile 
acids, amongst which an oil-like acid=Ci6 Hio 0%; further, a 
hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of turpentine, and bqjiling at 160^; 
and Ericinol. After the oil of Ledum has been repeatedly 
shaken with concentrated potash-ley and thereby freed from acids, 
it is washed and desiccated, a mixture of the hydrocarbon with 
some resin and Ericinol remaining. By distilling the mixed oils 
and reserving the portion which passes over at 236° to 250°, 
Ericinol is obtained almost pure. This Ericinol boils at 240° to 
242^, is blue-green, of disagreeable .smell and burning, nauseous, 
bitter taste. After rectifying it with a little caustic potash, it is 
partly decolourised, of 0*874 density at 20°, and has the composition 
zrCgo Hie O 2 . On boiling with excess of lime-hydrate, a hydro- 
carbons C20 H16 is obtained. 


Erioollll=068 H56 042* Bitter glucosid of Arctostaphylos 
Uva ursi^ Calluna vulgaris, Erica herbacea, Ledum palustre, Rho- 
dodendron ferrugineum, consequently a widely distributed con- 
stituent of the Ericaceae, and to be sought for in many other co- 
ordinal plants. Boil (preferably Ledum palustre) with water, 
strain, precipitate with subacetate of lead, evaporate the filtered 
liquid to one-third in a retort, remove by filtering the lead com- 
pound which will have separated; throw down the rest of the lead 
from the liquid with sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate to honey- 
consistence and extract the Ericolin by means of dehydrated 
ether-alcohol. The residue left after the evaporation of the latter 
is dissolved several times with ether-alcohol and evaporated until 
it dissolves without any residue. — Brown-yellow powder, con- 
glutinating at 100°; of very bitter taste, breaks up, when heated 
with diluted sulphuric acid, into sugar and Ericinol. 

Eracie Acid=C44 H41 O3 + HO. In the fixed oils of white 
and black mustard and of rape. Saponify the oil with soda-ley^ 
decompose with hydrochloric acid, dissolve the fat acids in hot 
alcohol, keep in a cold place, press the separated mass and recrys- 
tallise. — White, glossy, thin crystallised needles, without smell or 
taste, fusing at 32° to 33°; decomposed in higher temperatures; 
of acid reaction; dissolve most readily in alcohol and in eHker. 

Enicill* Peculiar crystalline substance of the seeds of Bras- 
sica alba. Mix the seeds, groimd to a powder, with a little water, 
allow to rest (in order to develop the acridness), treat with ether, 
evaporate the ethereous solution to honey-consistence and leave it 
to stand at the open air. After some time, hard crystalline bodies 
will form, which are insoluble in water and alkalies, dissolve slowly 
in alcohol, readily in ether and oils, do not redden the salts of 
iron oxyd and contain no sulphur. 

Erythric Acid =040 H22 O20. Exists in the lichen Lecanora 
tartarea, more abundantly in Boccella MontagneL Boil the lichen 
with water, strain, rinse the white flocks and crystals which will 
have separated after cooling with cold water, re-dissolve in hot 
water, filter off from the little black or brown deposit and leave to 
stand in a cold place. — It crystallises in colourless, fine needles, has 
neither taste nor smell, fuses a little above 100°, is destroyed in 
higher temperatures, dissolves in 240 parts of boiling water, better 
in alcohol and in ether, becomes red through ammonia under 
access of the air, yields orsellic ether on boiling with alcohol. The 
alcoholic solution assumes a purple-red colour with chloride of iron 
and turns yellow without cloudiness on addition of ammonia; 
nitrate of silver effects no alteration in the alcoholic solution; 
ammonia, when added to the mixture, yields a white precipitate 
that turns black on boiling, while it covers the glass with a bright 
film of silver. 


ErytliTOphyll. See Cissotannic Acid. 
Erythroretin* See Apobetin. 

Eiythrozym. • Peculiar nitrogenised matter of the root of 
Knbia tinctorum. Treat one part madder on a linen cloth with 
nine parts water of 38^, mix the extract with an equal volume of 
alcohol, collect the subsiding dark red-brown flocks and exhaust 
with boiling alcohol, wash the remaining impure E. with cold 
water until the latter is no longer precipitated by acetate of lead, 
and dry on a water-bath. — Black, hard mass, difficult to pulverise, 
bums \nth a homy odour, yields with water a tHckish red- 
brown fluid, but does not properly dissolve. 

El^hseholtzla Alkaloids, From the root and herb of 
Eschscholtzia Califomica Waltz obtained, besides a little chelery- 
thrin, an acrid alkaloid and a bitter one. (a) Acrid alkaloid. 
Exhaust with water and an admixture of acetic acid, throw down 
cheleryihrin and the acrid alkaloid with ammonia (the bitter 
alkaloid remaining in solution), wash the deposit, drv and dissolve 
in ether, evaporate, dissolve again in water acidulated as before, 
precipitate with ammonia, &c.; or remove the dyeing matters by 
digesting with animal charcoal. — ^White powder, almost tasteless 
by itself, but very bitter when dissolved in alcohol or ether; 
of alkaline reaction^ insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol 
and ether. Forms neutral, colourless salts, precipitable by the 
hydrates and carbonates of alkalies and by taimic acid. Becomes 
not violet with sulphuric acid. (6) Bitter alkaloid. After the 
chelerythrin and the acrid base have been removed by ammonia 
from the extract of the herb as above, the liquid is neutralised 
with acetic acid, precipitated with taimic acid and otherwise 
treated like Porphyroxin (from Sanguinaria). — Crystalline, 
easily fusible mass of nauseous bitter taste and alkaline reaction, 
imparts to concentrated sulphuric acid a beautiful violet colour, 
which is observable even with a solution containing 1% of the 
alkaloid by allowing one drop of the solution to float on the 
sulphuric acid. 


Essential (ethereal or volatile) Oils are compounds of car- 
bon and hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, or sulphur. 
Their distribution throughout the vegetable kingdom is so general 
that it is difficult to single out a plant which does not, by its pecu- 
liar odour, betray the presence of at least traces of volatile oils 
contained either in the flowers, seeds, pericarps, leaves and barks, 
or, though less frequently, in woods, and which oils often show a 
marked difference in physical and chemical properties when 
obtained from different parts of the same plant. The taste of 
these oils is generally hot and aromatic and their odour analogous 


to the material employed fof their preparation, but intenaified to 
the highest degree. Besides these, another class of oils oecurs, 
which like oil of bitter almonds, mustard, &c, do not exist ready- 
formed in the Uving organism, but owe their formation to a kind 
of fermentation or breaking up of an inodorous substance into 
different products, one of which is the respective volatile oiL 

Three processes are commonly employed for obtaining the iso- 
lated oils, viz.: — Pressing y Extraction by means of solvents, and 

The first of these methods is only practicable with materials 
which, like orange-peels, are very rich in oils. As it is wasteful 
and generally yields an oil contaminated with fat, wax, resin^ 
^c, this operation is restricted to a few materials only. 

The method of Extraction (commonly by means of ether) is 
adopted either with small quantities of the raw material, or with 
substances very poor in ofl, or with oils, like those of turnsole, 
jasmin, reseda, violets, suffering decomposition by heat. By this 
process all the other constituents, soluble in ether, of the raw 
material are of course likewise extracted, and accordingly^ the 
remnant, aftyer the spontaneous evaporation of the solvent, con- 
tains generally also fixed oils, wax, chlorophyll, resins, <&c., 
although the larger portion of these impurities, with the exception 
of the fixed oils, separate during evaporation from the volatile oiL 
It is therefore not possible to obtain a pure product by either 
pressing or extracting in the usual way. 

DistiUatum by means of water is by far the most common 
method of obtaining ethereal oils. Usually the properly commi- 
nuted substance is mixed with six or eight times its weight of 
, water, and the mixture left to rest for a day. The whole is then 
submitted to distillation (with proper means for refrigeration), until 
the distilled water ceases to separate Biuy oil, or imtil jt is nearly 
devoid of odour. To prevent any contamination of the oil, by 
partial charring: of the contents of the still with empyreumatic 
p^ucts, tiieZtillation is effected more properly by foxing steam 
through the substance operated on. 

The essential oils obtained by distillation, and when freshly 
prepared, are as a rule colourless or pale-yellowish, seldom, like 
the oils of a few of the Compositse and Myrtacese,- of a blue or 
green colour. They are also commonly of thin fluidity (at mean 
temperature) and of great light refracting and dispersing power ; 
sometimes they are of thickish consistence, partly or completely 
solid and in the latter case distinguished by die name of camphor 
or stearopten, while the liquid part is called in contradistinction 
elseopten and which may often be obtained solid or in crystals by 
refrigerating to 0° or below. The specific gravities of volatile 
oils range from 0*800 to 1*100; their boilmg points are in all 
instances higher than 100% seldom below 150% but often as high 


as 300^ and more. The hydrocarbon-oils are, as a rtde, more 
volatile than those containing oxjgen, and the volatility seems to 
diminish with the increasing percentage of the latter. 

The quantitative estimation of volatile oils is very difficult and 
can only be done approximately. When the oil has been obtained 
by distillation ^ and spontaneous separation from the aqueous 
distillate, that portion of the oil which remains dissolved in the 
water, has also to be accounted for [irrespective of the fact, that 
the proportionate quantity of volatile oils is subject in the same 
species to much fluctuation according to the soil^ climate and l6cal 
influences. — ^F. v. M.], and which is calculated as constituting 
one-tenth per cent, of the weight of the whole aqueous distillate^ 
when the oil was a hydrocarbon ; and one-fifbh per cent, when an 
. oxygenised oiL 

A thorough analysis of volatile oils requires not only a vast 
quantity of material but also much time and circumspection. 
After distillation the oil is first freed from any water by agitating 
occasionally and for several days with fused chloride of calcium. 
It is then poured off and examined in regard to reaction with 
litmus-paper, specific gravity, boiling point, and its behaviour in 
low temperature. 

The determination of the boiling-point is carried on in a retort, 
not more than half filled with the oil, and through the tubulus of 
which a thermometer, indicating at least 300 above zero, is 
' passed so as to touch with its bulb the surface of the oil, while 
the neck of the retort is adapted to a CroebeFs or Liebig's 
condenser. As crude volatile oils are commonly mixtures of 
diflerent oils, in most instances the boiling point gradually rises 
during the operation. A ditference of only a few degrees is not 
regarded as of much consequence, but as soon as the boiling-point 
rises 10° or 20° and remains constant there, the receiver is 
changed and the first distillate poured into a glass-phial with 
a well closing glass stopper. Meanwhile, the distillation is 
carried on, but not quite to dryness, to prevent contamination 
with empyreumatic products, and each portion of the distillate 
diflering by ten or more degrees, is collected separately. These 
diSerent oils are then examined separately in regard to their 
physical properties (specific gravity, colour, smelly taste, fluidity, 
vapour-density, rotatory power, &c.), and chemical constitution. In 
cases, where material enough is at hand, the same process of 
fractional distillation is advantageously repeated with each 
separate portion, to secure greater precision of results. 

Some volatile oils are combinations of an acid and a neutral 
body, and often separate into these different parts during distilla- 
tion, the neutral portion (mostly a hydro-carbon or an ether) being 
more volatile and passing over first, while the acid oil (always 
oxygenised) distils much later. 




But to effect a complete separation, it is better to previously 
mix the oil with potash, or soda-ley, which combines with the 
acid, allowing the neutral or basic oil to distil first. By adding to 
the residue in the retort afterwards sulphuric or better phos- 
phoric acid and distilling again, the acid oH is obtained pure. 

[EatimaMon of Essential Oils according to Osse. — ^Treat five 
grammes, of the finely pulverised substance col& with twenty- 
five cubic centimeters of petroleum ether (of a boiling-point not 
above 40°), shake for a few hours, let subside, evaporate one cubic 
centimeter of the clear liquid in a current of air, weigh the re- 
maining mixture of wax or fat and oil, evaporate the volatile oil 
at 110° and weigh again. The latter weight deducted &om the 
first gives the amount of the essential oil.] 

[Eucalyptus ComtitnentS. The leaves of Eucalyptus 
globulus, according to H. Weber, contain besides the volatile oil 
the following substances: — 1. A white body, crystallising in 
needles, mixed with a resinous^ amorphous mass, both of acid 
reaction. 2. An acid, yellow resin of bitter taste. 3. Euca- 
lyptic acid, precipitable by lead salts. 4. Eucalyptin, a neutral, 
crystallisable, bitter substance, soluble in ether and alcohol, partly 
in water. Used as a remedy against intermittent fevers.] 

Euealin, See Melitose. 

Eufpeiiic Acid=:CABTOPHYLLic Acid. 

Ellg6Ilill=:02o Hi2 O4 (isomeric with cuminic acid and caryo- 
phyllic acid). Separates slowly from the turbid aqueous 
distillate of cloves overcharged with volatile oil. — ^Delicate 
white, pellucid, pearly laminae, turning yellow by keeping; of 
a faint odour of cloves; dissolves readily in alcohol and ether; 
assumes, like caryophyllic acid, a blood-red colour with cold nitric 

EupatOlin. Bitter ingredient of the leaves and flowers of 
Eupatorium cannabinum (probably obtainable firom numerous 
species of this genus. — F. v. M.) It is obtained by precipitating 
the aqueous extract with slaked lime, digesting the pi*ecipitate, 
after it has absorbed carbonic acid from the air, with alcohol and 
evaporating the tincture to dryness. — White powder of a bitter 
and pungent taste, insoluble in water^ soluble in absolute alcohol 
and in ether, said to yield a crystalline salt with sidphuric acid. 

Enphorbiam. The hardened milky juice of several species of 
the genus Euphorbia. Dirty-yellow, white inside, brittle, porous 
lumps without smell and of excessively acrid taste. Contains 
about 60% resin (Euphorbin=C2o Hie O), 14% wax, 5% caout- 
chouc and various salts. 


Eaplirasia Tannic Acid=Cs2 H20 O17. Peculiar tannic acid 
of Eaphrasia officinalis, greening the iron salts, and only obtained 
in combination with lead; precipitable by glue and by tartarated 

EvenilC Acid =034 Hie O14. Besides Usnic acid in Evemia 
pronastri. Precipitate the extract of the lichen, prepared 
with diluted milk of Hme, with hydrochloric add and boil the 
deposit with weak alcohol; or dry and exhaust with ether. The 
solution of the E. is purified by recrystallisation under aid of 
animal charcoal. — Colourless crystalline needles, inodorous and 
tasteless, of acid reaction; lose at 100° nothing of their weight; 
fuse at about 164*^; are afterwards decomposed and yield beside 
other products a sublimate of orcin; are insoluble in cold and 
dissolve slightly in boiHng water, also in cold and very abundantly 
in hot alcohol; readily in ether, also in alkalies, the solution in 
ammonia turning slowly to a deep-red by exposure to the air. 

ExtractiTC Substances. By extracting vegetable matters with 
water or alcohol, a more or less yellow or brown liquid is obtained 
which becomes darker on evaporating under the influence of the 
ail*, and remains as a stiff pasty mass difficult to dry and quickly 
absorbing moisture when exposed to the air. This product has the 
general name of extract, and represents a mixture of the most 
different matters and salts of the plant employed. The general 
characteristics of extracts are as follows : solubility in water and 
alcohol, insolubility in ether, amorphous condition, non-volatility, 
hygroscopicity, and finally inclination to decompose when in 
solution under concurrence of heat and air. Among the substances 
common to all extracts are gum, sugar, pigments, salts, &c.y 
because they are soluble in water and alcohol, and are accordingly 
carried into the extracts. In cases where one or the other of the 
aforesaid siibstances predominates and in default of sufficiently 
accurate analysis, or when no mode of isolation is known, the 
remaining mixture, called extract, is spoken of and designated 
according to its predominating character, as bitter, sweet, astrin- 
gent, gummous, colouring, resinous, &c., extractive substance. 

It follows therefore that the name ** extractive substance" does 
not mean a well-defined body, but comprises a mixture of sub- 
stances, which advancing knowledge will teach to separate. 

Fats. Non-volatile compounds of carbon with hydrogen and 
comparatively little oxygen; widely distributed throughout the 
vegetable empire, and most abundantly occurring in seeds; at a 
mean temperature of all consistencies from that of an oil to a solid ; 
colourless or yellowish, with a greenish or brownish shade ; of im- 
perceptible or faint odour and taste; leave a permanent spot on 
paper, are lighter than water (spec. grav. between 0*88 and 0*95); 
the solid fats fuse almost without exception below 100°; not in- • 


flammable by themselves, but burning by means of a wick with a 
bright, smoky flame; insoluble in water, slightly soluble in 
alcohol, mostly abundantly soluble in ether and volatile oils, also 
in chloroform and sulphide of carbon. They fonn with strong 
bases, under formation of glycerin, soaps, which dissolve in water 
and alcohol when formed by the real alkalies, but are insoluble in 
those two liquids when composed of any other base. From parts 
lich in oil (for instance, from the seeds) most of the oil may be 
obtained by proper comminution and strong pressure at a gentle 
heat; but as this method gives very inaccurate results, it is 
necessary for a quantitative analysis to extract the oil by means 
•of ether (benzol, ether, petroleum ether) as shown in No. II., 
Division III,, Part 11. 

Fiber i=Ci2 Hio Oio. After the whole or part of a plant has 
"been exhausted by means of ether, alcohol, water, diluted acids 
and alkalies, a substance remains which is commonly called Fiber, 
Cellulose or Skeleton. Treated as above, it is generally of a 
l)rownish colour on account of impurities, and contains besides a 
variable amount of mineral matters, which remain after incinera- 
tion as ash, ihe weight of which has to be deducted from the 
weight of the Fiber, previously dried thoroughly at 110°. 

To obtain Fiber in a purer state the colouring matters have 
to be destroyed by a proper agent which has no influence on the 
Fiber itself. Best adapted for this purpose is so-called chloride of 
lime. Reduce one part of the latter with water to a soft pulp 
(in a glass or porcelain mortar), dilute with more wat-er, until the 
whole represents ten parts, let settle in a high cylindrical glass 
vessel covered with a glass-plate; filter, and mix the Fiber, treated 
AS above, in a similar vessel with enough of the solution to be 
covered completely; cover with a glass-plate and let stand cold 
for twenty-four hours in a dark place. After the bleaching has 
been completed, the solution is poured off, and the Fiber washed 
with a few changes of pure water, and afterwards with water 
strongly acidulated by hydro-chloric acid, in order to dissolve the 
small quantity of lime, precipitated on the Fiber. It is then 
collected on filtering-paper, washed and dried. Should the Fiber by 
the one day's exposure not be completely decolourised, reaction will 
become more powerful by adding to the above mixture of chloride 
of lime solution and Fiber, enough of hydro-chloric acid to 
render it strongly acid; leave to stand covered in a dark place for 
another day, bring on a filter, wash and dry. 

There are certain dark pigments which are not destroyed even 
by this second treatment, but which may be bleached to white- 
yellow by means of warm nitric acid of 1*20. To use a stronger 
a<;id, would not be advisable on account of its destructive action 
on the Fiber itself. 


Cellulose, thus purified, is white, of loose texture, without 
taste, becomes carbonised by heat without fusing, and bums 
•completely away (leaving nothing or only traces of ash), is not 
affected by ether, alcohol, water, diluted acids, alkalies or solution 
of chloride of lime; but dissolves even at ordinary temperature in 
the blue ammoniacal solution of sulphate of copper, and acquires, 
when kept in a cold concentrated solution of chloride of zinc, the 
property of turning blue with iodine, also to dissolve in it, when 
wanned, under conversion into sugar, which latter, however, is 
destroyed by the continued application of heat. 

FiliciC Acid=C26 Hu 08+ HO. Found in the rhizoma of 
Aspidium Filix mas. Exhaust with ether (free from alcohol), 
evaporate to an oily consistence, leave to stand cold for a few days, 
collect on a filter the acid, which will have separated in yellow 
crusts, wash with small quantities of a mixture of equal volumes of 
absolute alcohol and el^er, afterwards with a mixture of two 
volumes of alcohol and one volume of ether, until the remnant 
becomes of a pale lemon-yellow, and recrystallise in hot ether. — 
Small, green-yellow, rhombic laminae or loose, light-yellow, crys- 
talline powder of faint odour, and slightly nauseous taste ; becomes 
electric by rubbing; fuses at 161°, and decomposes afterwards; 
has an acid reaction when dissolved in ether; is insoluble in 
water, slightly soluble in aqueous, better in boiling absolute 
alcohol, little in cold, better in hot ether, readily in sulphide of 
carbon, fixed and volatile oils. Yields with alkalies salts, which 
dissolve in water, with other bases insoluble compounds. 

Filixolelc Acid. In the rhizoma of Aspidium Filix mas; is 
scarcely different from oleic acid. 

Flavequisetin. Ydlow pigment, found in Equisetum fluviatile? 
is only known in the impure stata 

Formic Acid=:C2 HO3 + HO. As yet it has been found 
only in a few plants, viz., in the leaves, bark and wood of the 
Coniferse, in the fruits of Sapindus Saponaria, Tamarindus Indica, 
the leaves of TJrtica urens, Sempervivum tectorum ; but exists, in 
all likelihood, in many other plants. As it is a volatile acid (it has 
an acrid, pungent odour, similar to acetic acid), it must be first and 
best looked for in the water which has been distilled from the 
respective plants. Saturate this distillate with a little excess of 
carbonate of soda, evaporate to a small bulk, neutralise carefully 
with nitric acid, add nitrate of silver and heat; if the liquid 
becomes grey from reduced silver Formic acid was present 

The whole of the Formic acid is obtained by distilling the 
respective substance with water containing phosphoric acid. (See 
No. IX., Division III., Part II.) 



To estimate the amount of Formic acid, over-saturate a weighed 
or meQiSured quantity of the distillate with carbonate of soda, 
evaporate to dryness, expose the triturated mass to a temperature 
of 110° until thoroughly dry; weigh; extract with alcohol of 
96%, and note down the weight of the residue, consisting of 
carbonate of soda, chloride of sodium, &c. The difference of the 
two weights represents the Formate of soda, which contains 
54-38% Formic acid. 

On the other hand, should, as frequently happens, such organio 
acids, as likewise yield soda-compounds soluble in strong alcohol, 
be present in the aqueous distillate, then the alcoholic solution of 
the soda-salts is evaporated to dryness, and the residue mixed 
with nitrate of silver in the proportion of 1 part residue to 2^ 
parts nitrate of silver ; the whole is then gently heated, until the 
reduction of the residting Formate of silver to the metallic state 
is completed ; 100 parts of this reduced silver, washed and dried 
on a filter, indicate 34 "2 6 parts Formic acid. 

The Formate of silver, like all compounds of that acid, is freely 
soluble in water, and only separates from very concentrated solu- 
tions as a white, curdled mass, which, on addition of water, 
dissolves again. As the silver salts of acids, belonging to the 
same series as Formic (like acetic, propionic, valerianic, &c.), do 
not undergo reduction xmder the same conditions, their presence 
does not interfere with the above result. 

If the reduced silver, obtained by this process, should be found 
to contain chloride of silver, it is necessary to treat it with nitric 
acid, which leaves the chloride behind. The latter is collected, 
weighed, and serves to correct the estimate by deducting for every 
100 parts of chloride, 25*8 parts Formic acid, or the amount of 
the Formic acid is calculated from the reduced silver, minus the 
chloride of silver. 

Fraiigulin= Rhamnoxanthin. 

Fraxln = C54 H30 O34 -f HO. Glucosid of the barks of Fraxinu* 
excelsior, Aesculus Hippocastanum, A. Pavia, and of allied species^ 
of those genera. Precipitate the decoction of ash-bark, collected 
in spring during the floral season of the tree, with acetate of lead, 
the filtered liquid with subacetate of lead ; press the latter deposit, 
decompose under water with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter, evapo-^ 
rate the filtrate to syrup consistence, collect any crystals formed^ 
wash the latter with water, afterwards with a little spirit of wine, 
and purify by recrystallisation. — Tuftily united, white, lustrous 
needles, inodorous, slightly bitter and acerb, losing the water at 
110°, fusing at 320° under decomposition; dissolve in 1000 parts 
cold, readily in hot water, little in eold, readily in hot alcohol, 
not in ether; the largely-diluted alcoholic or aqueous solution shows, 
especially in the presence of traces of alkalies, a blue or bluish- 


green fluoi'escenoe which disappears through acids ; it separates on 
access of diluted acids into sugar and FraxetinzzCso H12 Oie, a 
•crystalline body slightly acerb to the taste. 

Fraxinin obtained, according to Keller, from the bark of the 
Ash-tree, is mannit. 

Fruit Sll(^ (L^vo-glucose)=Ci2 H12 O12. Cane-sugar in 
solution by keeping, or more quickly by heating with diluted acids, 
is converted into inverted sugar, and instead of rotating to the 
right, acquires the property of rotating to the left; which change 
amounts for every 100° of the original dextro-rotation, to 38° 
Isevo-rotation at 14°, provided the inversion has been complete. 
During inversion cane-sugar assimilates 5*26°/q water, forming 
inverted sugar, i.e,, a mixture of equal parts of dexixo-glucose (grape- 
sugar) and of laevo-glucose : 2 C12 Hn On + 2 H0=Ci2 H12 O12. 

Fruit-sugar occurs as inverted sugar in honey, in many succu- 
lent fruits, and other saccharine vegetable parts. Its isolated 
occurrence has as yet not been proved with certainty, yet some 
kinds of pears and apples contain more fruit than grape-sugar. 
To obtain Fruit-sugar pure, mix ten parts inverted sugar intimately 
with six parts lime-hydrate and 100 parts water, whereby the at 
first fluid mass congeals after some shaking, and on hard pressure 
aUows grape-sugar lime to run off, whUe the solid residue, de- 
composed after washing by oxalic acid, yields Fruit-sugar. In like 
manner the inverted sugar, occurring in fruits, may be decomposed. 
Pure Fruit-sugar is, after heating to 100°, a colourless, uncrys- 
tallisable syrup, or an amorphous, hard mass, as sweet as cane- 
sugar, dissolves more readily in alcohol than grape-sugar, under- 
goes directly with yeast the vinous fermentation, and behaves 
towards alkaline solutions of tartai'ate of copper like grape-sugar. 

Fmittamiic Acid. Occurs in unripe apples, pears, and some 
other fruits, and disappears on ripening, while the amount of sugar 
increases proportionately. By mixing the filtered juice of the 
above fruits with starch paste and adding iodine, iodine-starch is 
formed, but not before the whole of the tannic acid has been con- 
verted into an iodine compound. To obtain the latter, add to the 
juice of unripe fruits tincture of iodine in small quantities until 
the colour of the iodine no longer disappears ; a brown precipitate 
is formed after a few moments, which has to be washed with 
water. YeUow, amorphous powder, insoluble in water and alcohol, 
is decomposed by boiling with diluted acids, yielding grape-sugar. 

Fnmaric Acid = Cg H2 Oe + 2 HO, also called boletic, lichenic, 
and paramaleic acid, the latter on account of its occurrence, 
together with maleic (equisetic) acid, among the products of the 
destructive distillation of malic acid ; has been found hitherto in 
Fumariaceae, Lichenes (for instance, Cetraria Islandica), Fungi 


(species of Boletus, &c.), and G-lauoium luteum. To obtain it^ 
precipitate the decoction with acetate of lead, separate the 
deposit by filtration, wash cold and boil with water, filter hot and 
allow the liquid to stand cold. The crystallised fumarate of lead 
is reduced to a fine powder, decomposed under water with 
STilphuret of hydrogen, and the liquid evaporated. — ^The Fumaria 
acid crystallises in needles, scales, or warty granules ; is inodorous, 
of a strongly acid taste and reaction, fuses with heat and sub- 
limates, dissolves only in two to three hundred parts cold water, 
abundantly in hot water, readily in alcohol and ether. The fuma- 
rates of the alkalies dissolve readily in water, those of most of the- 
other bases slowly, the fumarate of silver not at all ; the latter 
becomes anhydrous at 100°, and contains 29*70% acid. 

Fumarin. Alleged alkaloid of Fumaria officinalis. It is said 
to be obtained in the following way. Treat the bruised herb with 
diluted acetic acid, evaporate to a syrup, exhaust with alcohol, 
decolourise the tincture with animal charcoal, and evaporate. It 
crystallises in fine needles, as acetate of Fumarin. Dissolve the 
salt in water, and add an alkali which throws down the Fumarin, 
as a cloddy mass which may be obtained in crystals from hot 
alcohol. The compounds of Fumarin have a lasting bitter taste. 

Fun^ic Acid. See Malic Acid. 

Galambntter. From Bassia longifolia, B. latifolia, and B. buty- 
racea, obtained by boiling the fruits with water. Dirty red and 
white, transparent, of lard consistence, has a faint smell and pro- 
nounced cocoa-like taste. Oil of Illipe seems identical with this. 

Galbammi. Gum-resinous exudation of Peucedanum galbani- 
ferum and Polylophium Galbanimi. More or less brown-yellow; 
at ordinary temperature tough, brittle when cold, of disagreeable 
smell and acrid, bitter taste; contains as main ingredients: vola- 
tile on, resin and gum. 

Galbanum Resin = C52 Has Oio. Free the galbanum from the 
volatUe oil by distillation with water, separate the remaining resin 
from the supernatant turbid liquid, boil it with milk of lime^ 
throw down the dark-yellow solution with hydrochloric acid, wash 
the white-yellow flocks, dissolve in ether and evaporate. Amor- 
phous, white flocks, after the evaporation of the ether honey- 
yellow mass, tasteless, insoluble in water, readily soluble in 
alcohol, also in common ether, not completely in absolute ether, 
difficultly in potash-ley, yields no sugar with diluted acids; forms a 
blue oil and other products when submitted to destructive distil- 


Galltannic AcId=Ci4 Hs Oio. Found in the herb of Galium 
venim and G. Aparine; (occurring, doubtless, in numerous. 


other species. — F. v. M). Precipitate the aqueous decoc- 
tion with acetate of lead, filter, precipitate with subacetate 
of lead, decompose this second deposit with sulphuret of 
hydrogen, filter off from the sulphuret of lead, precipitate the 
liquor with acetate of lead in order to remove the rest of citric 
acid ; throw down the filtrate with subacetate of lead, and decom- 
pose the precipitate with sulphuret of hydrogen; a solution is 
obtained of slightly bitter, styptic taste, imparting a beautiful 
green colour to chloride of iron. 

Gallic Acld=Cu H3 O7 +3 HO + 2 Aq. This acid is said to 
exist in many vegetables, especially in those containing tannin ; but 
as Gallic acid has not yet been obtained with certainty as decom- 
position-product from any iron-greening tannic acid, but only from 
two iron-blueing tannic acids, t.e., from ordinary and Chinese nut- 
galls, and from sumach, it seems at least improbable, that Gallic 
acid should occur ready formed in other plants than those named 
already (and in species closely allied to them. — F. v. M.). 

In order to obtain the Gallic acid which may exist ready formed 
in a vegetable extract, the always co-existing tannic acid is first 
removed by means of glue, either dissolved in water, or better, in 
the form of animal membrane (isinglass) soaked in cold water. 
The liquid, after it has been separated from the tannate of glue, is 
evaporated to an extract, exhausted with strong alcohol, the solu- 
tion evaporated again, and treated with ether. During the 
evaporation of the ether, the gallic acid forms in crystals.— It 
crystallises in white, silky needles, is inodorous, of an acidulous 
styptic taste, decomposes at 210° under partial decomposition and 
formation of a sublimate of pyrogallic acidzrCi2 HeOe ; fuses at 
226°, dissolves in 100 parts cold and in 3 parts boiling water, 
readily in alcohol, less readily in ether; the aqueous solution throws 
down neither glue nor alkaloids, but precipitates the salts of oxyd 
of iron with a dark-blue colour, like that produced by gallotannic 
acid; the gallate of iron (the above deposit) differs from the 
tannate oi iron by its great solubility in acetic acid and in the 
hydrates and carbonates of alkalies (incl. ammonia), while of the 
tannate of iron only traces are dissolved by acetic acid, and the 
iron tannate is decomposed completely by the hydrates and 
carbonates of potash and soda, and partly by ammonia, in the 
former case under formation of oxyd of iron. Only the gallates of 
alkalies and of the alkaline earths are soluble in water. 

Gallotannic Acid=C54 H22 O34. In certain excrescences on 
the branches of a few plants, produced by the puncture of insects, 
viz., in Turkish nutgalls (from Quercus infectoria), in Chinese 
nutgalls (from Khus semialata), and in the bark of the sumach 
tree (Rhus coriaria), and some other species. It cannot be 
decided at present, if it is still more widely distiibuted (see Kino- 


tannic acid). To obtain it, exti*act pulverised nutgalls with common 
ether of 0-740 to 0*750; evaporate the tincture to dryness, and 
remove resin, fat, and gallic acid with anhydrous ether. — White, 
or slightly yellowish, loose, amorphous, resinous, easUy friable 
mass of faint, mostly a little ethereous odour, of highly adstringent 
taste, and of strongly acid reaction; fuses incompletely with heat, 
swells up, and becomes carbonised, yielding a sublimate of pyro- 
gallic acid (C12 He Oe). Dissolves most readily in water, more 
readily in hydrated than in anhydrous alcohol, slightly in anhy- 
drous ether, readily in hydrated ether, which solution soon 
separates into two portions, the lower of which contains most of 
the acid with water and a little ether, and the upper stratum 
a little of the acid only, water, and most of the ether. It secedes 
on boiling with diluted sulphuric acid into gallic acid and glucose, 
likewise with alkalies; but then the sugar is instantly changed 
into humus-like products. It throws down the glue in grey elastic 
flocks, which re-dissolve in an excess of the glue. It does not 
alter the salts of suboxyd of iron, but precipitates the solutions of 
the oxyd blue or blue-black, even when very much diluted; this 
precipitate is in appearance quite similar to the one obtained by 
gallic acid, but differs from it by its behaviour towards alkalies 
and acetic acid (see Gallic acid). Only the tannates of the alkalies 
are soluble in water, but decompose easily when exposed to the 
air. Even the aqueous solution of the pure acid becomes soon 
decomposed, turns mouldy, and deposes gallic acid. 

Gaillbo<^*6» Exudation of the stem of Garcinia Cochinchinensis, 
(G. pictoria and G. Morella), more or less brown yellow, yields a 
bright yellow powder, has a faint odour and an acrid, rancid, 
afterwards sweetish taste. Contains about 80% resin and 18% 
gum. The resin, also called Gambogic acid, obtained by 
extracting with ether, is cherry-red, almost opaque, yields a beau- 
tiful yellow powder, is inodorous and tasteless, dissolves readily in 
alcohol and ether, in alkalies, in concentrated sulphuric acid with 
red colour, and precipitable by water without change, has an acid 
reaction, and is composed according to the formula C40 H24 O s . 

Gardenia Tannic Acids. In the Chinese wongshy (the fruits of 
Gardenia grandiflora). 

First AcidzzC48 Hgg O26 + 8 HO. Exhaust the fruits with alco- 
hol, evaporate the extracts in a current of carbonic acid gas, remove 
by means of a moistened filter the oil, which separates on cooling 
and on addition of water, and precipitate the red-yellow filtrate 
with acetate of lead, which throws down pigment and the First 
acid (the filtrate serves for the pi'eparation of chlorrubin). De- 
compose the precipitate under water with sulphuret of hydrogen, 
filter, again precipitate the filtrate with acetate of lead, decompose 
again with sulphuret of hydrogen, whereby the whole of the 


pigment remains with the stdphide of lead, filter, and evaporate in 
a current of carbonic acid gas. Amorphous, brown-yellow mass, 
the solution of which greens chloride of iron. 

Second AcidzzC46 H28 Oae + HO. Boil the fruits, after ex- 
hausting with alcohol, with water, concentrate the decoctions, 
throw down the jelly with alcohol, strain, precipitate with acetate 
of lead, treat the deposit with a little acetic acid, filter, remove the 
lead from the solution by means of sulphuret of hydrogen, and 
•evaporate to dryness. 

Gaultierilcn := C20 H^. Contained in the oil of Gaul- 
tiera procumbens, and probably other species of the genus, up to 
abput one-tenth of its weight. Distil the oil with potash-ley, 
wash the distillate, consisting of wood spirit ai^d Gaultierilen, 
first with a very weak solution of caustic potash, afterwards with 
pure water, desiccate the undissolved oil with chloride of calcium, 
.and rectify over potassium. Colourless, thin, smells rather 
pleasantly pepper-like. Is lighter than water. Boils at 160°. 

[Gelsemic Acid. Is, according to Professor Sonnenschein, iden- 
tical with Aesculin.] 

[Gclsemin. Alkaloid discovered by Wormley in the herb of 
Gelsemium nitidum. Prepared from the aqueous liquid which 
has served for the production of gelsemic acid. After the g. acid 
has been extracted by chloroform, the aqueous liquid is rendered 
slightly alkaline with pptassa, and repeatedly shaken with chloro- 
form. On eviaporating the latter, a hard gummous body remains, 
which has to be treated with water acidulated by hydrochloric 
acid in order to dissolve the alkaloid. Filter, concentrate to one- 
sixteenth of the original fluid extract, add caustic potash in slight 
excess, collect the precipitate, wash with water and dry. Dissolve 
^again in acidulated water, precipitate with potash and extract 
with ether. After evaporation the G. remains as a hard shining 
mass, yielding a colourless powder. The G. is a strong poison of 
,an intensely bitter taste, and forms salts with acids. It is 
spaiingly soluble in water, easily in ether (25 parts), and in 
chloroform. Concentrated sulphuric acid colours it red-brown, 
the solution becoming purple on careful heating; nitric acid dis- 
solves it with green, hydrochloric acid with yellow colour. A 
little below 100° C. it fuses to a viscid mass which congeals to a 
translucid body ; in higher temperatures it sublimes unaltered. The 
Gelsemin compounds are precipitated by caustic alkalies; an excess of 
the latter rediJasolves the precipitates. Bichromate of potash pro- 
duces a copious yellow, amorphous precipitate, sparingly soluble in 
.acetic acid; picric acid yellow; biiodide of potassium brown even 
with diluted ( Yioooo ) solutions ; bromine in hydrobromic acid 
yellow ; the chlorides of gold and of platinum likewise ; sulpho- 
^yanide of potassium dirty white in moderately diluted solution ; 


cyanide of potassium blue-green; chloride of mercury white* 
Concentrated solutions are also precipitated by iodide and by 
ferro-cyanide of potassium.] 

Gentian Bitter=C40 H30 O24 + 2 HO. The bitter ingredient 
of the root of Grentiana lutea. Digest the fresh root (the dned root 
gives no crystalline bitter) with alcohol of 70%, evaporate to 
honey-consistence, dissolve in three times its weight of water, 
shake the solution twice with animal charcoal, rinse the latter in 
cold water, dry and boil with alcohol of 80%. This tincture, 
when freed from the whole of the alcohol by heating, separates on 
cooling, or better by diluting with water, a resin which has to be. 
removed, and the liquid digested with oxyd of lead. Filter hot, 
remove the lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate to a syrup 
consistence and shake with ether. After being left in contact for 
one day the mixture solidifies to a crystalline mass, which has to 
be pressed and recrystallised in a little hot water with aid of a little 
animal charcoal. — Colourless, radially united needles, efflorescent 
at the air, of a strong and pure bitter taste; neutral; loses its 
water at 100°; fuses at 120° to 125°, becomes carbonised in 
higher temperatures while emitting an odour of burnt sugar; 
dissolves readily in water and in hydrated alcohol, less readily 
in absolute alcohol, not in ether; in concentrated sulphmic 
acid colourless, changing to a beautiful carmine red on heating; 
decomposes with diluted sulphuric acid into sugar and another 
product; is soluble in alkalies with yellow* colour. 

Gentianin, or Gentianic Acid=:C28 Hio Oio. In the root of 

Gentiana lutea, but is not the bitter ingredient. Withdraw from 
the root most of the bitter ingredient by means of cold water, dry 
the root and exhaust with strong alcohol, evaporate to a syrup,, 
pour water on it, and remove thereby the substances soluble in 
water, leaving a sediment which contains Gentianin, fat, resin, and 
the bitter substance. Remove the fat with ether, and recrys- 
tallise in alcohol. — Light, long, pale, yellow, silky needle-like^ 
crystals, inodorous and tasteless, neutral, unchangeable at 
250°; becomes brown at 300° sublimates with careful heating, 
dissolves in 5000 parts cold and in 3850 parts hot water, in 500 
parts of cold and in 90 parts boiling alcohol, in 2000 parts ether; 
is not changed^ by diluted acids; dissolves readily in alkalies 
with yellow colour, forming salts. 

Gentisin= Gentianin. 

Genmiin. After the roots of species of Geranium are ex- 
tracted with alcohol, part of the alcohol distilled off from the 
tincture, the tannic acid removed from the remaining liquid by 
adding hydrate of lime, the liquid filtered and evaporated, the 
resin that separates removed, and the liquid brought to dryness;. 

there remains a honey-yellow, transparent, very hygroscopic mass^ 
of very bitter taste, readily soluble in water and aqueous alcohol, 
not in ether and absolute alcohol^ not precipitable by metallic- 

Getah Lahoe* The milky juice of Ficus subracemosa and F. 
Yariegata, hardened at the air, has in appearance some similarity 
with crude gutta-percha, is outside of a blackish-grey, inside of a 
delicate pink colour, very porous, brittle, becomes by continued 
rubbing soft and plastic like wax, is easily lighted and bums with 
a white, smoking flame, becomes sticky at 35°, liquid at 75°, floats^ 
on water, is not soluble in cold alcohol, dissolves in hot alcohol, 
leaving undissolved a brownish, very viscid mass; the brown 
solution, on cooling, throws down most of the dissolved substance* 
under the form of a white granular powder. Ether, chloroform, 
benzol, and oil of turpentine dissolve the G. at ordinary tempera- 
ture, with the exception of the said brownish mass. Caustic 
alkalies affect it only after continued boiling, while dissolving the 
brownish mass and leaving the G. white. The G. may conse- 
quently be regarded as a kind of wax. 

Gln^koic Acid=:C48 H47 Os + HO. Peculiar, solid fat- 
acid of the fruit of Gingko biloba, is obtained by extracttog with 
ether, evaporating the solution and cooling the remaining fat 
down to 0°, when the acid will crystallise in concentrically 
radiated needles of yellow colour. It dissolves readily in alcohol 
and in ether, is of strongly acid reaction, fuses at 35°. The gxng- 
koate of lead is viscid, that of baryta sparingly soluble in water, 
readily soluble in alcohol ; the gingkoate of silver is insoluble in 

Glaucin. Alkaloid, contained in the herb of Glaucium luteum, 
not in the root. Bruise the herb with acetic acid, press, boH the 
liquid, strain, add a little nitric acid and precipitate warm with 
nitrate of lead. After cooling, filter off the fumarate of lead 
deposit, remove from the Uquid excess of lead by sulphuret of 
hydrogen, neutralise the filtrate and precipitate with tainic acid. 
Mix the washed and pressed deposit moist intimately with hydrate 
of lime, exhaust the mixture with alcohol, impregnate the filtered 
liquid with carbonic acid, evaporate, wash the remnant .with a 
little cold water, in order to remove dyeing matter, and crystallise 
the remaining Glaucin in hot water. — ^White crusts consisting of 
minute scales of pearly lustre, separates from ether as a turpentine- 
like, at first almost oily mass, which hardens by keeping, fuses 
under water to an oil, is destroyed in higher temperatures, tastes 
bitter and very acrid, has an alkaline reaction, reddens at the air 
and more rapidly in the sunlight, dissolves in water, better when 
hot, most readily in alcohol and ether, assumes, when heated with 
concentrated sulphuric acid — ^until the acid begins to evaporate, a 



T3eautiful blue-violet colour, which passes to a dark peach-flower 
red on addition of water, and yields an indigo-blue precipitate 
with ammonia. It neutralises the acids, and forms white salts of 
& burning, acrid taste, precipitable by ammonia with white colour. 

Glancoplcrin. Alkaloid of the root of Glaucium luteum, 
besides Chelerythrin. Exhaust with water containing acetic acid, 
precipitate the chelerythrin by means of ammonia, saturate the 
filtered liquid with acetic acid, precipitate with tannic acid, 
triturate the washed deposit with hydrate of lime and alcohol, 
warm, subject the filtrate to carbonic acid, distil off the alcohol, 
filter, evaporate the liquor, and exhaust the remainder with ether. 
The residue left after the evaporation of the ether, yields by 
washing with water and a little ether, a comparatively pure pro- 
duct, which has to be crystallised in hot water, while impure Gl. is 
dissolved by the ether. Dissolve the latter after the evaporation 
of the ether, in water and acetic acid mixed with subacetate of lead, 
and adduce sulphuret of hydrogen. Filter off the sulphide of 
lead, withdraw from it by repeatedly boiling with water and 
acetic acid the Gl. mixed up with it, saturate these solutions and 
the liquid filtered off from the sulphide of lead with sulphate of 
soda, and precipitate with ammonia. The precipitate may be 
obtained in the pure state, but with difficulty, by dissolving 
in ether, and evaporating the latter. Another alkaloid, pre- 
cipitable by tannin together with Gl., remains with the almost 
pure Gl. in small quantity; it forms a salt which crystallises in 
needles, but soon effloresces. — Snow-white, permanent grains, 
bitter; dissolves readily in water, especially hot, and covers the* 
concentrated solution with a pellicle on cooling, which soon 
becomes crystalline and sinks to the bottom j dissolves in alcohol, 
not so well in ether, yields neutral white salts of a bitter and 
nauseous taste. 

Gliadln. See Gluten. 

Globularia Resin = C40 Hge Ow, The fragrant resin of the 
leaves of Globularia Alypum. iVom the alcoholic extract of 
the leaves the bitter substance (Globularin) is extracted by water, 
while Globularia Kesin remains. Dissolve the latter in alcohol, 
digest with animal charcoal, and precipitate the filtered solution 
with water. Olive-green, translucid, plastic mass, of the smell of 
the leaves. 

Globnlarin=C6o H44 O28. The bitter ingredient of the leaves 
of Globularia Alypimi. The alcoholic extract is to be distilled, 
the remnant dissolved in water, digested hot with oxyd of lead for 
a considerable time, filtered, the liquid evaporated on the water- 
bath, the remnant freed from a yellow pigment by ether, dissolved 
in water, precipitated with tannin, the deposit dissolved in 


alcohol, the solution digested with oxyd of lead, filtered, and the 
liquid brought to dryness. White, bitter powder, soluble in 
water and alcohol, insoluble in ether, converted by digestion with 
diluted sulphuric acid into sugar and other products. 

Globularia Tannic Acid^Cw H12 Ou. In the leaves of 

Globularia Alypum. Is precipitated from the aqueous solution of the 
alcoholic extract by digestion with oxyd of lead. (See Globularin.) 
Divide the precipitate in alcohol, decompose with diluted sulphuria 
acid, shake the green-brown liquor with a little carbonate of lead 
and precipitate with alcoholic acetate of lead. Isolated by sul- 
phuret of hydrogen, it is only known in solution which imparts a 
dark-green colour to chloride of iron. 

Glueose = Grape Snicar. 

[Glncosids are organic compounds of a high atomic weight and 
great chemical complexity. They are resolved by heating with 
dilute acids, or sometimes even when left in contact with certain 
protein-substances, under assimilation of water, into sugar (fer- 
mentable or not), and one or more other products, generally an 
essential oil or a resinous body. They also in most cases exhibit 
the following properties : — ^They are crystalline or amorphous, 
neutral, or slightly acid ; without odour, of a bitter or acrid taste ; 
fusible, but without sublimation, and carbonised by prolonged 
heating ; they dissolve easily in alcohol, less so in water, sparingly 
or not at all in ether, under decomposition in alkalies with yellow, 
and in concentrated sulphuric acid with blue, violet, or red colour. 
— F. V. M.] 

Gluten. A substance which has been formerly considered as a 
peculiar proximate constituent of the vegetable kingdom, but 
which is now proved to be only a mixture of different protein 
substances. It occurs especially in the seeds of the cereals and of 
leguminous plants. It is obtained best by kneading wheat-flour 
under cold water until the water passes from it clear and without 
a milky appearance (by taking up starch). When fresh, it is of a 
greyish-white, very viscid, glutinous, elastic, tasteless, of insipid 
odour; when dried, it appears grey-yellow, homy, brittle, mollifies 
in cold water and dissolves a little ; the solution curdles at 62°; 
by boiling with water it becomes hard and insoluble. Hot alcohol 
withdraws from it so-called gliadin, which is itself a mixture of gluten ^ 
mucin and gum, and leaves undissolved the so-called vegetable 
fibrin as a brownish-grey matter, containing sulphur and nitrogen. 
(Some authors believe the latter to be coagulated albumin). 

Glutin. Peculiar protein substance, ingredient of gluten. By 
boiling gluten with alcohol, a solution is obtained which yields on 
evaporating the so^^ed gliadin^ t.e., a mixture of Glutin and 
mucin and gum. By distilling the solution with water, most of 


the Glutin separates together with mucin, while a portion only 
remains dissolved in water by means of the gum. From this 
aqueous solution the gum is thrown down with alcohol and 
the liquid evaporated. Glutin is pale, yellow, tough, more or less 
glutinous, tasteless, of a faint peculiar odour, dries to a yellow 
transparent mass. It only swells up in water- and soon becomes 
putrid; it dissolves in hot alcohol, in cold alcohol only partially, 
:also partially in acetic acid, not in ether, readily in potash-ley. 

Glycerin^CoHs O3 4- 3 HO. Almost in every fat combined 
with fat-acids, and separated from the latter by saponification. 
Saponify any fat with soda-ley, decompose the soap with diluted 
sulphuric acid, filter, saturate the liquid with carbonate of soda, 
-evaporate, shake the pulpy renmant with strong alcohol, and 
evaporate the solution. To remove all water, keep for a rather long 
time at a temperature of 120°. Colourless syrup of a pure sweet 
taste, unci-ystallisable, inodorous, neutral, of 1*27 density; distils 
partly when boiled with water; decomposes when heated by 
itself, while evolving vapours (acrolein) of a highly offensive and 
acrid odour; bums on the open fire like an oil; mixes with 
water and alcohol in every proportion; is insoluble in ether. 

[Glycerin on a large scale, and perfectly colourless and pure, is 
now obtained as a bye-product from soap and candleworks, when 
the fats are distilled by high-pressure steam, and are thereby 
decomposed into fat-acids and glycerin. — F. v. M.] 

GlycyiThizill=048 H36 Oig. In the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra 
and G. echinata and in Monesia bark (from Lucuma glycyphlaea) ; 
it is not decided yet if the substances of similar properties from 
the leaves of Abrus precatorius, from the root of Polypodiimi 
vulgare and from Sarcocolla are identical with Glycyrrhizin. Ma- 
cerate in water, boil the solution, filter, concentrate and precipitate 
with diluted sulphuric acid. The at first pale yellow flocks unite 
slowly to a dark-brown viscid mass, which has to be washed 
repeatedly with water until free from sulphuric acid (on testing 
with soluble salts of baryta); it is then dissolved in alcohol of 80%, 
and the moderately-concentrated solution mixed with small 
quantities of ether; a brown resin, which separates after a short 
time, is removed, the ether-alcoholic solution evaporated on the 
water-bath, redissolved in alcohol, mixed with ether, filtered and 
evaporated. — ^Amorphous, yellow-white powder, smells in the alco- 
holic solution similar to an infusion of Uquorice ; has an intensely 
bitter-sweet taste, is of a strongly acid reaction when dissolved in 
water, fuses at 200°, and is destroyed in a higher temperature; 
dissolves slowly in cold, readily in hot water, with yellow colour, 
and a small portion separates on cooling under the form of resinous 
4rops ; dissolves abundantly in alcohol, less readily (aoccM:ding to 
others not at all) in ether; is not fermentable; is precipitated in 


flocks by mineral and vegetable acids. The flocks are a compound 
of G with acids (according to others pure G.) ; combines with bases ; 
alkalies increase its solubility in water, metallic salts throw the 
G. down. 

Gcemin. Proximate constituent of carrageen or goemon 
(Chondrus crispus), and bearer of the mucilaginous properties of 
the drug. Contains much nitrogen and sulphur. To prepare it 
boil the alga with water for a few hours, strain, precipitate the 
liqtiid with alcohol, rinse with alcohol, redissolve in water and 
evaporate the solution. — Thin, transparent, elastic laminse similar 
to isinglass, without smell and taste, swells up in cold water and 
dissolves when warmed to a mucilage of neutral reaction; dissolves 
also in hot hydrochloric and in nitric acid under formation of 
oxalic acid, in the ordinary mixture of nitric and hydrochloric 
acid under formation of sulphuric acid; soluble also in alkalies. 
Consists of 21-80 C, 4-87 H, 21-36 N, 2-51 S, 49-46 0. 

Grape Siq^r, or Dextro-jplucose, called also from its origin 
honey sugar, starch sugar, or simply glucose =:Ci2 Hi2 O12 + 
2 HO. Abundantly in sweet fruits, often associated with cane- 
sugar, always associated with so much Isevo-glucose, that the 
mixture may be regarded as inverted sugar. {See Fruit Sugar.) 
It is produced from the juice of grapes by boiling, neutralising 
the free acid with chalk, evaporating to half the volume, leaving 
to subside, clarifying with albumen if necessary, and evaporating 
to the consistency of a syrup. The Grape-sugar forms into crystals 
on keeping, and is recrystallised in water. — White, opaque, semi- 
spherical, or cauliflower-like mass, consisting of microscopic, sex- 
angular tabular crystals, tastes less sweet than cane-sugar and at 
the same time mealy when in the solid state; softens at 60°, 
deliquesces at 90° to 100° under loss of all its water, and solidifies 
to a colourless amorphous mass; loses at 170° two more equivalents 
of water, and carbonises afterwards with the odour of burnt sugar. 
The fused Grape-sugar deliquesces at the air first under absorption 
of water, and solidifies again as soon as the quantity of water 
absorbed is sufficient for the formation of crystals to a crystalline 
granular mass. The Grape-sugar which has been desiccated with- 
out fusing (in a current of air of 55° to 60°), and is obtained as a 
white powder, absorbs no water from the air. Grape-sugar 
dissolves in 1^ parts cold, in every proportion in boiling water, 
in 50 parts cold, and in 4 parts boilmg alcohol of 0*837, scarcely 
in ether; but yields with nitric acid, oxalic, no mucic acid; 
dissolves in cold concentrated sulphuric acid without colouration, 
but is charred by heat; turns brown on continued boiling with 
dilute sulphuric acid; is readily decomposed and turns dark 
brown wl^en heated with alkalies and alkaline earths, colours the 
subnitrate of bismuth grey brown when boiled with it under 


addition of carbonate of soda; reduces the alkaline tartrate of 
copper (1 equivalent Grape-sugar forms 10 equivalents copper 
suboxyd zi Cu 2 O); ferments directly with yeast, is not precipit- 
able by acetate and sub-acetate of lead, but is so by ammoniacal 
acetate of lead, and this precipitate assumes by keeping at the air,, 
or more quickly when warmed, a red coloiu*. 

The quantitative estimation of Grape-sugar can, like that of cane- 
sugar, be accomplished either by fermentation or by means of a solu- 
tion of copper. But it must be borne in mind that in the first case 
the water which cane-sugar assimilates, before it becomes converted 
into carbonic acid and alcohol, is already present in Grape-sugar. 
Consequently, if 100 parts cane-sugar yield 49*12 parts carbonic 
acid, and 51*01 parts alcohol, 105*26 pajrts anhydrous Grape-sugar 
will effect the same transformation; or, 46*66 parts carbonic aid 
and 48*46 parts alcohol are obtainable from 100 parts anhydrous 

In the second case, of course, the saccharine liquid wants no 
preliminary treatment except, when acid, to be oversaturated with 
caustic potash or soda^ before it is titiuted with the solution of 

Gratiolin = O40 H34 O14. The bitter ingredient of Gratiola 
officinalis [and its congeners. — F. v. M.]. Precipitate the 
aqueous decoction of the herb with subacetate of lead; mix the 
filtered liquid with carbonate of soda, but not in excess; filter, 
precipitate with tannic acid, collect the deposit and mix it with 
hydrated lead oxyd; treat the mixture with alcohol, filter and 
decolourise the tincture with animal charcoal; dry after filter- 
ing, exhaust the residue successively with absolute ether and 
with cold water, dry and recrystallise in boiling alcohol 
or in boiling water. The ether dissolves mainly gratio- 
lacrin, the cold water gratiosolin. — White powder, crystal- 
lising from alcohol in warty masses, from water in* fine silky 
needles; tastes at first very slightly, afterwards strongly bitter; 
has a faint smeU ; fuses at 200° without change, but is destroyed 
in higher tempei'atures; mollifies on heating wi,th water and rise3 
to the surface like an oil; dissolves in 893 parts cold and in 476 
parts boiling water, most readily in alcohol, in 1000 parts coldy 
and in 666 parts boiling ether, in concentrated sulphuric acid with 
dark-red colour, and precipitable from it by water; decom]K)ses on 
heating with diluted sulphuric acid into sugar and other products. 

Grati(MSOli]l=:C46 H42 O25. The aqueous gold-coloured solu- 
tion obtained during the process of preparing gratiolin is digested 
with animal charcoal, filtered, dried on the water-bath, and traces 
of gratiolacrin removed by anhydrous ether. — ^Amorphous, bright- 
red mass, friable to a yellow powder, has a peculiar smell and a 
nauseous, bitter taste, is permanent at the air, fuses at 125°, is 

97 * 

destroyed in higher temperatures, dissolves in 7 parts cold and in 
5 part^ boiling water, in 3 parts cold and 2 parts boiling alcohol, 
in 1700 parts cold and in 1100* parts boiling ether, readily in 
liquor of ammonia, in concentrated sulphuric acid with brown* 
red colour; secedes on heating with diluted acids or alkalies into 
sugar and some other product. 

Green Acid. Occurring in the ix>ots of many Dipsacese, Com- 
positse and Umbelliferse, forming with ammonia a yellow com- 
pound which becomes blue-green at the air, resembles cafie-tannic, 
nibichloric and valeria-tannic acids. Exhaust (say, the root of 
Scabiosa succisa) with alcohol, precipitate the tincture with ether, 
collect and wash the white precipitate with ether, and throw down 
its aqueous solution with acetate of lead. After this precipitate is 
decomposed under water with sulphuret of hydrogen and the 
filtered liquid evaporated, the green acid remains as an amorphous,, 
yellow, biittle, acid mass. 

Gnaeill. Resinous bitter substance of the leaves of Mikania 
Guaco (and perhaps other Guaco-plants). Draw out with ether, 
treat the ethereous extract with alcohol, the alcoholic extract with 
boiling water, the aqueous extract again with alcohol, and evapo- 
rate the latter solution to dryness. — ^Yellowish-brown, resinous, 
very bitter, fuses at 100% dissolves very slightly in cold, abun- 
dantly in boiling water, most readily in alcohol and ether. 

Gnalacic Acid=Ci2 Hg Oe. In the wood and resin of 
Guaiacum officinale. Dissolve the resin in alcohol, concentrate the- 
solution to one-quarter its volume, separate after cooling the acid, 
yellowish liquid from the subsiding resin by filtering, evaporate 
the former to a syrup-consistence, exhaust with ether, evaporate- 
the solution and sublimate the acid from the obtained warty mass 
containing i*esin over a carefully-conducted fire. ^»— White, shining, 
needle-like crystals, much more soluble in water than benzoic or 
cinnamic acids, also soluble in alcohol and ether. Requires- 
further comparisons with benzoic acid. 

Gnaiaconie Acid=C38 Hao Oio. Constitutes about 70% of 
guaiacum resin. An alcoholic solution of guaiacum resin is mixed 
with an alcoholic solution of caustic potash; the liquid is separated 
from a solid product, consisting of acid guaiacum resin and potash,, 
and evaporated at a temperature of 30^. A thick syrup-like fluid 
remains, which mixes with absolute alcohol under separation of 
some acid guaiacum resin combined with potash. Ilemove the 
mass, pervade the liquid with carbonic add, filter, mix the filtrate- 
with water and a little hydrochloric acid, evaporate the alcohol, 
and wash the resin thus obtained with warm water. It appears^ 
after drying, as a brittle, brown mass. This resin, by treating 
with ether, is decomposed into Guaiaconic acid, which dissolves, 
and into guaiacum beta resin remaining undissolved. Separate^ 


^-'■- . 


the acid in the ethereous solution with, potash-lej, throw away the 
supernatant ether; dilute the alkaline solution with water, and throw 
down with acetate of lead. Th'e grey-green precipitate is decom- 
posed under water with sulphuret of hydrogen; the deposit is dried 
and extracted by algohol, which dissolves the Guaiaconic acid and 
leaves it on evaporating. — light-brown, brittle mass of concheous 
fracture, friable to a paler, inodorotis, and tasteless powder; 
neutral; fuses at 95° to 100°, and decomposes afterwards; is 
insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, acetic acid, 
chloroform, scarcely in benzol and sulphide of carbon, in concen- 
trated sulphuric acid with beautiful cherry-red colour, and 
precipitable from it by water in violet flocks, containing sulphur. 

Cruaiacnm Beta Resin =C4o H20 O12. Constitutes 10% of 

guaiacum-resin. Is obtained during the preparation of guaiaconic 
acid, and forms the residue insoluble in ether ; withdraw from it 
all guaiaconic acid by treating the substance mixed with sand 
with ether, dissolve in alcohol, decolourise with animal charcoal 
and precipitate by pouring the solution into ether. The brown 
flocks are purifled by dissolving anew and precipitating, and 
lastly dissolved in alcohol and again separated with water. — Red- 
brown powder, neutral, fusing at 200° to a black mass, is insoluble 
in water, readily soluble in alcohol and alkalies, not in ether, 
sulphide of carbon, chloroform, and benzol. 

Guaia^^mn Yellow. Yellow pigment of gaaiacum resin. Boil 
the pulverised resin with caustic lime, filter, evaporate the liquid, 
in order to remove most of the lime as carbonate, and with it 
most of the acid guaiacum resin ; extract the remnant with water, 
oversaturate the solution with acetic acid, filter again, and allow 
to stand for a rather long time. Small, pale-brown, tabular crystals 
are formed, which dissolve slowly in much water, wj^ile leaving a 
resin ; readily soluble in ether and alcohol, and ciystallising in the 
latter on evaporating at ordinaiy temperature. — Pale-yellow, 
quadratic, octahedrons, or tabular crystals, inodorous, bitter, fusible 
by heat and afterwards decomposing, sparingly soluble in water ; 
soluble in alkalies and alkaline earths, in alcohol, ether, sulphide 
of carbon; difficultly in chloroform, benzol, oil of turpentine; 
scarcely a little in acids. 

Gnalaemn Resin. From the stem of Guaiacum officinale, 
partly exudating spontaneously, partly obtained by extracting 
with alcohol. Is gi'eenish outside, inside i-eddish or greenish- 
brown, brittle, grey- white when pulverised, turns greenish at the 
air, has a balsamic odour, and a sweetish-bitter taste which is at 
the same time acrid and imtating to the throat ; dissolves i*eadily 
in alcohol, 90% in ether (the beta-resin is insoluble); readily in 
alkalies and re-precipitable by acids ; fuses easily, and bums after- 
wards with a strong aromatic smell. The tincture turns blue 


with many oxydismg substances (nitrous acid, chlorine, &c.). It 
consists of about 70^/^ guaiaconic add, 10^/^ acid guaiacum-resin, 
10^/^ beta-resin, and of guaiacic acid, and guaiacum-yellow. 

Guaiaretlc AcidnC^o Hg^ Og + HO. In guaiacum-resin, 
•constituting 10^/^ of it. Boil the pulverised resin with half 
its weight of caustic lime and sufficient water for half an hour, 
strain, dry the residue and exhaust with hot alcohol, distil off 
the alcohol from the tincture, dissolve the remnant in soda-ley, 
allow the solution to stand cold, press the soda salt, recrystallise 
in water with a little caustic soda, decompose with hydrochloric 
acid, and crystallise in alcohol — Soft, small warty and scaly 
<5rystals, of a faint odour of vanilla, when crystallised in acetic 
acid inodorous brittle needles, when crystallised in diluted alcohol 
shining laminse ; fuses at 75° to 80° under loss of water, by rapidly 
heating mostly volatilised without decomposition; insoluble in 
water, dissolves in 1*8 parts alcohol of 90°/^, likewise in ether, 
also in chloroform, sulphide of carbon, acetic acid, benzol ; in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid with purple colour, and reprecipitable by 
water with white colour ; little soluble in liquor of ammonia. Its 
•compounds with the fixed alkalies dissolve readily in water. 

Gltni=:Ci2 Hu Oil. Jiist as scarcely any part of a plant is 
without fibre, so in all likelihood no plant is without gum ; at all 
events, gum is obtained in every phyto-chemical analysis, though the 
quantity obtained is sometimes exceedingly small. Being in- 
soluble in ether, and as alcohol dissolves scarcely traces of it, the 
gum always occurs in aqueous extracts, being extracted completely 
on account of its i*eady solubility in the solvent. The qualitative and 
quantitative determination is effected by boiling the extract (pre- 
pared with cold water) for a short time, filtering off a flocky tur- 
bidity (albumen), concentrating to a small bulk at a gentle heat, and 
TOJ YiTig the residue with alcohol of 95% in small quantities as long 
as any cloudiness is produced. The viscid, dough-like precipitate is 
washed with alcohol, re-dissolved in as little water as possible, the 
solution precipitated as before with alcohol, the deposit washed 
with alcohol, dried at 100°, and weighed. 

The gum, as obtained by this process, contains generally moi*e or 
less foreign matters, as inulin, sugar, dyeing substances, mineral 
salts, &c, to remove which completely is most difficult or im- 
possible. Should the gum, thus repeatedly precipitated with 
alcohol and then dried perfectly, be soluble in an equal weight of 
cold water, then it contains either no inulin or only so little 
(one-fifth per cent, or less) that this can be left out of consideiu- 
tion. But, as inulin is convertible into gum with comparative 
ease, it is also possible that a portion of the gum obtained may 
have been originally inulin. 

Another contamination of the gum, obtained as above, consists 
of pigments of various kinds. They are almost never abpient, and 



are indicated by the more or less darkened colour of the gum. 
They are so obstinately attached to it as to be removable only by 
bleaching, which would destroy also part of the gum. Fortunately, 
the quantity of the adhering pigment is always so minute as to be 
practically of no consequence in the quantitative analysis. 

By the repeated precipitation with alcohol any sugar present in 
the gum may be expected to be thoroughly removed. Any 
remaining traces may be discovered as follows: — Dissolve from 
10 to 20 grains of the dried and pulverised gum in a little water, 
add one drop of a solution of sulphate of copper (1 paii; to 9 parts 
water), and enough of solution of caustic potash or soda to give it 
a decidedly alkaline reaction. It must yield with pure gum a 
clear, blue liquid, and must remain so when heated to the boiling 
point; while in the presence of sugar the colour will be changed, 
and a red powder (suboxyd of copper) subsides. Gum free from 
sugar has no disoxydising effect upon the salts of oxyd of copper, 
but effects only a blue solution with excess of potash or soda. 
The best kinds even of commercial gum arabic contain traces of 
sugar, which may be thoroughly removed from the finely pul- 
verised gum by treating with alcohol. 

Another and very frequent impurity of gum obtained as above, 
or exudating spontaneously, consists in mineral substances 
(alkalies and alkaline earths), which are combined either with the 
gum itself, while this acts as a weak acid, and has, therefore, 
an acid reaction when dissolved in water; or, less frequently, these 
alkalies are fixed to stronger acids (phosphoric acid, <Src.) foiming 
compounds which dissolve slowly or not at all in alcohol. Their 
presence is best ascertained by incinerating a portion of the gum 
at the air. If a remnant is left, mineral substances were present, 
and the weight of the ashes thus obtained has, therefore, to be 
subtracted from that of the ^m. To prepare a gum free from 
mineral substances, its aqueous solution has to be strongly 
acidified with hydrochloric acid and precipitated with alcohol; the 
deposit is washed with alcohol and redissolved in water, again 
acidified with hydrochloric acid and precipitated with alcohol, and 
these operations are repeated several times. 

Different gums have different reactions with the same reagents. 
Gum Arabic (from Acacia Arabica, A. Seyal and other species) 
is precipitated fropi its aqueous solution by subacetate of 
lead, chloride of iron, and silicate of potash; it becomes thick 
with borax solution, and is not affected by acetate of. lead; 
whereas many other gums, on the contrary, are precipitated by 
acetate of lead, yet are not affected by subacetate of lead, chloride 
of iron, silicate of potash and borax, A cold concentrated 
sulphuric acid colours pulverised gum, only after several hours, 
but renders it black instantly on heating; when boiled with 
diluted sulphuric acid it is converted into grape sugar. Nitric acid 
produces oxalic a&d mudc acids. Iodine shows itself inactive to gum. 


Gum-Resins* Genuine mixtures of resin, volatile oil and 
gum; soft or hard at a mean temperature. 

Garjunic Acid=C44 H34 Os. Forms an ingredient of the 
gurjun-balsam or so-called wood-oil, an exudation from various 
species of the genus Dipterocarpus, especially Dipterocarpus tur- 
binatus, and. remains together with other substances when the 
balsam is distilled with water, while a volatile oilziC4o II32 passes 
over. Dissolve the residue in hot patash-ley, add to the red- 
brown solution chloride of ammonium in excess; filter and pre- 
cipitate the liquid with hydrochloric acid. The acid subsiding in 
dense yellow flocks^ is dissolved in ether, and yields after evapora- 
tion of the latter, a crusty mass, which has to be recrystallised in 
alcohol. — Forms colourless, crumbly crusts of slightly acid reac- 
tion, fuses at 220°, boils at 260° and decomposes afterwards; is 
insoluble in water ; dissolves difficultly in weak, readily in strong 
alcohol and in ether, slowly in benzol and sulphide of carbon, 
readily in alkalies forming soaps. The salts of other bases are 
insoluble in water. 

Glltta^C4o H32, the main ingredient of gutta-percha. Dissolve 
the gutta-percha, purified by treating with water and hydrochloric 
acid in hot ether, press quickly the mass formed on cooling, 
dissolve again in hot ether and wash the re-separated portion 
with cold ether and alcohol, whereby it becomes a jelly-like mass. 
The pressed substance is immediately to be heated to 100°, in 
order to prevent oxydation, and is then dried. — White, fine 
powder, when free of air bubbles heavier than water, fuses at 150° 
to a viscid mass, and is destroyed in higher temperatures ; is 
insoluble in alcohol and in cold ether, readily soluble in sulphide 
of carbon and chloroform, less readily in benzol and oil of 

Gutta-Perclia, the hardened milky juice of Isonandra Gutta, 
Sideroxylon attenuatum, Ceratophorus Leer'ii, Payena macro- 
phylla, Bassia sericea, Mimusops Elengi, Mimusops Manil- 
kara, Imbricaria coriacea, and probably other saponaceous trees. 
Is pale-yellow, grey-white or reddish, almost as hard as wood, 
tough and flexible at -f 25°, at 48° plastic and of a doughy consis- 
tence, consequently mollifying in hot water ; yields to water only 
a little acid and an extractive substance, dissolves in absolute 
alcohol partially (22%), little in cold ether, readily in warm ether, 
sulphide of carbon, and chloroform, less readily in benzol and oil 
of turpentine, not in acids and alkalies. Consists mainly upwards 
to about 807o of a hydrocarbon (gutta), and contains besides 
casein an organic acid, a resin soluble in ether and oil of turpen- 
tine, another resin soluble in alcohol, and an extractive substance. 

Gyroplioric Acid = Leg anoric Acid. 


HflBmatOXylin=:C32 H14 O12 + 6 HO. In the wood of Hsema- 
toxylon Gampechianum. Mix the commercial extract with much 
sand, macerate the whole with several changes of ether, evaporate- 
the brown-yellow solutions to a syrup-like consistence, mix with 
water and allow to crystallise. Wash the crystals with cold 
water, press and recrystallise in water containing a little sulphurous 
acid. — Colourless, snow-white, or pale straw-yellow quadratic 
prisms, lose by keeping 4 eqvdvalents, at 100° the last 2 equivalents 
of water without melting when slowly heated. It has a strong- 
liquorice-like very lasting taste, not bitter or acerb ; is destroyed 
in high temperatures ; dissolves Httle and slowly in cold, abund- 
antly in boiling water, more readily in alcohol than in ether, in 
liquor of ammonia with at first pink, then beautiful purple-red 
colour under formation of h8ematein=:C32 H12 O12; fixed alkalies and 
their carbonates have a similar effect, likewise lime-water and solu- 
tion of baryta ; is precipitated pure white by acetate and by subacetate 
of le^d, the precipitate assuming quickly a blue colour at the air. 

Ha^enic Acid. Supposed peculiar acid of the flowers of 
Hagenia Abyssinica, occurring in combination with ammonia. 
Explicit statements are wanting. 

Haniiallll=C26 H14 N2 O 2 . Alkaloid of the seeds of Peganimi 
Harmala. After the solution of the chlorides of harmin and 
Harmalin, as stated imder Harmin, has been mixed with a little 
ammonia, harmin subsides, while Harmalin remains dissolved. 
Precipitate this solution with excess of ammonia, triturate and 
mix the deposit with water, add acetic acid until it is almost com- 
pletely dissolved, throw down the filtrate with nitrate of soda, 
with chloride of sodium or with hydrochloric acid, wash the sub- 
siding salt with a diluted solution of the precipitating agent, and 
purify by treating its aqueous solution with animal charcoaL 
Precipitate the solution with potash-ley; wash the deposit with 
water, afterwards with absolute alcohol, dissolve in boiling 
absolute alcohol, and leave to cool imder exclusion of the air. — 
Forms colourless, klinorhombic crystals; is almost tasteless by 
itself; when dissolved of a pure bitter taste ; loses at 190° nothing 
of its weight, fuses afterwards and decomposes. Newly precipi- 
tated or moist Haimalin assimies at the air, more especially if under 
the influence of vapours of ammonia, a brown colour, dissolves very 
little in water, little in cold, readily in boiling alcohol, little in 
ether, slighly in volatile oils, is converted into harmin by heating 
its nitrate with alcoholic hydrochloric acid. Neutralises the acids ' 
and foims readily soluble, crystallisable salts. These and their 
solutions are yellow, taste bitter, and are precipitated by caustic 
alkalies ; they dissolve more readily in pure water than in water 
containing acids or salts, and are precipitated in aqueous solutions 
by acids and by salts. 


Hariliin=026 H12 N2 O2. Alkaloid of the seeds of Peganuin 
Harmala.. Exhaust with cold water, containing sulphuric or 
hydrochloric acid, neutralise the free acid of the extracts, and add 
a large quantity of a concentrated solution of chloride of sodium to 
throw down the hydrochlorides of Harmin and harmalin. Wash 
these with a solution of chloride of sodium, dissolve in cold water, 
which leaves behind dyeing matter, decolourise with animal charcoal, 
and drop into the filtrate, heated to 50° to 60°, and under stirring, 
ammonia, until a precipitate begins to form, which rapidly 
increases under continued stirring without the addition of more 
ammonia and usually contains the whole of the Harmin, but no 
harmalin. Collect the deposit obtained hereby, precipitate, if the 
filtrate contains any more Harmin, the latter by carefully adding 
ammonia, or remove any harmalin present from the precipitate by 
dissolving the whole of it in an acid, and partially precipitating as 
above. The presence or absence of harmalin for the above 
operation may be ascertained under the microscope, for Harmin 
forms needle-like crystals, while harmalin crystallises in lamellary 
form. The Harmin is afterwards purified by recrystallising and 
decolourising with charcoal. — Forms colourless, brittle prisms of 
great lustre and light-refracting power, tasteless, bitter in solution, 
j)ermanent at the air ; is almost insoluble in water, slowly soluble 
in cold, more readily in boiling alcohol, slightly in ether, less so in 
volatile and fixed oils. Forms with acids colourless, or slightly 
yellowish, crystalline salts, the concentrated solutions of which 
have a .yellowish colour, while in the diluted state (especially in 
alcohol) they exhibit a bluish fluorescence. The salts dissolve 
mostly more copiously in pure than in acid water, and their 
aqueous solutions are precipitated by hydrochloric and nitric acids 
and by chloride of sodiimi and nitrate of soda. Caustic alkalies 
throw down the base. 

Hazelnut Oil, obtained by pressing the seeds of Corylus 
Avellana and other species of that genus. Pale-yellow, thickish, 
mild, inodorous, of 0*924 density, solidifies at 19°. Belongs to 
the non-drying oils. 

Hederic Acid = C8o Hge Og. In the seeds of Hedera Helix. 
Free the seeds from fat by means of ether, boil the remnant with 
several changes of alcohol, distil off one quarter of the alcohol 
from the tinctures and allow, the impure acid to separate. It is 
difficult to procure it in the pure state, and has been only once 
obtained pure by keeping the ether-alcoholic solution at rest for 
some time. — Fine, white, soft crystalline needles and lamellse, 
inodorous^ of very acrid taste and slightly acid reaction, not fusible 
by heat, insoluble in water and ether, soluble in alcohol, in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid with beautiful purple-colour. Yields 
amorphous, jelly-like salts with alkalies and alkaline earths, 


soluble in alcohol, but scarcely or not in water. Nitrate of 
silver produces in the alcoholic solution of hederate of ammonia 
■a white precipitate, which dissolves in hot alcohol and subsides 
on cooling in a crystalline state. 

Hedera-Tannic Acid. In the seeds of Hedera Helix. Is 
obtained from the seeds, exhausted successively with ether and 
with alcohol (to be used for the preparation of hederic acid), by 
boiling with water. Mix the decoction with acetic acid and 
Acetate of lead, remove the precipitate and throw down the liquid 
with ammonia. The beautiful yellow precipitate is slightly 
washed (being soluble), afterwards decomposed under water with 
sulphuret of hydrogen and the solution filtered. The liquid yields 
on evaporating the acid but in an impure state. — Inodorous, 
Amorphous, acid substance, the solution of which colours the 
salts of iron-oxyd dark-green, but does not precipitate glue. 

Helenill = Ci6 Hu O5. In the root of Inula Helenium. 
Exhaust with alcohol, and mix the tincture hot with three times 
its volume of water. It becomes cloudy, and the Helenin 
subsides slowly in a crystalline form. — Forms white, friable, 
quadrangular prisms and needles of faint smell and taste, 
insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol and ether; fuses at 
75°, boils at 275° to 280° under partial decomposition, dissolves in 
concentrated sulphuric acid with red colour, which becomes 
slowly darker. 

[According to K alien, Helenin is resolvable into two crystal- 
lisable substances, for one of which he retains the name Helenin zz 
C12 Hg O2. It is devoid of odour and taste, fusible at 110°. The 
other is Alant-camphorz:C2o H16 O2, with a smell and taste sug- 
gestive of peppermint; fuses at 64°; yields cymol by distillation 
with phosphorus-pentasulphide.] 

Heliantliic Acid=Ci4 H9 Og. In the seeds of Helianthus 
annuus. Exhaust the seeds, freed from the husks, with hot 
alcohol, distil off the latter from the tincture, filter tlie residue, 
precipitate the liquid with acetate of lead, decompose the washed 
precipitate under water with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter and 
evaporate the liquid. — Brownish-yellow', amorphous mass, friable 
to a slightly coloured powder, fusible by heat; dissolves readily in 
water and alcohol, not in ether; imparts a splendid dark-green 
colour to chloride of iron, which changes to violet on addition 
of ammonia; does not precipitate glue. 

Hell6l>oreill=C52 H44 O30. One of the two glucosids of the 
root of Helleborus niger and H. viridis, and present in larger 
quantity than the other. It is obtained by boiling with water, 
precipitating with subacetate of lead, removing the excess of lead 
by sulphate or phosphate of soda, evaporating, precipitating with 


tannic acid, mixing the washed precipitate with alcohol, adding 
oxyd of lead, drying, extracting with hot alcohol, precipitating the 
Helleborein from the highly concentrated solution with ether, 
separating the H. before it conglutinates, and drying in a 
vacuum. By repeatedly dissolving in alcohol and precipitating 
with ether, it is obtained completely pure. — Crystallises from the 
<;oncentrated alcoholic solution slowly in translucid warty masses 
of about the size of peas, composed of microscopic needles, turning 
readily to a chalky white at the air and yielding a yellowish- 
white, very hygroscopic powder. Tastes sweetish, dissolves most 
readily in water and aqueous liquids, less readily in alcohol; 
insoluble in ether. The aqueous solution has a slightly acidulous 
reaction, and dries to a yellowish resin. At 160° it becomes 
straw-yellow and conglutinates, at 220° to 230° it turns brown 
and becomes paste-like, at 280° viscid and is charred. Concen- 
trated sulphuric acid dissolves it with brown-red colour, passing 
slowly into violet. Alkalies and alkaline earths do not affect it. 
Diluted acids quickly decompose it on boiling under formation of 
sugar and of another product appearing in violet-blue flocks. 

Helleborill=C72 H42 O12. The other of the two glucosids of the 
root of Helborus niger and H. viridis; only occurring in small 
quantity. To prepare it, boil with alcohol, concentrate the decoctions 
to a small volume; shake repeatedly with much hot water, and 
evaporate the aqueous solutions after removing the supernatant 
fixed oil. The H., which then separates, is collected, washed 
with water, and recrystallised repeatedly in boiling water until it is 
snow-white. — Dazzling white, concentrically arranged needles, 
almost tasteless when dry, but of an extremely acrid and burning 
taste when dissolved in alcohol. It is insoluble in water, slightly 
soluble in ether and fixed oils, but readily so in boiling alcohol 
and in chloroform. Above 250°, it fuses and becomes carbonised. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid imparts to it a magnificent crimson- 
red colour, and dissolves it slowly with the same colour. This 
reaction is much more intense and sensitive than the similar one of 


salicin. By immediately diluting the solution with water, most of 
the H. subsides unaltered, only a small part having undergone a 
decomposition into sugar and a resin. The same decomposition 
takes place on boiling with diluted acids, while aqueous alkalies 
have no effect. 

Heloillll=Ci4 Kg NO 3. Resinous substance, not belonging to 
the alkaloids, from the seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale. Is obtained 
by treating the impure veratrin, precipitated by caustic potash 
after Couerbe's method, with water in order to remove sabadillin 
and sabadillin-hydrate. Extract the veratrin from the residue by 
means of ether, dissolve the insoluble part in alcohol, and evapo- 
rate the solution. — It is brown, solid, insoluble in water, ether, 


and alkalies, soluble in alcohol, fuses at 185^, combines with acids^ 
but does not neutralise them. 

Hempseed 011= Oil of Cannabis sativa. 

Hesperidln. Bitter ingredient of the unripe bitter oranges, and 
of the white spongy parts of the fruit-peelings of bitter oranges 
and lemons. Exhaust with water, concentrate, treat the extract 
with strong alcohol, evaporate, add water and allow to crystallise 
slowly. — ^Delicate, silky, bitter, needle-like crystals, united ta 
warty concrescences; dissolves very little in cold, in six parts^ 
boiling water; slightly in cold, most readily in hot alcohol; not in 
ether and oils. According to recent investigations it appears 
to be a glucosid, said to contain instead of sugar dulcit- 
=:Ci2 IIi4 Oi2, a non-fermentable kind of sugar. 

]IliailOkln=C2o Hi2 KO (isomeric with Cinchonin). Alkaloid 
occurring in the Quina huanoko plana (from Cinchona micrantha)^ 
distinguishable by the following characteristics. It crystallises in 
small colourless prisms; is tasteless, of slightly alkaline reaction, 
which becomes more decided in an alcoholic solution, but then 
possessing a slightly bitter taste; fuses readily, and sublimates by 
a stronger heat; is insoluble in water; dissolves in 400 parts 
cold, and in 110 parts boiling alcohol of 80%, in 600 parts cold, 
and in 470 parts boiling ether. 

Hurin. Acrid, crystalline substance of the milky juice of 
Hura crepitans. It is obtained after the milky juice has been 
evaporated and boiled with alcohol, the alcoholic solution evapo- 
rated and exhausted with water, the residue extracted with ether, 
and the etherous solution evaporated; as an oily, afterwards 
crystalline substance of acrid and burning taste, of alkaline 
reaction, fusing above 100°, boiling afterwards and evaporating 
in extremely pungent vapours; readily soluble in_ alcohol, ether, 
and oils, not in water; not changed by alkalies. 

Hydrastln=C44 H23 NO12. Alkaloid, associated with ber- 
berin, in the root of Hydrastis. Canadensis. The mother-ley 
remaining from the preparation of berberin is freed from alcohol, 
is diluted with water and cautiously mixed with ammonia until 
the precipitate, consisting of resins, remains permanent. The 
filtered liquid, when mixed with a little excess of ammonia, forms 
a drab-coloured precipitate, which has to be washed and re- 
crystallised in alcohol with aid of charcoal. — ^White, very glossy, 
quadi-angular prisms, turning opaque on drying, undissolved 
tasteless, when dissolved of a bitter and acrid taste; narcotic; of 
alkaline reaction; fuses at 135°, decomposes afterwards; scarcely 
dissolves in water, readily in alcohol, ether, chloroform and 
benzol, not in alkalies. Its salts are not crystallisable, but readily 
soluble and very bitter. 


Hydroearotill=C36 Hso O2. Besides carotin in ihe culti' 
vated root of Dauciis Carota. The alcoholic solution of hydro- 
carotin and mannit. obtained in the preparation of Carotin, throws 
down on cooling a red brown mucilaginous deposit, and forms, 
after the latter has been removed and the liquid allowed to rest for 
eight days, crystals, consisting of Hydrocarotin and mannit. 
Remove the mannit by dissolving in water, and purify the H. by 
recrystallising several times in the least possible quantity of boil- 
ing alcohol, and lastly by boiling with water. — Forms colourless, 
large, flexible, rhombic lamellae, without taste or smell; floats on 
water like a fat, without being wetted; becomes at 100° hard and 
brittle, a little above 100" yellowish and soft, then dark yellowy 
fuses at 126° without loss of weight, and consolidates again resin- 
like; is destroyed by a higher temperature; is insoluble in water, 
soluble in boiling alcohol and crystallising almost entirely on 
cooling; readily soluble in ether, sulphide of carbon, chloroform, 
benzol, oils, in concentrated sulphuric acid, with vividly red 
colour, and thrown down by water in the amorphous state ; not 
soluble in alkalies. 

Hjdroelaterin. See Ecbolin. 

Hydrocyanic Acid=:HC2 N or HCy., does probably not exist 
as such in the living vegetable organism, but appears always, 
when amygdalin (see ** Amygdalin") is decomposed under access of 
water. It is easily detected by its odour of bitter almonds, or by 
distilling the substance in question with water, adding to the 
distillate potash-ley in sufficient quantity to blue litmus-paper, 
then a stale solution of subsulphate of iron, and after agitation 
hydrochloric acid in excess, when a deep blue precipitate or a 
similar colouration will indicate the presence of Hydrocyanic acid. 
[Very minute traces of H. acid are, according to Almen, detected 
by adding to the colourless distillate one drop each of diluted 
sodarley and of hydrosulphide of ammonium, evaporating the 
whole, on the water-bath, acidifying with 1-2 drops of hydrochloric 
acid, and adding a little chloride of iron. A more or less blood- 
red colouration ensues through the formation of sulphocyanide of 

Quantitatively the amount of Hydrocyanic acid is determined 
by mixing, the distillate or a certain fraction of it, with nitrate of 
silver, then with ammonia in excess, and after agitation with 
excess of nitric acid. The precipitate is collected, washed and 
dried at 100°. After noting down its weight, it is heated in 
a porcelain crucible, until reduced to the metallic state. The 
remaining silver is dissolved in nitric acid, and any insoluble 
portion (chloride of silver), filtered off*, washed, dried at 100°, and 
its weight deducted from that of the first precipitate. The rest 
gives the weight of the pure cyanide of silver, which, divided by 


live, represents the amount of Hydrocyanic acid. — Or, the result- 
ing filtered solution of nitrate of silver is mixed with hydrochloric 
acid, the deposit collected, washed, dried, and weighed. This 
weight, divided by 5.35, also gives the quantity of H. acid. 

Yolumetrically, the same object of estimation is completed with 
greater expedition and unaffected by the presence or absence of 
hydrochloric or formic acids. For this purpose, dissolve 3 "15 
grammes of fused nitrate of silver in water, until the whole 
amounts to 100 cubic centimeters. On the other hand, add to the 
distillate in question, or to a certain fraction of it, potash-ley in 
excess, then a few drops of chloride of sodium solution, and at last 
cautiously, and under continual stirring, just enough of the nitrate 
of silver solution to obtain a slight precipitate, which does not re- 
dissolve. Every cubic centimeter of the silver solution, used for 
this purpose, indicates 0*01 gramme Hydrocyanic acid. 

To compute from the quantity of H. acid the amount of 
amygdalin, originally present, the following equation will serve as 
a guide: — One equivalent Amygdalin z=C4o H27 NO22 + 4 HO is 
equal to 1 eq. Hydrocyanic acid = HC 2 N + 2 eq. Grape-sugar:= 
2 C12 H12 O12 4- 1 eq. Oil of bitter almonds =Ci4 He O2. It 
follows herefrom, that by multiplying the weight of the Hydro- 
cyanic acid with 17, we obtain the weight of the amygdalin as 

Hy^in* Alkaloid, besides cocain {see this), in the coca-leaves. 
When, in the preparation of cocain, more of the soda is added to 
the slightly alkaline liquid, from which the cocain has been 
removed by means of ether, Hygrin and a neutral oil of tobacco- 
odour are dissolved by once more shaking with ether, and remain 
behind after the ether has been distilled off. By heating this 
residue to the boiling point, the temperature rises quickly to 280% 
a brown alkaline oil passes over and a black resin remains. The 
distillate when kept at 140° for several hours in a current of 
hydrogen gas, allows the greater part {a) of a yellow colour to 
pass over, the rest being only volatilized at 140° to 230°, and 
condensing to a thick brown oil (6). Both portions contain 
Hygrin, but contaminated in h with a neutral oil, and in a with 
other volatile substances. To remove any ammonia present, a is 
converted into the oxalate and dissolved in absolute alcohol, the 
liquid is evaporated, and the remnant is mixed with potash-ley, 
which separates the H. as an oil. After heating this alkaline 
solution to the boiling-point in a current of hydrogen gas, 
Hygrin, dissolved in water, passes over. It is separated from the 
distillate by ether and remains after the ether has been distilled 
off. The neutral oil, present besides Hygrin in 6, is removed by 
dissolving h in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, shaking 
with ether and decanting the ethereous liquid; the solution, 


containing the hydrochloric acid^is then oversaturated with soda-ley 
and the H. withdrawn from it by ether. — ^Thick, pale-yellow oil of 
strongly alkaline reaction, of burning taste and of an odour of trime- 
thylamin ; forms white vapours with volatile acids ; does dissolve in 
water but not in every proportion, readily in alcohol and in ether > 
the aqueous solution throws down subchloride of tin white^ 
sulphate of iron yellowish, sulphate of copper pale-blue, chloride 
of mercury arid nitrate of silver white (the latter deposit soon 
changing to brown). Hygi'in foiTas with hydrochloric acid a 
crystalline, deliquescent salt; this is precipitated by bi-iodide 
of potassium red-brown, by subchloride of tin white, by chloride 
of mercury white, partly in flocks and partly in oily drops; by 
chloride of platinum dirty white-yellow, by picric acid yellow, by 
tannic acid white. 

Hyoscyamin = C20 H17 NO 2 . Alkaloid of the genus Hyoscy- 
amiis. Exhaust the seeds ^t 50° with alcohol, containing 2% 
sulphuric acid, render the tincture slightly alkaline with baryta; 
filter after a short digestion, precipitate the baiyta with sulphuric 
acid, distil the alcohol from the acid liquid, neutralise the 
remnant as exactly as possible with carbonat-e of potash, filter, 
render alkaliue with carbonate of potash, and shake with ether. 
Decant the ethereous solution, distil ofi" the ether, dissolve the 
remnant in water, filter, mix the liquid with a mixture of 1 part 
kaolin, 1 part pulverised charcoal, and 3 parts ivory-black, so as 
to form a pulp, spread over porcelain plates, let dry at the 
sun, triturate, exhaust with ether, evaporate the solution, fuse the 
remnant carefully and reciystallise in ether. — It foims tuftily 
united, colourless, silky needles, is inodorous (smells narcotic in 
the impure state), has a nauseous, poignant, tobacco-like taste 
and a strongly alkaline reaction ; dissolves slowly in water, but 
more readily than atropin, more readily in alcohol, ether, and 
acids. When heated with pure soda-ley under a pressure of IJ 
atmospheres, and for a i-ather long time, it evolves vapours of 
strongly alkaline reaction, and the crystalline remnant yields, by 
means of hydrochloric acid, a white crystalline body, stated by 
Kletzinskv to be santonin. 

JHYOSCYAMiNzrCao H23 NOe, is, according to Hoehn and Reich-- 
t, prepared in the following manner from the seeds of Hyos- 
cyamus niger. The seeds are freed from fat-oil by means of 
ether, then extracted with alcohol and sulphuric acid, the liquid 
evaporated, freed from a resinous mass; nearly neutralised with 
soda, and precipitated by tannic acid. The well-washed pre- 
cipitate is spread on porous clay, and still moist mixed with 
excess of lime and exhausted with strong alcohol. The filtrate 
is acidified with sulphuric acid ; evaporated ; freed by ether from 
fat and colouring matter; mixed with excess of soda-ley, and 


-the alkaloid extracted by ether. The ethereoas solution is 
purified by shaking with water and evaporated, leaving the H. as 
an oily liquid, solidifying over sulphuric acid to a crystalline 
warty mass of wax consistence, fusing at 90^C. The aqueous solu- 
tion has a strongly alkaline reaction. Precipitates are produced 
by alkalies (in concentrated solutions), by tannic acid white; 
iodine-water, kermes-brown; chloride of mercury, white; chloride 
of gold, yellow-brown, easily soluble in excess, and becoming de- 
composed by keeping; chloride of platinum gives a resinous pre- 
cipitate. Heated with alkalies the H. separates into Hyoscic acid 
and Hyoscin.] 

HypOjfaei€ Acid=C82 H29 Os -f-HO. In the oil of the earth- 
nut (the fixed oil of the seeds of Arachis hypogaea). Saponify 
with soda-ley, decompose the soap with sulphuric acid, dissolve 
the fat-acids in alcohol, throw down with acetate of magnesia and 
ammonia the arachic and palmitic acids, filter and mix the 
liquids with an alcoholic solution of acetate of lead and ammonia. 
Press the precipitate, dissolve in ether, shake the solution with 
hydrochloric acid, remove the chloride of lead, shake the filtered 
liquid with water previously boiled, decant the ether, evaporate, 
press the remaining crystalline mass and recrystallise in alcohol. 
— Forms colourless, concentrically arranged needles, tasteless and 
inodorous, fusing at 34°; becomes yellow-red, rancid, and un- 
crystallisable at the air, and this even in very low temperatures ; 
is readily soluble in alcohol and ether ; is converted by nitrous 
acid into an acid of the same composition, but fusing at 38° 
(analogous to elaidic acid). 

latropliic Acid. See Croton Oil. 
I^snric Acid. See Malic Acid. 

Igasurin. Alkaloid, supposed to occur in the seeds of Strychnos 
Nux vomica, but which requires further investigations. It is 
said to be nearly related to brucin. 

Ilicic Acid. In the leaves of Ilex Aquifolium [and doubtless 
in other species of the genus. — F. v. M.]. Only known in com- 
bination with bases. Precipitate the aqueous decoction with 
subacetate of lead, free the filtrate from lead by sulphiu'et of 
hydrogen, warm with hydrated lead oxyd, remove again from 
the filtrate any dissolved lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, and 
evaporate to the consistence of syrup; piuify the lamellae, which 
will have formed after several days, by pressing, dissolving in 
water, precipitating with alcohol and recrystallising, whereby 
colourless ilicate of lime is obtained. This salt contains 18% 
lime, dissolves i-eadily in water, not in alcohol, does not precipi- 
tate the salts of manganese, zinc, iron, copper and silver, but 
throws down sub-chloride of tin and acetate of lead. 


Ilicin* Bitter ingredient of the leaves of Ilex Aquifolium, onlj 
known in the impure state. 

lUxantliin = Gu H22 022. Yellow pigment of the leaves of 
Ilex Aquifolium, scarcely present during winter, but copiously 
in the hotter part of the summer. The alcoholic extract 
is distilled, the remnant filtered and allowed to ;rest cold; the 
grains which will have formed after a few days are dried, washed 
with ether (to remove chlorophyll) dissolved in alcohol, freed from 
the latter by evaporation and addition of water, and recrystallised 
in hot water. — Forms straw-yellow, microscopic needles, fusible at 
198°, destroyed in higher temperatures ; dissolves scarcely in cold, 
readily with yellow colour in hot water, also in alcohol, riot in 
•ether; the aqueous solution turns orange with alkalies and 
becomes colourless on addition of sulphuric acid, no farther 
•change being observable even on boiling; assumes a sap-green 
<;olour with chloride of iron. 

^ Imperatorin = Peucedakin. 

Indican = O52 H31 NO^^ Substance forming the indigo-blue of 
Isatis tinctoria. Exhaust the leaves in a displacement apparatus 
with cold alcohol, precipitate the green tincture with a solution of 
acetate of lead in alcohol and a little ammonia, wash the pale- 
green deposit with cold alcohol, and decompose under water by 
means of carbonic acid gas. The deposit becomes decolourised and 
yields a yellow solution, which has to be freed from any dissolved 
lead by means of sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporated over 
sulphuric acid. — Yellow or light brown syrup-like liquid, which 
■can not be obtained dry without decomposition, has a slightly 
bitter, unpleasant taste and an acid reaction, dissolves in water, 
alcohol and ether, is decomposed even by a gentle heat, even cold 
by diluted acids, under formation of blue flocks. The formation of 
the bJue indigo is represented by the following equation:— 
€s2 H 81 NO34 + 4HO = C16 Hg NO2 +3Ci2 Hio O12 (indiglucin). 

Indlj^blne = C16 H5 NO 2. Contained in many plants, 
especially those of Uie genera Indigofera, Isatis and Polygonum, 
but is only formed on drying. Plants, turning blue on drying, 
Are known also among the genera Asclepias, Croton, GaJega, 
Marsdenia, Mercurialis, Nerium, Phytolacca, and Pimelea, and 
should be tested for indigo-pigment. To ascertain the presence of 
indigo, the respective green parts are extracted with warm water, 
And the clear solution allowed to rest at a temperature not below 
15°; the oi-iginal indigo compound is decomposed by a kind of 
fermentation, and the blue pigment subsides. — Pure Indigo-blue is 
deep blue, assumes on rubbing a copper-red colour, is inodorous 
and tasteless, fuses with heat, and sublimates at 228°, mostly 
undecomposed, in purple-red fumes, which condense to crystalline 


masses; is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, diluted acids, and 
alkalies, dissolves unaltered in fuming sulphuric acid, is destroyed 
by nitric acid and chlorine, dissolves in alkalies in the presence of 
a reducing substance, as subsulphate of iron, grape-sugar, &c. 
The solutions contain indigo-white =Ci6 H5 NO + HO, which 
forms again Indigo-blue on contact with the air. 

Inosit = C12 H12 O12 + 4 HO. Found in the green fniit of 
Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum and Robinia Pseudacacia, in 
the leaves of Brassica oleracea. Digitalis purpurea, and Taraxacum 
officinale, in the shoots of Solanum tuberosum, in the herb and 
green fruit of Asparagus officinalis, in Agaricus piperitus, A. 
croceus, and others. Bruise the husks of French beans, press, 
evaporate the juice to a syrup, and mix with alcohol, sufficient to 
produce a permanent turbidity; the crystals, which will have 
formed, are purified by repeatedly recrystallising in water, with 
aid of animal charcoal. — Rhombic, tabular crystals, one inch long 
and about a quarter inch thick, or cauliflower-like conglomera- 
tions, of a pure, sweet taste, without rotation, turn opaque in dry 
air, over sulphuric acid, or at 100°, and lose all their water of 
crystallisation, fuse only above 210°, afterwards decomposed, 
dissolve in 6 parts cold water, slightly in strong alcohol, i^ot in 
absolute alcohol and in ether, yield with nitric acid oxalic acid, 
dissolve in sulphuric acid, when cold or heated to 100°, without 
colouration, but become black in higher temperatures. Is not 
altered on boiling either with diluted sulphuric acid or with 
alkalies and alkalme earths, does not reduce the alkaline tartarate 
of copper, and does not ferment with yeast. 

Inillin=Ci2 Hio Oio. Occurs throughout the whole order of 
•Compositse, replacing the starch and especially contained in the 
roots, but has also been met with in other plants, and seems to be 
widely distributed. In the living plant it exists dissolved in the 
cellular juice, from which it may be precipitated by means of 
water-absorbing agents as alcohol, glycerin, calcium-chloride, &c., 
under the form of white, tasteless granules similar to starch, but 
assuming a brown instead of a blue colour with solutions of 
iodine. [According to Sachs, Inulin is obtained in '^sphsero- 
crystals" by immersing the roots of Compositse in alcohol or 
glycerin.] In the dried plant it appears (as observed under the 
microscope) under the form of brittle, pellucid, amorphous masses, 
soluble by access of water but reprecipitated by alcohol. — It is- 
prepared by boiling the substance in question, after exhaustion 
with ether and alcohol, with the least possible quantity of water 
for a quarter of an holir, straining or mtering hot, and aUowing 
to cool, when a portion of the Inulin will separate, another portion 
being obtainable by evaporating and cooling as before, while the 
rest becomes converted into gum and subsequently into sugar. 


Gold water dissolves only one-fiffch per cent. Inulin, while boiling 
water takes up large quantities, but readily converts the Inulin, 
especially by prolonged boiling, into gum. It is not possible to 
separate the two bodies completely, though they are distinguish- 
able by gum yielding mucic acid on treating with nitric acid, 
whereas Inulin forms different products. 

[A LEU RON, a substance closely related to Inulin, has been dis- 
covered by Hartig, in the seeds of a great many and widely 
different plants, either replacing or associated with starch. It re- 
sembles the latter in size, form and colour^ but differs by its easy 
solubility in water, dilute acids and alkalie& With iodine it be* 
comes brown, and with acid nitrate of mercury it acquires a 
brick-red colour. The surface of its granules presents under the 
microscope a dotted appearance. It is insoluble in volatile and 
fixed oils, alcohol and ether, and may, by means of these liquids, 
be washed out of the respective parts and collected like stisirch. 
Aleuron, in some cases, has a characteristic colour, which is green 
in the seeds of Pistacia, indigo-blue in Cheiranthus annuus, rose- 
red in Hibiscus, brown in Arachis, yellow in Ailanthus, Frangula, 
Myristica, Lupinus luteus.] 

Inverted Snipir. See Fruit Sugar, also Grape Sugar. 

IpeeaCQanhie Acid = Oh H 9 O7. In the root of Cephaelis 
Ipecacuanha. Precipitate the aqueous extract with subacetate of 
lead, wash the deposit with alcohol, dissolve in diluted acetic acid, 
mix the solution with subacetate of lead, afterwards with ammonia ; 
wash the deposit obtained with the strongest alcohol, divide under 
ether, and decompose with sulphuret of hydrogen. The liquid, 
separated from the sulphide of lead, has to be evaporated in a 
current of carbonic acid gas; the remnant is mixed with water, 
filtered off from the fat, and the filtered liquid digested with 
animal charcoal and evaporated. — Amorphous, reddish brown mass, 
very hygroscopic, very bitter, fusible; dissolves readily in water, 
also in alcohol, less readily in ether; colours salts of oxyd of iron 
green, which becomes violet on addition of a little ammonia, and 
with more ammonia ink-black. 

Iris-Steraopten = O16 Hie O 4 , obtained by distilling the roob of 
Iris Florentina with water. White scales, of a pleasant odour of 
violets, lighter than water, readily soluble in alcohol. [Is identical 
with Myristic acid. Flueckiger and Hanbury]. 

ISOCetic Acld = C3o H29 Os -f HO (therefore of the same com- 
position as cetic acid from spermaceti). Forms the glycerid of the 
solid part of castor-oil. It fuses at 55°, crystallises from alcohol in 

tlTain. Indifferent bitter substance, contained, according to 
lanta-Beichenau, in the herb of Achillea moscbata, together with 


Iva oil, achillein, and moBchatm. The alcoholic extract of the 
plant is mixed with acetate of lead, filtered, the filtrate treated 
with sulphuret of hydrogen, filtered and evaporated. The brown 
residue is freed from achillein and moschatin by means of acetic 
acid, which leaves behind the I vain. — ^The I. is yellow, of the 
consistence of turpentine^ easily soluble in alcohol, and of an 
intensely bitter taste.] 

Ivy Resin. Exudation of the stem of Hedera Helix. Red- 
brown or greenish, transparent, brittle mass, of a faint aromatic 
smell, and likewise acrid taste. Contains about 23% resin, 7% 
gum, and many impurities. 

Jalaplll:=Ce8 H56 O32. In the tubers of Ipomoea Orizabensis 
and Convolvulus Scammonia. The crude resin is obtained by 
extracting with alcohol, mixing with water, distilling off the 
alcohol and drying the remaining mass. Dissolve this in much 
alcohol, mix the solution with water until turbid, boil the mixture 
repeatedly with animal charcoal, precipitate the filtrate, coloured 
stUl, with acetate of lead and a little ammonia, which forms a 
small quantity of a green-brown deposit; filter, free the liquid by 
means of sulphuret of hydrogen, heating and subsequent fitering 
from lead; distil off the alcohol, knead the remaining resin re- 
peatedly in hot water, dissolve in ether and evapoi*ate. — Colourless, 
transparent in thin layers, amorphous, brittle, even at 100°, softens 
at 123°, fuses at 150°; inodorous, tasteless, has a scarcely peiv 
ceptible acid reaction when dissolved in water; dissolves very little 
in water, most readily in wood spirit, alcohol, ether, chloroform, 
acetic acid, benzol, oil of turpentine, in cold concentrated sulphuric 
acid with a beautiful red colour, changing into brown-black under 
formation of sugar ; splits, when heated with diluted acids, into 
sugar and jalapinol, zzCs2 H31 O7, a white mass, shaped like the 
particles of cauliflower. [Is, according to Flueckiger and Hanbury, 
identical with Convolvulm]. 


Japanese Wax. Obtained from the leaves, branches, and fruits 
of Rhus succedanea by boiling with water. — ^Yellowish-white, 
smells and tastes a little acrid, and affects the throat; 
softer and more unctuous than beeswax, also more friable ; has an 
acid reaction, fuses at 45°, contains palmitin but no olein; is, 
according to Berthelot, perhaps di-palmitin. 

Jer¥in=:Ceo H46 N2 Os. Alkaloid besides veratrin of the 
root of Veratrum album. Treat the alcoholic extract with water 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, precipitate the solution with 
carbonate of soda, dissolve the deposit in alcohol, digest with 
charcoal, distil off the alcohol, press the crystalline residue in 
order to remove most of the difficultly crystaliisable veratrin, and 


rinse with a little alcohol. — Forms whitecrjstals, fusible, insoluble in 
water, readily soluble in alcohol; yields with acetic acid a readily 
soluble salty with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids salts 
which dissolve sparingly in water and in acids. 

Jnniperin. Resinous substance of the fruits of Junipems 
communis and other species of Juniperus. Effect a distillation 
with water, after the fruits have been macerated with cold water; 
strain the remaining mass hot, let cool, collect the sediment, treat 
it first with cold, then with boiling alcohol, and distil off the 
alcohol from the united tinctures. The remaining liquid thi'ows 
down successively wax, resin, at last Juniperin as a yellow powder, 
which conglomerates like a resin. This has to be washed and 
ground up with water, whereby it dissolves in 60 parts of water 
and passes, when this solution is shaken with ether, into the 
latter, remaining after the evaporation of the solvent as a light- 
yellow, brittle, tasteless mass, which bums with the odour of 
juniper, dissolves in ammonia with gold-yellow, in concentrated 
sulphuric acid with light-yellow colour. 

Kaempherid. In the root of Alpinia Gralanga. Exhaust 
with ether, evaporate the liquid and recrystallise in alcohoL — 
Light-yellowish lamellae of mother-of-pearl lustre, without smell 
or taste, fusible by heat and decomposing afterwards; scarcely 
dissolving in water, in 25 parts cold ether, in 50 parts cold 
alcohol, better in both when hot, also a little in acids, readily 
in caustic alkalies without change. It is decomposed by concent 
trated sulphuric acid under various changes of colour. Consists 
of 65-32 C, 4-40 H, and 30-28 O. 


Klnotannic Add. In kino, an induration of the sap exu- 
dated from incisions of the stem of Pterocarpus Marsupium. It 
is regarded by some as different from, by others as identical with, 
gallotannic acid. 

[Kinotannic Acid has been found by J. Wiesner to exist in 
combination with a kind of gum in the Eucalyptus kino, a 
spontaneous exudation of the stem of Eucalypts. Pyrocatechin 
was invariably found to be present in small quantities, and in a few 
instances also Catechin.] 

Kokiim-Batt'er=BBiin)ONiA Tallow. 

KoilSSill=C26 H22 O5. The active ingredient (veimifuge) of 
the kousso-flowers (from Hagenia Abyssinica). Digest with alcoh o] , 
containing lime; press, let subside, filter, di-aw off the alcohol, allow 
the residue to rest warm and uncovered for some time, in order to 
remove the last traces of alcohol, filter, oversaturate slightly with 
acetic acid, collect the deposit, wash with cold water, and diy with 
a very gentle heat. — ^White, often a little yellowish powder 0/ 

I 2 


cryBtalline appearance under the ndGroscope, easily finable, in- 
odorous, of an acrid bitter taste. At 140^ it turns grey, at 150^ 
brown, at 194° it fuses, and becomes carbonised with more heat. 
It dissolves slightly in water, at 17° in 1300 parts alcohol of 45%, 
and in 12 parts alcohol of 90%, in hot alcohol and in ether almost 
in every proportion. The solutions have an acid reaction, jit is 
also rather soluble in hydrated alkalies. Chloride of iron forms 
in the aqueous as well as in the alcoholic solution a strong brown, 
acetate of lead a grey-yellow precipitate. " Concentrated sulphuiic 
acid dissolves Koussin with yellow-brown colour; the solution, at 
first clear, becomes spontaneously tiu:bid after a few minutes, and 
throws down white flocks. 

Labdannm = Ladanum. 

Labmnin. Alkaloid of the unmatured seeds of Cytisus La- 
burnum. It is obtained from the aqueous extract, which has been 
purified by subacetate of lead, by precipitating with phospho- 
molybdic acid and boilins^ the deposit, after mixins: with chalk and 
dryig. ^th alcohol lie base S^afterwards pureed by isolating 
it from the platinum salt. It does not combine with acids, and 
forms large concretions of crystals, consisting of klinorhombic 
prisms containing water of crystallisation; dissolves most readily 
in water, difficultly in absolute alcohol, scarcely in ether, and 
evolves with caustic potash ammonia even when cold. 

Lactic Acid = C^ H5 O5 -t- HO. As this acid is easily formed 
during the spontaneous decomposition or fermentation of vegetable 
extracts, its presence in the living plfuits must be traced with great 
caution; especially it must be ascertained, if no kind of fermenta- 
tion takes place while the analysis is carried on. ^Qwever, 
Lactic acid is no uncommon ingredient of plants, and I, for my 
part, have encountered it not rarely in the examination of the 
constituents of plants, though it may often have been overlooked 
on account of its not being endowed with any striking properties, 
and because it yields no precipitate with metallic salts. The 
Lactates of the alkalies being very deliquescent, it is probable that 
the hygroscopicity of vegetable extracts is not occasioned by 
malat^, as generally assumed, but by tdkaline Lactates. ^ The 
presence of Lactic acid is ascertained by the following process : — > 
Eree the aqueous liquid from all precipitable matters by means of 
acetate and subacetate of lead, remove excess of lead by carbonate 
of ammonia, evaporate to a liquid of syrup consistency, add a 
concentrated solution of acetate or chloride of zinc, and leave the 
mixture to stand cold fbr several days. In the presence of Lactic 
acid crystalline crusts wi^l be formed of Lactate of zinc, slowly 
soluble only in 50 parts cold water. This salt has the formula Zih 
O + L + 3 HO (in 100: 27-13 Zn O, 54-69 l and 18-18 HO); 
it loses at 100^ all its water and contains then 66*83% acid. From 


it the acid may be obtained by admitting sulpbtit^t of hydrogen 
and evaporating, towards the end of the opei-ation, in a vacuum. — 
It forms a colourless syrup-like liquid of 1*21 density, is in- 
odorous, has a strong and pure acid taste, mixes with water and 
alcohol in every proportion, dissolves less readily in ether, become^ 
anhydrous = C6 Hs O5 at 130^ and solidifies on cooling to a pale- 
yellow mass of very bitter taste; it is decomposed in a higher 
temperature. All the Lactates dissolve in water, though many of 
them only sparingly in cold. 

LactlieeriH = Cso H24 O2. In Lactucarium (the hardened 
milky juice of Lactuca viroisa and other species). Boil with 
alcohol, filter hot and recrystallise the warty masses obtained, on 
cooling, in alcohol with aid of animal charcoal; it is well to with- 
draw first from the lactucarium the bitter substance by means of 
water. — Forms fine, colourless, concentrically united columnar 
prisms, without taste or smell; neutral; fuses between 150^ and 
200®, sublimates mostly undecomposed in a current of carbonic 
acid gas; is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol^ ether, and oils; 
is not altered by potash dissolved in alcohol; is not precipitable 
frmn the alc(^oHc solution by metallic salts. 

Lactucin = C22 H12 Oe + HO. The bitter ingredient of Lao- 
tucariimL Treat and press a few times with cold water and boil 
rq)eatedly with water, evaporate the united liquids until equal in 
weight to half the lactucarium employed, separate the substance, 
settled to a granular mass, from the mother-ley, and dissolve in 
hot water, precipitate with subacetate of lead, wash the deposit with 
hot water, adduce to the filtered liquid sulphuret of hydrogen, 
filter again, evaporate and allow to stand cold. The Lactucin 
forms in crystals, and by concentrating the mother-ley still further 
an additional quantity will be obtained. Hecrystallise in hot 
alcohol with aid of animal charcoal — Forms white, pearly scales, 
similar to boric acid; fusible; becomes charred in higher tempera- 
tures; has a strong and pure bitter taste; dissolves scarcely in 
cold water, in hot water less readily than in alcohol, not in ether, 
readily in acetic acid; is decomposed by alkalies and loses its 
bitterness. Is not glucosid. 

Lactucoii = Lactucerin. 

Ladanimii Exudation of Oistus Creticus, and to some extent 
also from 0. ladaniferus, C. Ledon, C. laurifolius, and C. mon- 
speliensis. — Black-brown, soft, of pleasant smell and of bitter taste. 
Contains 86% resin, 7% wax, and some volatile oil. 

I4l6tia-Resi]l. Exudation of the stem of Laetia apetala. — 
Small, yellow-white, translucid, brittle grains of concheous fracture, 
and of faintly aromatic smell; slowly soluble in alcohol, yielding a 
volatile oil when distilled with water. 


Iiaeyo-?lncose=FRuiT Sugar. 
Lapatliiii - Chrysophanic Acid. 

Laricill=0i4 H12 O4. The purgative ingredient of the 
Larch-agaric, Polyporus officinalis. It is separate with dif&culty 
from the accompanying resin. — Is in the pure state a white, 
amorphous powder of bitter taste, dissolves readily in alcohol and 
oil of turpentine; forms with boiling water a paste. 

Laserpitin. = C48 Use Ou, Bitter substance of the root of 
Laserpitium latifolium. Treat with alcohol of 80%, distil off the 
alcohol from the tinctures, separate the upper resinous layer of the 
residue from the aqueous lower one; allow the former to stand at 
the air until it is converted into a crumbly crystalline pulp; 
collect it in a filter, remove most of the resin by washing with 
weak alcohol; next dissolve in alcohol, precipitate the rest of the 
resin with subacetate of lead dissolved in alcohol; remove from the 
filtered liquid the excess of lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, and 
leave the liquid to evaporate spontaneously. At first a flocky 
matter is formed, the pure substcmce crystallising later. 

The Laserpitin crystallises in colourless prisms, has neither 
smell nor taste, only the resinous L. has a bitter taste; is insoluble 
in water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, sulphide of 
carbon, oil of turpentine, benzol, and fixed oils; the alcoholic 
solution has a neutral reaction and strongly bitter taste. It fuses 
at 114^ without loss of weight, and sublimates in higher tem- 
jieratures undecomposed. It does not dissolve in alkalies and 
diluted acids; dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with cherry- 
red colour, also in fuming nitric acid. The alcoholic solution is 
not precipitated by acetate of lead, nitrate of silver, chloride of 
mercury, iodide of potassium, and alkalies. It separates when 
heated with a concentrated aqueous or better alcoholic solution of 
caustic potash, into angeUc acid, and into a brown resin (La^rol). 

Laurie Aeid = C24 Hsb Os + HO. In the fat of the fruit of 
Lauras nobilis, Ocotea Pichurim, Tetranthera calophylla, Irvingia 
Barteri, Cocos nucifera, Croton Tiglium, combined with glyoeiyl 
oxyd. Saponify the solid fat of the bay-berries (the laurostearin) 
with soda-ley, separate the soap with common salt, and decompose 
with tartaric acid. The Laurie acid, which rises to the top, is 
purified by repeatedly melting with water and by reerjnatallising in 
alcohol. Appears in white, tuft-like, brittle, crystalline needles of 
0*883 density at + 20°; fuses at 43*6°; volatile with the vapours 
of boiling water; is insoluble in watei*, readily soluble in alcohol 
and in eUier, the solutions having an acid reaction. The Laurate 
of baryta contains 71*38%, the Laurate of lead 63*12% acid. 

Laurostearin » 064 H50 Og. As to occurrence see Laurie 
Acid. Expose the fixed bay-oil to the sunlight, and press off the 


solid fat afiber the green colour has disappeared; dissolve in warm 
alcohol, and precipitate by evaporating and mixing with water. — 
Snow-white, voluminous, easily friable, inodorous mass, consisting 
of concentrically united needles; fuses at 45°, dissolves sparingly 
in cold, better in hot alcohol, readUy in ether. 

Leeanoric Acid = Css His O13 + HO. In various lichens of the 
genera Evemia, Lecanora, Boccella, Variolaria. Extract with 
ether, evaporate, wash the remnant with cold ether until the 
latter passes off uncoloured, boil with water to remove orsellic 
ether, and recrystallise in alcohol. — White, radially united crystal- 
line needles without taste or smell, of acid reaction; not volatile; 
dissolve in 2500 parts of boiling water and crytallise on cooling; 
yield when boiled with water, orsellic acid = Cie H7 O 7 + HO, the 
latter yielding orcin by continued boning under evolution of 
carbonic acid; dissolve in 150^ parts cold alcohol of 80%, in 15 
parts of boiling alcohol under formation of orsellic ethem 
C4 H5 0,4- Cie H7 O7 ; in 80 parts of ether. Leeanoric acid forms 
with alkalies easily crystallising salts. 

Lednm-Tannic Acld = Cu HeOe. In the leaves of Ledum 
palustre. Add to the aqueous decoction solution of acetate of 
lead by drops, until a sample of the precipitate dissolves com- 
pletely in acetic acid, filter and precipitate with subacetate of 
lead. The deposit, after washing, is decomposed with sulphuret of 
hydrogen, the sulphide of lead is removed and the liquid evapo- 
rated. — Reddish powder, dissolves in water and in alcohol, the 
solutions becoming dark-green by chloride of iron; throws down 
on boiling with diluted acids a yellow or red powder (Ledoxanthin). 

Le^imilll. Peculiar protein substance, occuiring principally 
and in large quantity (up to 20°/^ or 30°/^) in the seeds of the 
leguminous plants. To prepare it, treat peas, &c., with warm 
water, precipitate with acetic acid, wash the deposit with a little 
cold water, treat with alcohol and ether, redissolve in potash-ley, 
precipitate with acetic acid and wash again with water, alcohol 
and ether. — ^White powder with a yellowish tinge, dissolves in 
cold and hot water. The solution becomes covered with a pellicle on 
evaporating, and the Legumin is thereby converted into the 
insoluble modification. Acetic acid throws down Legumin, and 
does not redissolve it when added in excess; sulphuric acid 
behaves in the same manner, while oxalic, tartaric, citric and malic 
acids do not precipitate the Legumin from solutions. For other 
properties see Protein substances. 

Lepldin. Peculiar substance, occurring in every species of the 
genus Lepidiiun, prevailingly in tJie younger parts and in the seeds. 
It is obtained by boiling with water acidulated with sulphuric 
acid, saturating the decoction with carbonate of lime, filtering, 


evaporatmg the liquid to a honey oonsistenoe, extracting with 
alcohol and evaporating the solution. — Brown, transparent mass, 
yielding a yellow powder; permanent at the air; of a faint smell, 
and of very bitter taste; softens when warm ; dissolves readily in 
water and alcohol, slightly in oils, not in ether, combines neither 
with bases nor with acids. 

Lichenic Acid=:FuMARic Acid. 

Licheilill=Ci2 Hio Oio. In lichens and in algae, observed 
for instance in the following genera : — Cetraria, Cladonia, Evemia, 
Parmelia, Ramalina, Sticta, IJsnea; Delesseria, Fucus, Helminto- 
chorton. Is not distributed in isolated grains like starch, but as a 
turgid mass uniformly embedded between the cella Free, for 
instance Cetraria Islandica, from the letter substance by macerating 
with a weak solution of carbonate of soda and by washing; boU 
with water for two hours, strain hot, press, collect the jelly, 
separated after cooling, on a cloth; press, redissolve in little boiling 
water; precipitate with alcohol and dry the deposit. — Colourless 
or yellowish, hard, brittle, transparent mass of vitreous fracture 
and difficult to pulverise, inodorous and tasteless, not volatile, 
swells up considerably in cold water, dissolves in boiling water to 
a thick slime, of a jelly-like appearance when concentrated; is 
insoluble in alcohol and ether, becomes blue with iodine, dissolves 
in warm nitric acid to a thin liquid, and yields on healing oxalic 
but no mucic acid; is converted into sugar when boiled with 
water containing sulphuric acid. The aqueous solution, when 
boiled by itself, loses its property of gelatinising. Alkalies and 
alkaline earths dissolve the lichenin likewise. 


Ltcheno-Steaiic Acid = Cas Has 05+ HO. In Cetraria 
Islandica, also in Agaricus muscarius, and, doubtless, in numerous 
other lichens and algae. Boil the Cetraria for half an hour 
with alcohol and a little carbonate of potash, strain, mix the 
liquid with an excess of hydrochloric acid and four to five times 
its volume of water, wash the deposit with water and boil it 
several times with alcohol of 42 to 45 %. The alcoholic solutions 
deposit, on cooling, a mixture of Licheno-stearin, Cetraric acid, 
and another substance from which the Licheno-stearin acid is 
dissolved by boiling petroleum and subsides after cooling, or better 
when the petroleum is distilled off partly. It is purified by re^ 
crystallising in alcohol under aid of animal charcoal. — ^Loose, 
white mass, consisting of fine, pearly, crystalline lamelle, inodo> 
rous, of a rancid taste and affecting the throat; not bitter; fuses 
at 120^ without loss of weight; is not volatile; insoluble in water, 
readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and oils, llie Licheno-stearates 
are permanent at the air, only soluble in water with aid of alkalies, 
the solutions yielding a £roth on boiling. 


lilinustrin ) » 

^.f , >= Sybingin, 
Lilaein j 

Xintonill = C44 H^a Ou. In the seeds of oranges and lemons 
(Citrus Aurantium and G. medica). Bruise, draw out with cold 
alcohol and let the solutions evaporate. — White powder, consisting 
of microscopic crystals; has a strong and pure bitter taste; is not 
altered at 200*^; fuses at 244°; dissolves very little in water, 
readily in alcohol; very little in ether, in concentrated sulphuric 
acid with blood-red colour, and percipitable from it by water; not 
soluble in liquor of ammonia, readily in potash-ley, and precipitable 
from it by acids. 

Linoleie Acid=C82 H27 O3 + HO. In linseed oil, poppy oil, 
perhaps also in other drying oils. Saponify with sodsrley, salt 
out, dissolve the soap in much water, precipitate with chloride of 
calcium, wash, press and treat the lime-soap with ether, which 
dissolves the Lmoleate of lime, but not the other oleates. The 
ethereous solution is decomposed with cold hydrochloric acid, the 
L acid remaining dissolved in the ether; this solution is decanted 
and the ether distilled at a temperature as low as possible, in 
a current of hydrogen gas; the remnant is dissolved in alcohol and 
precipitated with ammonia and chloride of baryum; the precipitate 
is dissolved in ether and repeatedly recrystidlised in ether; the 
linoleate of baryta is decomposed by shakmg with ether and 
hydrochloric acid, and ihe soluticm evaporated in a vacuum. — 
Slightly yellowish, thin oil of 0*926 density at 14°, of a highly 
light-refracting power; tastes at first mild, afberwards acrid; has 
an acidulous reaction; is still liquid at-^^18°; dissolves not in water, 
readily in ether, less so in alcohd, becomes viscid by keeping ut the 
air; forms with ni1xt>us add no elaidic add, but a glutinous resin, 
suberic acid and very little oxalic acid. Its neutial salts show a 
great propensity for forming add salts, they become coloured at 
the air and odorous. 

Unseed OIL Obtained by pressing the seeds of linum usitatis- 
fiimum. Is yellow, smells and tastes peculiarly, has 0'934 density, 
does not congeal at — 1 5°, separates at — 1 8° a little solid fat, dissolves 
in 32 parts alcohol of 0'820, in 1.6 parts ether. Forms with 
alkalies very soft soaps, consists of abcHit nine-tenths linoleate of 
glyceryl, and one-tenth palmitin. Dries at the air. 

liriodendrilL Bitter aromatic substance of the bark of the 
root of liriodendron tulipifera. Is obtained by extracting with 
alcohol, evaporating the tincture, washing the impure L. which 
has separated, with diluted potash-ley, in order to remove resin 
and dyeing matter; dissolving in alcohol; diluting the solution 
with water, until it turbifies, and crystallising. — Forms colourless 
scales, similar to boric add, or concentrically arranged needles, 


smells faintly aromatic, tastes warmings bitter; fuses at 83^, subli- 
mates partly undecomposed, partly yielding ammoniacal products; is 
almost insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol and ether, not 
in aqueous alkalies and diluted acids, is not decomposed by con- 
centrated nitric, but by hydrochloric and concentrated sulphuric 

[Lobelacrin. Isolated by Enders from the herb of Lobelia inflata 
by exhausting the drug with alcohol and distilling the liquid in 
presence of charcoal, which then retained the acrid principle. 
The charcoal was washed with water and then treated wil3i boiling 
alcohol. This, on evaporation, yielded a green extract, which was 
further purified by means of chloroform. "Warty tufts were thus 
finally obtained, yet always of a brownish colour. The tufbs are 
readily soluble in ether and chloroform, but only slightly in 
water; they possess the acrid taste of the herb. Lobelacrin is 
decomposed by merely boiling with water; by the influence of 
acids or alkalies it is resolved into sugar and Lobelic acid. The 
latter is soluble both in water and alcohol, and is nonvolatile; it 
yields a soluble salt with baryta, whereas the lead-salt is insoluble 
in water.] 

Lobelin. Alkaloid-like substance of the stalks and leaves of 
Lobelia inflata, said to act similarly to nicotin, but as yet only 
obtained in the impure state, namely, by extracting with water, 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, evaporating, treating the extract 
with alcohol, and evaporating the tincture.— Shining yellow, gum- 
mous, hygroscopic mass of an acrid tobacco-like taste; dissolves 
readily in water and in alcohol, not in ether; is precipitable by 
tannic acid, bi-iodide of potassium, iodide of potassio-mercuiy, 
nitrate of silver, chloride of gold and chloride of platinum. 

Lupinin. Bitter substance of the seeds of Lupinus albus, and 
probably of many other species. Draw out with hot alcohol, evapor- 
ate the tinctures to dryness, treat the mass with water, digest the 
aqueous solution with charcoal and evaporate to the consistence of 
a syrup, which throws down the L. in small, white, amorphous 
grains. — ^It is transparent, brittle like gum arabic, deliquesces at 
the air, dissolves readily in water and in weak alcohol, not in 
absolute alcohol and in ether, is not perceptibly altered by adds 
and by alkalies. 

Lnpullc Acid =082 H26 O7. The bitter ingredient of hops 
(Humulus Lupulus), in the purest state. Exhaust with ether, 
distil off the ether from the extracts, treat the remaining thick 
mass with cold alcohol of 90°/^, concentrate the alcoholic tincture, 
dissolve the residue again in ether, shake this ethereous solution 
repeatedly with strong potash-ley in order to remove resinous 
bodies, shake then witi^ water, which takes up mostly the bittec 


substance, and precipitate this aqueous solution with sulphate of 
copper. The precipitate of fine, blue, microscopic needles, being a 
combination of the bitter substance with oxide of copper, has to 
be washed with a little ether. Dissolve in more ether, decompose 
the solution with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter off from the sulphide 
of copper and evaporate in a current of carbonic acid gas. The re- 
maining brown, crystalline mass is freed from the adhering mother 
liquor by means of nitro-benzol. — Colourless, rhombic prisms of 
great lustre, brittle and breaking under a gentle pressure ; tasteless, 
but of a pure and pleasant bitter, when dissolved in alcohol; 
insoluble in water, most readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloro- 
form, sulphide of carbon, benzol, oil of turpentine, <kc. ; of a de- 
cidedly acid reaction. 

[Lupnlill, A liquid, volatile alkaloid contained^ besides Tri- 
methylamin, in hops. It has the odour of Coniin, and assumes a 
violet hue when treated with chromate of potash and sulphuric 
acid. — Griessmayer.] 

Lllteolin=024 Hg Oio. Yellow pigment of weld (Reseda 
luteola). Draw out the herb with alcohol of 80°/^, evaporate the 
tinctures, collect the L. formed on keeping and dry, wash 
with a little cold ether, dissolve in alcohol, pour the solution into 
water, heat to the boiling point, filter, and let crystallise. — 
Pure yellow, silky needles, inodorous, of a slightly bitter and 
acrid taste, and of acidulous reaction; fuse above 320^ under 
partial decomposition; dissolve in 14,000 parts cold and in 5000 
parts boiling water, in 377 parts alcohol, and in 625 parts ether, 
readily in warm concentrated acetic acid. 

Lycoctonilli Peculiar alkaloid of the root of Aconitimi Lycoc- 
tonum. Its preparation is partly given under " Acolyctin." The 
ether, employed for the purification of acolyctin, and containing 
Lycoctonin, is allowed to evaporate, the opaque white, usually 
warty, crystals obtained are washed with ether, and afterwards 
with cold water and dried. — It tastes strongly bitter, has an 
alkaline reaction, dissolves readily in alcohol, less readily in ether, 
slightly in water; the alcoholic solution does not become turbid 
with ether, and scarcely so with water. Concentrated sulphuric 
acid colours it yellow. In several of its properties it shows a 
similarity with narootin, but is distinguished by its ready 
solubility in alcohol, oy its decided alkalinity and by the form of 
its crystals. The neutral sulphates and the hydrochlorids of L. 
are precipitated white by tannic acid. 

Lyoopodium Bitter. Foimd in Lycopodium Chamsecyparis- 
sias. Prepare, according to Boedeker and Kamp, from the herb at 
first an alcoholic, afterwards frx)m the remnant an aqueous extract j 
precipitate the aqueous solution of the latter with acetate and 


snbaoetate of lead, and evaporate the filtered liquid, freed from 
the lead by sulphuret of hydrogen. The remnant, when ex- 
tracted with alcohol, yields grape-sugar to it, while the bitter 
substance I'emains undissolved, and has to be dissolved in water 
and precipitated with subacetate of lead. The deposit is decom- 
posed under water with sulphuret of hydrogen, the solution, 
separated from the sulphide of lead, is required to ferment with 
yeast, then dried and extracted with absolute alcohol. The alcohol 
dissolves the Bitter and leaves after evaporatii^ a syrup-like 
liquid undermixed with colourless needles. — ^Neutral, non^ntro- 
genised, of very bitter^ nauseous taste, dissolves in water, alcohol 
and ether, reduces the alkaline solution of copper, after being boiled 
with diluted sulphuric acid. 

Lycopodlum-Resin = Che Hs2 O4. In Lyoopodium Chamaecy- 
parissiaa. Evaporate the mother-ley, left from the preparation of 
the lycopodium-stearon (see this), treat the remnant with water 
and boil the insoluble portion witJi a little soda-ley. After cooling, 
this resin separates and has to be recrystallized in boiling alcohol. — 
Is insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol and in ether, fuses 
at 170^ under decomposition, is slightly soluble in cold alkalies, but 
becomes decomposed by heating. 

LyGOpodillIll-Stearon=Cso Hso O*. Found in Lyoopodium 
Ohamsecyparissias. Separates from the alcoholic tincture of the herb 
on evaporating, and is obtained by washing with cold alcohol and 
water and by repeatedly dissolving in boiling alcohol, after cooling 
as a jelly, which dries to a starch-like mass. — ^Amorphous, inodor- 
ous and tasteless mass, fusing at 100% bums on heating wii^ an 
odour of fat, has a neutral reaction, is insoluble in cold, slightly 
soluble in boiling water, in cold alcohol and in ether, abundantly 
so in these liquids at boiling heat. 

]lla06 Balsam* Obtained by pressing the covering of the seed 
(mace) of Myristica fragrans. Is of a rather thin fluidity, when 
newly drawn, smells and tastes like mace, deposes on keeping a 
white, granular substance. 

Hadder Oran|^=ItuBiAGiN. 

[Ha^olin. Bitter substance found by Wallace Procter in the 
fruits of Magnolia umbrella. The M. crystallises from weak 
alcohol in needles, and from strong alcohol or petroleum ether in 
prisms; is less bitter than Liriodendrin, but produces a scratching 
sensation in the throat; is almost insoluble in cold, slightly soluble 
in boiling water, abundantly in alcohol, chloroform, sulphide of 
carbon, and petroleum ether, especially when warm; is also easily 
soluble in fiit-oils, and less copiously in hot glycerin; has a 
neutral reaction; evolves no ammonia with potash; is precipitated 


from ike potash or soda solution by adds ; beoomes red with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid, with concentrated nitric acid brown and 
resinous. Iodine has no action on it. The crystals of M. melt 
at 80^ to 82^, becoming amorphous; at 125^ they emit white 
vapours which condense to oily drops and consist partly of un- 
altered M. and partly of a resinous mass.] 

Haleie Aeid=EQU][3]STic Acip. 

Malic A€ld=:C4 H2 O4 4- HO. A widely-distributed substance, 
and perhaps the commonest of all vegetable acids. It has been 
observed in all parts of plants, principally and most abundantly in 
fruits, especially in unripe and acid ones. Several of the acids that 
have been found in plants and are described under different names, 
are probably nothing but Malic acid, as for instance Igasuric acid 
of the seeds of Strychnos nux vomica, and Braconnot's Fungic acid. 
When a vegetable extract yields with lime-water no turbidity 
either cold or hot, the presence of Malic acid may be inferred ; yet 
it may even possibly be present when a turbidity does ensue, 
because one plant often contains two and more organic acids. 
Malic acid is distinguished and prepared on a small scale in this 
manner. Neutralise the respective liquid when acid with 
ammonia, precipitate with acetate of lead, leave to subside for 
one day in a cold place and collect the deposit on a filter, wash 
with cold water, mix with more water under stirring, boil and 
filter boiling hot. Boil again with water all that has been left 
undissolved until the whole is either dissolved or the remnant 
has been exhausted. The Malate of lead ciystall ises from the liquids, 
when kept cold, and more of it is obtained by concentrating 
the mother-ley. The whole of the Malate of lead is ground up 
with water to a fine pulp, the latter is decomposed with sulphuret 
of hydrogen, and the liquid is evaporated first with a gentle 
heat and afterwards in a vacuum, when it will yield the pui-e acid 
in crystalline needles, united to warty masses. — It is inodorous, 
of a pure and strongly acid taste, deliquesces at the air, dissolves 
most readily in water, alcohol and etl^er; the aqueous solution is 
not clouded by lime-water either cold or hot. It fuses at 83^. 
and becomes decomix>sed in a higher temperature. The Malates 
dissolve nearly all in water, most of them readily so. 

The quantitative estimation of Malic acid cannot be effected 
through precipitation with metallic salts, because those Malates 
are either not insoluble in water or are decomposed during washing. 
If the quantity of Malic acid has to be deticrmined in a liquid 
which contains no other acid, the solution is warmed with carbonate 
of baryta, until the acid reaction has disappeared. It is then 
filtered off from the excess of carbonate of baryta, is evaporated 
to dryness and heated for some time at 100°; 100 parts of this 
anhydrous Malate of baryta contains. 43*09 parts acid. 


HailgOStan-Resin^Csa H22 Oio. Exudation of the stem of 
Garcinia Mangostana. Of a beautiful lemon-yellow colour; 
brittle; inodorous and tasteless; fuses at 110°; dissolves readily 
in alcohol and in ether. Is decomposed by liquor of ammonia 
into two resins, the one of which fuses at 80% and the other 
at 115° 

]IailgOStlll=04o H22 Oio. In the fruit-peels of Garcinia 
Mangostana. Boil the peels, after exhausting with hot water, 
with alcohol, evaporate the tincture until amorphous, yellow 
masses of resin and Mangostin are formed, dissolve the latter 
in alcohol and add to the solution, heated to the boiling-point, 
water in small quantities, until it becomes turbid. On cooling, 
the resin subsides and the liquid, after being poured off and 
kept for some time, throws down the Mangostin, which has to 
be purified by dissolving in alcohol and precipitating with sub- 
acetate of lead. The precipitate after washing is mixed with 
alcohol and decomposed by sulphuret of hydrogen, the filtered 
alcoholic liquid is mixed with water and allowed to rest until 
crystals are formed, which have to be recrystallised in diluted 
alcohol. — Thin laminse of a beautiful gold colour, inodorous and 
tasteless, fusible at 190°, partly sublimating at a higher heat, 
neutral, insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
alkalies. ^ . 

HailIlit=Ci2 Hi4 O12. In considerable quantity in the manna, 
a sweet exudation obtained by incisions into the stem of Fraxinus 
Omus and Fr. rotundifolia, and also occurring in many other 
plants, being contained in their roots, stalks, leaves, barks, seeds, 
and also nearly in all fungi. To prepare it from the manna, allow 
the aqueous solution to ferment with yeast, in order to destroy the 
sugar, decolourise with animal charcoal, evaporate so as to 
form crystals, and recrystallise. Or, boil with alcohol, filter hot, 
let crystallise and recrystallise. — Forms long rhombic, concen- 
trically or tufbily united needles of a slight and pleasant sweet taste, 
without rotating power; loses at 120° nothing of its weight; fuses 
at 166°, volatilises when kept in a fused state in small quantity 
and sublimates unaltered; begins to boil at 200°, while a portion 
volatises and another portion loses 2 eq. water being converted into 
mannitan, but the largest portion remains undecomposed ; above 
250° it swells up and is destroyed. It dissolves in 6 parts cold and 
in any quantity of hot water, almost insoluble in cold absolute 
alcohol, in hot aqueous alcohol in large quantity (in 1430 to 1660 
parts absolute alcohol at 14°, in 84 to 90 parts alcohol of 0.898 at 
15°, not soluble in ether. Yields with nitric acid, oxalic, but 
no mucic acid^ dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid without 
colouration, is not altered on boiling with diluted sulphuiic acid, 
with aqueous alkalies and with alkaline tartaiute of copper; is 


not able to ferment with yeasty is not preoipitable by acetate and 
subacetate of lead, but by the anunoniacal acetate of that metal. 

Harmbill. Bitter substance of Marrubium vulgare. Draw 
out with hot water, digest the liquid with animal charcoal, which 
takes up the bitter substance; treat the coal with alcohol, distil 
off the alcohol from the tincture, warm the remaining liquid, until 
every trace of alcohol is removed, withdraw the Mamibin from 
the thick mass by means of ether^ and allow the solution to 
evaporate slowly. — ^It crystallises in colourless, rhombic, tabular 
crystals, from the alcoholic solution in needles, tastes strongly 
bitter, fuses at 60°, decomposes in higher temperatures, is almost 
insoluble in cold water, slightly soluble in hot water, readily in 
alcohol and in ether; has a neutral reaction; dissolves in concen- 
ti-ated sulphimc acid with brown-yellow colour, in hot con- 
centrated nitric acid with yellowish colour; hydixichloric acid 
and alkalies have no effect. > 

Hamm Camphor) passes over in the distillation of Tecurium 
Marum with cold water. — ^White leaflets, heavier than water, 
of a disagreeable aromatic smell and taste. 

HasopiliriCi^ HseOs. A crystalline resin, main ingredient 
of the dschilte (the hardened sap of a Mexican tree, Achras 
Sapota). To prepaere it, boil the dschilte with water, and treat the 
remaining viscid, elastic body with absolute alcohol, which leaves 
the adherent caoutchouc undissolved. Precipitate the Masopin 
from the alcoholic solution with water, and reciystallise in ether. — 
White needles, of silky lustre, devoid of taste and smell; fuse at 
155° without loss of weight, exhaling a pleasant odour, and 
solidify afterwards to an amorphous, vitreous mass, the fusing 
I)oint of which is only 69° to 70°. 

Hastich. Exudation of Fistacia Lentiscus. Yellowish white, 
transparent grains, on the fracture of glass-like lustre, of faint 
smell, of aromatic and somewhat bitter taste, softens on masti- 
cating, fuses at 80°, readily soluble in absolute alcohol, ether and 
oils, in alcohol of 80°/^ to the extent of four-fifths, and leaving 
a soft resin (masticin). The readily soluble poi-tion of the resin 
has the formula C40 H31 O4, the slowly soluble C40 Hsi O2. 

l[a3riia8-Rcslll=C28 His Og. From incisions in the stem of 
Calophyllum Caloba and C. longifolium, in the South American 
province of Maynas. — Ciystallises from boiling alcohol in beauti- 
fully yellow rhombic prisms^ fuses at 105°, is afterwards decom- 
posed, is insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, 
acetic acid, fixed and volatile oils, also in alkalies; in concentrated 
sulphuric acid with beautiful red colour. 

Mecca Balsam. Exudation of the stem of Balsamodendron 
Opobalsamum. Of thin fluidity, pale yellow, of 0*95 density. 


smells pleasantly, tastes bitter and warming, becomes thicker by 
age, afterwards solid and darker, dissolves readily in alcohol and 
eSier. Contains about 10^/^ of volatile oil and two resins, the 
one of which dissolves readily in cold alcohol, the other sparingly. 
Some kinds also contain gum. 

Meeonic Acid=» Cu H4 Ou + 6 HO. As yet only found in 
opium. Mix the alcoholic solution of opium with a solution of 
chloride of baryum, and decompose the precipitate of Meconate of 
baryta with sulphuric acid. It crystallizes in colourless, mica-like < 
laminsB, is inodorous, of acid taste, cooling afterwards a little bitter;, 
loses at 120^ all its water of crystallisation; fuses at 150 to 200^ 
and becomes decomposed, yiel<ting a new acid (pyromeconic add 
zzCio H3 Os ); dissolves moderately in water, readily in alcohol; 
the aqueous solution is decomposed on boiling under ibrmation of 
carbonic acid and another new acid (comenic acid=Ci2 B4 Oio). 
Salts of oxyd of iron impart te Meconie acid a vividly red colour. 

]lecoil]]l=02o Hio Og. Indifferent substance of opium (the 
hardened milky juice of the green capsules of Papaver somniferum). 
Precipitate the extract, obtained by maceration with water, with 
ammonia ; filter, evaporate the liquid te a syrup consistence and 
leave to stand cold for a few weeks ; press the brown crystals thus 
obtained, boil with alcohol of 36° B., concentrate the solution, 
crystallise whait has formed first in boiling water with aid of animal 
charcoal, next in hot alcohol. — ^Colourless needles, inodorous ; of no 
perceptible taste at first, afterwards acrid or bitter. Meconin fuses 
at 90°, distils at 155° unaltered; dissolves in 700 parts cold and in 
20 parts boiling water, in alcohol, ether,* acetic acid and volatile oils. 

Melampyrit=DuLEiT. ^ 

IIIelezitOSe=Ci2 Hu On. Peculiar sweet substance of the 
manna of Briangon, effusing from the stem of Pinus Larix. Extract 
the above manna with boiling water, evaporate the extract te a 
syrup consistence and keep in a cold place. The Melezitese then 
forms slowly and has to be recrystallised in alcohol. — Minute, short, 
microscopic Crystals, constituting a white meaJy powder about as 
sweet as gi*ape-sugar ; effloresce readily at the air, lose in heating about 
4 per cent, of water, fuse below 140° without further change; are 
decomposed at 200°, dissolve readily in water, scarcely in cold, 
slightly in boiling alcohol, not in ether; become carbonised by cold 
concentrated sulphuric acid; yield with nitric acid oxalic acid, with 
diluted sulphuric acid on heating grape-sugar (more readily than 
trehalose, but less so than cane-sugar). Melezitese generally 
undergoes with beer-yeast a slow alcoholic fermentation; is not 
altered by heating with alkalies or alkaline tartarate of cooper; is 
precipitable by ammoniacal acetate of lead. 



■6litOS6^Ci2 Hii Oil + 3 HO. Distinct sweet matter of the 
peculiar manna of various kinds of the genus Eucalyptus. 
Crystallises, on eiraporating the aqueous solution of the manna, and 
is purified with animal charcoal. From water Melitose crystallises 
in felted needles, from alcohol in well-formed but small crystals ; 
it has a slightly sweet tast«, Loses at 100° 2 equivalents water, at 
130° another eq., while evolving a peculiar odour and becoming 
anhydrous and of the appearance of a pale-yellow translucent mass ; 
it fuses on rapidly heating to 94° to 100° under loss of ll'23°/(3 
(5 eq.) water, smells like caramel, when heated to a higher tem- 
l^erature, and is afterwards carbonised; dissolves in water almost 
like mannit; in hot alcohol more extensively than mannit, yields 
with nitric acid a little mucic and more oxalic acid, separates on 
heating with diluted sulphuric acid into equal parts fermentable 
and unfermentable sugars (the latter called by Berthelot Eucalin = 
Ci2 Hi2 O12) ; yields with yeast half as much alcohol and carbonic 
acid as grape-sugar; is not altered on boiling with alkalies, alkaline 
earths or alkaline tartarate of copper; is precipitated by ammoniacal 
acetate of lead. 

Melonemetill. Emetic ingredient of the root of Cucumis 
Melo, obtained in the impure state by treating the aqueous 
extract with alcohol and evaporating the tincture to dryness. — 
Brown, hard, glossy, deliquescent mass; tastes acrid and some- 
what bitter; dissolves most readily in water, alkalies and alcohol, 
but not so well in strong alcohol; not in ether, acetic acid and oils. 

Henispemim^Cse H24NO4. Alkaloid of the seed-husks of 
Cocculus indicus of Aiiamirta paniculata. Exhaust the contused 
liusks with boiling alcohol of 36° B., filter, distil off the alcohol, with- 
draw from the residue picrotoxin by means of boiling water and after- 
wards the Menispermin and paramenispermin by acidulated water; 
precipitate the latter two bases with ammonia, dissolve the deposit in 
diluted acetic acid, precipitate again with ammonia, dry the 
deposit, draw out with alcohol and allow the solution to evaporate 
spontaneously, whereby a yellow alkaline resin with crystals of 
Menispermin and a yellowish sUmy mass are obtained. Pick 
out the crystals as well as possible, remove from the yellow 
gelatinous mass the resin by means of cold alcohol, afterwards, by 
rinsing with cold ether, the rest of the Menispermin, which 
remains after the evaporation of the ether, and purify all the 
crystals obtained by rinsing with cold alcohol. The yellowish 
slime, dissolved in absolute alcohol, yields, after evaporating, 
paramenispermin. — Forms white, half-translucid, quadratic 
prisms, similar to cyanide of mercury; tasteless; fuses at 120", and 
is destroyed in higher temperatures; is insoluble in water, soluble 
in alcohol, ether and diluted acids, forming salts with the latter, 
which are precipitable by alkalies. 


HenyanthillnCeo H46 028< In the leaves of Menyanthes 
trifoliata. Prepare with little water a very concentrated aqueous 
extract, and digest with roughly pounded boneblack, to absorb 
the bitter subs^nce. Wash the boneblack with cold water and 
extract with boiling alcohol; filter hot, distil the solution, 
evaporate the residue to treacle consistence, and treat repeatedly 
with ether, to remove a substance of rancid taste; dissolve the 
extract in water; precipitate the solution with tannic acid; knead 
the precipitate after it has become of a tough plasticity 
repeatedly with pure water, dissolve in six times its weight of 
alcohol, filter, mix the filtrate with carbonate of lead, add an 
equal volume of water to the alcoholic solution, and heat over the 
water-bath under continual stirring, until carbonic acid ceases to 
be evolved. Treat the dry mass with hot alcohol, shake the 
filtrate with boneblack, filter, distil off the alcohol, throw down 
the M. from the residue with tannic acid, and proceed as before. — 
White amorphous mass, yielding after trituration a pure-white 
permanent powder; neutral, of a strong and pure bitter taste; 
becomes soft at 60° to 65**, but is completely fused only at 
115°; cai*bonises in a higher temperature; dissolves somewhat 
slowly in cold, readily in hot water and in alcohol ; not in ether, 
but in concentrated sulphuric acid, with yellow-brown colour, 
which by access of the air gradually changes to a violet colour, in 
concentrated nitric acid with yellowish tinge, in concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid colourless, in alkalies unaltered; is not precipitable 
by metallic salts; changes on heating with diluted sulphuric or 
hydrochloric acid into sugar and a volatile oiL The latter 
(Menyanthol^Cie Hg O2 ) has an agreeable smell like bitter 
almonds, and shows also in other respects similarity with oil of 
bitter almonds; has a very burning taste; solidifies after a few days* 
rest to a white crystalline mass, probably a new acid, called 
provisionally menyanthic acid. 

MerciirialiDi Volatile alkaloid of Mercurialis annua. Is ob- 
tained by distilling the herb and fruits with lime and water, 
saturating the distillate with sulphuric acid, evaporating to dryness, 
shaking the salty mass with absolute alcohol, &c., and proceeding 
as with coniin, to which also it greatly resembles. — Limpid, 
colourless, oily liquid of a very penetrating narcotic odour, similar 
to coniin and nicotin, of a strongly alkaline reaction; becomes 
converted at the air into a soft, resinous body; begins to boil at 
140°; yields with platinum-chloride a double salt in beautiful 
mother-of-pearl-like laminse, combines also with carbonic acid. 

Hetacetonic Acid = Propionic acid. 

[M etacopaivie Acid=C44 H34 O g . Discovered by E. G. Strauss 
in the balsam of Maracaibo, a kind of copaiva-balsam, exported 
from Columbia. Obtained by treating the balsam with sodar-ley^ 


^filtering, mixing with chloride of ammonium, filtering again and 
neutralising wiUi excess of hydrochloric acid. The precipitate is 
dissolved in hot alcohol and crystallised. — ^The M. acid crystallises 
in leaflets, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, easily soluble in 
ether, soluble also in warm petroleum, in potash-ley and ammonia. 
Fuses at 205°-206*'. Is, according to Flueckiger and Hanbury, 
probably identical with Guijunic acid, which itself may be regarded 
as Hydrated Abietic acid.] 

Metamorpllillt Obtained only once in the preparation of 
morphin (after the method, indicated there, with lime, <&c.), as 
hydrochloride of Metamorphin. This salt was decomposed with 
an equivalent weight of silver-sulphate, the chloride of silver 
removed by filtering, the liquid digested with carbonate of baryta 
and the Metamorphin withdrawn by alcohol from the mixture 
consisting of sulphate of baryta, carbonate of baryta and Meta- 
morphin. — Forms flat, concentrically united prisms ; has at first no 
perceptible, but afterwards a very slightly pungent, not bitter taste ; 
becomes at 100° opaque, grey-brown at 130° without fusing, but fuses 
on rapidly heating to a colourless liquid; has a neutral reaction 
when dissolved in water, and a slightly alkaUne one when dissolved 
in alcohol ; dissolves in 6000 parts cold and in 70 parts boiling water, 
in 330 parts cold and 9 parts boiling alcohol of 90%, not in ether, 
in the hydrates and carbonates of alkalies; gives the same reactions 
with sulphuric, nitric, and iodic acids as morphin; becomes grey- 
blue with chloride of iron. 

Hctliysticln. Peculiar crystalline body of the so-called kawa- 
root (from Piper methysticum). Evaporate the alcoholic tincture 
to honey-consistence, treat with alcohol, let the solution crystallise 
and purify the crystals by recrystallisation. — Colourless, inodorous 
and tasteless, neutral crystals, fusible at 130°, decomposing in a 
higher temperature, insoluble in water (according to other statement : 
slightly soluble in cold, more readily in hot water), scarcely in cold 
alcohol, ether and volatile oils, abundantly in hot alcohol and in hot 
volatile oils; in hydrochloric acid with yellow, in nitric acid with 
red, in pure sulphuric acid with beautiful violet, in commercial 
sulphuric acid with blood-red colour. 

MorinrzCis Hg Oio (isomeric with morus-tannic acid). The 
yellow pigment of the wood of Maclura tinctoria. Boil the wood 
with water, concentrate the decoction to a small bulk, keep in a cold 
place, collect the yellow sediment which will have formed, press, 
dissolve in hot alcohol, dilute with ten times its quantity of water, 
collect the deposit of morin-lime, boil with a solution of oxalic 
acid in alcohol, filter hot and let crystallisa — White crystalline 
powder, passing exposed to ammoniacal vapours into a faint 
yellow; of slightly bitter, not acerb taste; of acidulous reaction; 
loses water at 180°, remains so unaltered up to 250°, decomposes 

K 2 


in still higher temperatures yielding pyrocatechuic acid ; dissolves in 
4000 parts cold and in 1000 parts boiling water, readily in alcohol 
with dark-yellow colour, also readily in ether; is precipitable by 

]!IIorindill=C28 His O15. Yellow dye of the root of Morinda 
citrifolia. Boil with alcohol, filter hot, recrystallise what has been 
separated on cooling in alcohol, and afterwards in alcohol contain- 
ing some hydrochloric acid, in order to remove anorganic salts.— 
Forms sulphur-yellow, fine needles, of silky lustre, fusible by heat 
and decomposing in higher temperatures; dissolves little in cold 
with yellow colour, and readily in boiling water; forming a jelly- 
like substance after cooling; slightly soluble in cold absolute, 
copiously in diluted boiling alcohol; not in ether; in alkalies with, 
orange-red, in concentrated sulphuric acid with purple-red colour; 
precipitates the salts of the alkaline earths and' of the earth-metals, 
likewise sub-acetate of lead. 

HorillJ^C Acid. In the oil of ben (from Moringa oleifera), is 
probably identical with oleic acid. 

Morus Tannic Acidi=Ci8 Hg Oio. In the wood of Maclura 
tinctori}^., as secretion in the interior of the logs. Recrystallise 
these secretions repeatedly in boiling water, dissolve in more 
boiling water containing hydrochloric acid, filter the solution, 
which has become turbid after cooling by the formation of a 
reddish resin, and allow the solution to stand quiet, when the 
acid will slowly separate. — It crystallises in light-yellow, micros- 
copic needles, has a sweetish astringent taste and an acid reaction ; 
fuses at 200** and decomposes afterwards; dissolves in 6*4 parts 
cold, and in 2*14 parts boiling water with yellow colour; readily 
in alcohol, ether and wood-spirit, not in volatile and fixed oils; 
is precipitable by glue, likewise with dark-green colour by salts of 
oxyd of iron. 

]!IIorpliin=C34 H19 NOe +2 HO. In opium, in the ripe and 
in the green capsules and probably in all the other parts of 
Papaver somniferum, also in the capsules of Papaver Rhoeas, 
and other species of that genus [and in the herb of Argemone 
Mexicana.] Boil the opium with water, press, and repeat these 
opei^tions twice; evaporate to one-half, add milk of lime; boil for 
a quai-ter of an hour, strain, press, boil the remaining mass twice 
with water, concentrate the whole of the calcareous liquids to a 
small bulk, add chloride of ammonium, heat for an hour or as 
long as ammonia is evolved, leave to stand cold for eight days, 
collect the sediment, wash with cold water, dissolve in hydrochloric 
acid, treat the solution again with lime and chloride of ammonium, 
dissolve the deposit again in hydrochloric acid, digest the solution 
with coal, filter, precipitate with ammonia and dry the deposit. — 


Forms fine, white needles of silky lustre, or, when obtained from 
the alcoholic solution and by slow evaporation, considerably long, 
colourless, half-translucid, klinorhombic prisms, inodorous, slightly 
bitter, in solution very bitter; loses at 120' its water and turns 
opaque, fuses afterwards anA becomes decomposed; dissolves in 
1000 parts of cold and in 500 parts boiling water, in 30 parts 
cold and in 20 parts boiling alcohol of 807©, with decidedly alka- 
line, reaction; not soluble in ether, but in 60 parts chloro- 
form, also in amylalcohol; most readily in diluted acids, in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid yellowish, in concentrated nitric acid red 
afterwards yellow, in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a 
little nitric acid, violet-red; separates from iodic acid instantly 
iodine with brown colour, blues the salts of oxyd of iron ; dissolves 
in fixed caustic alkalies and in alkaline earths, little in ammonia ; 
neutralises the acids completely. Its salts are for the most part 
crystallisable, taste very bitter, dissolve in water and in alcohol, 
not in amylalcohol, are only precipitable by tannic acid when quite 

[Hoschatin. See Ivain and Achillein. Contained, besides 
achillein, in the alcoholic solution of the aqueous extract. Dissolve 
the flocculent mass, obtained by treating the alcoholic residue with 
water in absolute alcohol, evaporate to dryness on the water-bath, 
heat with water, and wash with cold water, until the mass becomes 
brittle under water. — A slightly hygroscopic powder of aromatic, 
bitter taste, soluble in absolute alcohol, scarcely in water.] 


Mocila^e=: Vegetable MuciiiAGE. 

HllCill. Peculiar protein substance contained in crude gluten; 
but the complete isolation of which has not been achieved yet. 
See Gluten and Glutin. 

Mudarin. Peculiar bitter substance of the root of Calotropis 
gigantea and C. procera. Is obtained by treating the alcoholic 
extract with water and evaporating the solution. — Light-brown, 
pellucid, brittle, inodorous, of nauseous bitter taste, insoluble in 
ether and in oils. The cold concentrated aqueous solution becomes 
turbid when gently heated, gelatinises and splits up at last com- 
pletely into water and a pitch-like coagulum which does not 
redissolve on cooling, but does so slowly on addition of fresh 
water. The alcoholic solution does not coagulate. 

MyC0Se=Ci2 Hn On + 2 HO. Peculiar kind of sugar of 
ergot (the mycelium of Cordiceps purpurea). Precipitate the 
aqueous extract with subacetate of lead; remove any lead from 
the filtrate by means of sulphuret of hydrogen; evaporate to a 
syrup consistence, and purify the crystals which will have formed 
after some time by rinsing with alcohol and recrystallising in 


water. — Crystallises in rhombic prisms, tastes sweet, but less so 
than cane-sugar, fuses at 100° without a perceptible loss of weight, 
intumesces at 130°, and loses 2 eq. water; becomes solid again and 
loses no more water; fuses at 210° again, becomes next brown, 
and smells unmistakably like caramel Dissolves in less than its 
equal weight of water, in boiling alcohol not quite to the extent 
of I^/qI is not altered by alkalies or by alkaline tartarate of 
copper; yields with nitric acid, oxalic, but no mucic acid; is 
converted, by heating with diluted sulphuric acid, into grape- 
sugar. Eotates three times more to the right than cane-sugar, 
and even more than dextrin. 

Hyrica WaXi Obtained by boiling the berries of Myrica 
cerifera, M. cordifolia, M. quercifolia, M. serrata, with water. — 
Pale green, transparent, brittle and friable when cold, smells and 
tastes aromatic; has 1*00 density; fuses at 44 to 49°. Contains 
much palmitic, little myristic acid, mostly in the free state; no 
oleic, nor any volatile acids. 

Myristic Acid:=C28 H27 O3 + HO. As for distribution, see 
Myristin. Saponify myristin with soda-ley; decompose the soap 
with a mineral acid and crystalUse in alcohol what ha^ sepamted.- 
White, wart-like groups or fine leaflets, fusing at 53.8°; insoluble 
in water; soluble in 545 parts alcohol of 50°/^ at 17°; in 7 parts 
absolute alcohol at 16°; and in J-part at the boiling heat; in 2 
parts ether at 16°. The Myristates of the alkalies dissolve 
undecomposed in water. 

H yristiu = C90 Hge O12 (Ce Hs O3 + 3 C28 H27 O3. ). Princi- 
pally in the fat of the seeds of Myristica fragrans, M. Otoba, 
M. sebifera, and of other kinds of this genus, in the fat of Cocos 
Hucifera, in the fat of Bassia species, of Myrica cerifera and other 
congeners, of the Dica-bread (the fruit of Irvingia Barteri). 
Dissolve the nutmeg-balsam in 4 parts boiling alcohol, let the 
mixture cool, and wash what has crystallised with alcohol. — 
White, opaque, or silky shining mealy mass, of granular appear- 
ance under the microscope, inodorous and tasteless, fuses at 52°; 
is insoluble in water, soluble in 4458 parts absolute alcohol at 17°, 
in 3 parts boiling alcohol, in 7i part ether at 17°, and in 3i 
parts boiling ether. 

Hyronic Acid, As Myronate of potash ZZKO + C20 Hig 
NS 4 O20 in the seeds of Brassica nigra. Press the seeds, draw 
out with alcohol of 85% at first cold, then at 50° to 60°, treat 
afterwards with cold or warm water, neutralise the free acid in 
the aqueous extract with carbonate of baryta, evaporate to a 
syrup consistence, remove mucous substances by digesting with 
weak alcohol, and evaporate the filtrate to the formation of 
crystals. The Myronate of potash crystallises in limpid, shorty 


rhombic prisms of glass lustre, is permanent at the air, neutral, 
has a refreshing bitter taste, dissolves readily in water, decomposes 
in aqueous solutions and in the presence of myrosin (emulsin of 
the white mustard) into KO + 2 SO3 + HO, Cg H5 NS2 and 
into C12 Hi2 O12, the latter body being identical with grape-sugar. 
From the Myronate of potash the Myronic acid is obtained by 
removing the potash with tartaric acid, or by converting the 
potash-salt imto the baryta compound, and decomposing the 
latter with sulphnric acid. — The Myronic acid forms a colourless 
and inodorous syrup-like liquid, has a bitter taste and an acid 
reaction; decomposes readily with heat; dissolves readily in 
water and in alcohol, scarcely in ether, forms with potash, soda, 
ammonia and baryta crystallisable, with lime^ oxyd of lead and 
oxyd of silver amorphous salts of bitter taste. 

Myrosin. The albuminous or emulsin-like constituent of the 
black and white mustard seeds, Brassica alba and B. nigra, and 
which gives rise to the formation of volatile mustard oil from the 
myronate of potash, contained in black mustard seeds, and by the 
concurrence of water. From the black mustard it cannot be 
obtained, as it is instantly decomposed through the myronate of 
potash when brought into contact with water. From the white mus- 
tard seeds it is obtained by treating with cold water; the filtered 
liquid is evaporated to the consistence of syrup at a temperature 
not exceeding 40° and mixed with alcohol; the Myrosin, precipi- 
tated thereby, is redissolved in water, and the solution brought to 
dryness with a gentle heat. — It is in physical properties very 
similar to emulsin of almonds; yields with water a slimy solution 
which coagulates at 60°, and likewise readily through alcohol and 
acids. It has not been possible as yet to separate it from 

[According to Will and Koemer, Myronate of potash (Sinigrin), 
when dissolved in water and brought into contact with myrosin, 
splits into Sulphocyanide of AUyl (mustard oil), BisTilphate of 
potash, and grape-sugar.] 

MyroiOCarpill=:C48 H35 Oe. Peculiar, crystalline matter of the 
white balsam of Peru, the latter being obfeiined by pressing the 
inner parts of the fruit and the seeds of Myroxylon Pereirse. 
Digest the balsam with alcohol of moderate strength, and leave 
the clear liquid to evaporate; the crystals which have formed are 
purified by animal charcoal and by recrystallising. — ^The crystals 
are colourless, inodorous, and tasteless, hard, glossy, flat, thin, 
more than one inch long, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
and in ether, neutral, fusible at 115°, and mostly decomposing 
in higher temperatures. Acids and alkalies have scarcely any 
eflfect; nitric acid converts it slowly into oxalic acid and an amor- 
phous resin. 


Myrrh • Exudation of the stem of Balsamodendron Myrrha. 
Yellow-brown, of a wax or resin-like gloss, brittle, of balsamic 
odour, and of bitter aromatic taste. Contains about 45% resin, 
41% gum, 2.5% volatile oil. The resin (myrrhin) is redrbrown, 
brittle, has (warm) a myrrh-like odour, fiises at 90-95°, dissolves in 
alcohol, ether, acetic acid, only partially in hot potash-ley, and 
consists of C48 H32 Oio. 

]Vap6llilL Besides Aconitin the other peculiar alkaloid of the 
root of Aconitum Napellus, and some other kinds of the same 
genus of Ranunculaceae. To prepare it, withdraw the aconitin 
from the raw aconitin with the least possible quantity of pure 
ether, dissolve the residue in absolute alcohol, filter, add acetate 
of lead as long as it causes any turbidity, agitate and let digest, 
filter, throw down the excess of lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, 
leave to digest warm, filter, evaporate the alcohol, add carbonate 
of potash, bring to dryness, exhaust with absolute alcohol, filter 
through animal charcoal and bring to dryness. — Triturated, a white, 
electric powder of bitter and afterwards burning taste, dissolves with 
some difeculty in ether, considerably more readily in water and 
in alcohol than aconitin, has a decidedly alkaline reaction, saturates 
the acids completely; is not (on account of its solubility in water) 
precipitated by ammonia from the aqueous solutions of its salts. 

[According to later researches of Huebschmann, Napellin is 
probably identical with Acolyctin.] 

Narceill=:C46 H29 NOis. I^l opium. Mix the aqueous extract of 
opium, after it has been freed from meconin, morphin, narcotiu, 
and meconic acid, by oversaturating it with ammonia, cooling, 
filtering, concentrating the filtrate, and precipitating with solution of 
baryta : — with carbonate of ammonia, in order to remove the excess 
of baryta, and evaporate to a liqmd of syrup thickness. — The 
impure Narcein crystallises after a few days, and has to be purified 
by pressing off the mother-ley, and recrystallising in alcohol. 
Traces of codein and of meconin are removed by ether. It crystal- 
lises in white, silky, shining, delicate needles, tastes slightly 
bitter with an almost metallic aftertaste, fuses at 92°, and is 
decomposed in higher temperatures; dissolves in 375 parts cold 
and in 230 parts hot water (according to Anderson it dissolves 
readily in hot water), readily in alcohol, not iii ether, has no 
alkaline reaction, is dissolved more readily by ammonia and by 
the diluted fixed alkalies than by water, but is separated as an 
oily liquid by addition of much concentrated potash-ley even from 
the hot solution. With diluted nitric acid a yellow liquid is 
obtained on heating, which evolves the odour of a volatile base 
with caustic potash; with concentrated nitric acid oxalic acid is 
obtained. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with an 
intensely red coloin*, and turns green on heating. With strong 


liydrochloric add it does not strike the blue colour observed by 
Pelletier. The sulphate, nitrate and hydrochloride of Narcein 
are crystallisable, yet of acid reaction. 

Narcotin=:C46 H25 NOu. In the unripe and the matured 
-capsules of Papaver somniferum ; also alleged to exist in the root of 
Aconitum Nai)ellus, and called at first Aconellin. Exhaust opium 
with cold water, treat it afterwai*ds with water containing hydro- 
-chloric acid, precipitate the latter solution with bicarbonate of 
soda, exhaust the deposit with alcohol of 80%, distil one-half to 
two-thirds of the alcohol, and poTU* the renmant boiling hot into a 
flat vessel. The Narcotin will soon crystallise and has to be 
washed with cold alcohol and recrystallised in hot alcohol. Or, 
begin by drawing out the opium with water and hydrochloric 
acid, and precipitate the Narcotin from the liquid by means of 
<;hloride of sodium; dissolve the deposit in hydrochloric acid, 
pi^ecipitate with potash and recrystallise in alcohol. — Forms 
colourless needles of pearly lustre, inodorous and tasteless, neutral; 
fuses at 170^ and decomposes afterwards; is insoluble in cold 
water, not or very slightly soluble in boiling water, in 100 parts 
<;old and in 20 parts boiling alcohol of 85%, in 126 parts cold and 
in 40 parts boiling ether, most readily in chloroform, little in oils, 
not in alkalies, readily in acids; becomes yellow and then orange 
with concentrated sulphuric acid ; with nitric acid yellow, and on 
wanning red; with sulphuric acid, containing a little nitric acid, 
beautifully blood-red. Its salts have an acid reaction, are mostly 
imcrystallisable, have a more bitter taste than the salts of morphin; 
dissolve in water, alcohol and ether; those formed with weak acids 
are decomposed by much water, those formed with volatile acids 
partly lose the acid in evaporating. The hydrates and the carbon- 
ates of alkalies precipitate the Narcotin completely. 

Kartliecic Acid. Peculiar crystalline acid of the herb of 
Narthecium ossifragum. Draw out with water, containing a 
little soda, precipitate the extract, acidified by acetic acid, with 
acetate of lead and afterwards with subacetate of lead, decompose 
the latter deposit with sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate the filtrate 
to honey consistence, draw out with ether and evaporate the 
latter. — White, needle-shaped crystals of acid taste, not volatile, 
soluble in water, alcohol and ether, yields with the pure and with 
the earthy alkalies readily soluble salts, which are precipitable by 
n^ost of the salts of heavy metals. 

Narthecin. Peculiar rancid constituent of the herb of Narthe- 
•cium ossifragum. Exhaust with water, draw out the renmant 
with alcohol, precipitate the tincture with acetate of lead, de- 
•colourise with animal charcoal, remove the excess of lead by 
«ulphuret of hydrogen, distil off most of the alcohol, allow the 
I'emnant to evaporate spontaneously, and purify by recrystallising 


in ether. — ^Whit%, wart-shaped mass, of a very rancid taste, fuses 
at 35^, and remains then in the amorphous state; has an acid 
reaction; dissolves little in water, readily in alcohol and in ether, 
also in alkalies, and reprecipitable by acids; is not volatile. 

[lfataloill=:C34 Hi9 O15. Ciystallised bitter substance, dis- 
covered by Flueckiger from Natal-aloes. By triturating the 
drogue with an equal weight or less of alcohol at 49° or below, the 
Nataloin is left behind in pale-yellow crystals. — ^The Nataloin 
dissolves at 15*5° in 70 parts common alcohol, in 60 parts of a 
mixture of 1 ether and 3 alcohol, in 35 parts methyl-alcohol, in 50 
pa^s acetic ether, in 1236 parts ether, and in 230 parts absolute 
alcohol. It is of a pure bitter taste, gives out no water at 100°, 
fuses at 180° to 189°. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric 
acid, the solution becoming beautifully green on the addition of 
nitre or chlorate of potash. Nitric acid yields with Nataloin oxalic 
acid; alkaline liquids dissolve Nataloin under darkening. The three 
varieties of aloin, obtained respectively from Barbadoes, Natal, and 
Zanzibar, are named by Flueckiger Barbaloin (Aloin), Nataloin, 
and Socalein. They are distinguished, according to Histed, by the 
following reactions: — A drop of nitric acid gives, with a few 
particles of Barbaloin or Nataloin (not with Socalein), a vivid 
crimson. Nataloin (not Barbaloin or Socalein), assumes a fine blue 
colour by adding a minute quantity to a drop or two of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, then allowing the vapour of a rod touched 
with nitric acid to pass over the surface.] 

[]y^l-campliOr=C2o His O2, Obtained from Blumeabalsamifera. 
White crystals, precisely like Borneo-camphor, which they also 
resemble in odour and hardness, as well as in being a little heavier 
than water, and not so volatile as camphor. The alcoholic solution 
rotates to the left as powerfully as Borneo-camphor to the right. 
Boiling nitric acid converts Ngai-camphor into a laevogyric cam- 
phor i=C2o H16 O2, identical with the camphor of Chrysanthemum 
Parthenium, and distinguished from common camphor only by the 
optical properties. — ^Plowman.] 

Nicotiailin=C4o H32 N2 Oe. Separates on the surface of the 
aqueous distillate of tobacco. — White laminae, smelling like tobacco 
smoke, have not an acrid, but a warm and bitter aromatic taste; 
soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, also in potash-ley, the latter 
solution yielding nicotin by distillation. 

Nicotin = Cio H7 N. Volatile alkaloid of Nicotiana species. Draw 
out the comminuted tobacco-leaves with hot water, containing 
1°/q sulphuric acid, strain, press, concentrate the liquid to syrup 
thickness, add one-twentieth of the weight of the leaves pulverised 
charcoal, evaporate to dryness, pulverise, treat warm with alcohol 
of 90°/q, allow to cool, filter, drive off the alcohol, add water, filter 



off the resin that has formed, distil the liquid with caustic potash^ 
saturate the distillate with sulphuric acid, bring almost to dryness,, 
and shake the mass with absolute alcohol, which dissolves only the 
sulphate of Nicotin, leaving die sulphate of ammonia. Drive off 
the alcohol fix>m the solution, pour the remaining concentrated 
aqueous solution of sulphate of Nicotin into a glass-stoppered bottle, 
add a few pieces of caustic potash, add ether after solution, shake,, 
pour the ether, containing the Nicotin, into another stoppered bottle,, 
and allow to evaporate spontaneously. — Colourless oil of a nauseous 
odour of tobacco, of an extremely acrid and burning taste, fluid at 
—10^; density^ 1-033; boils at 240-250°, distils under partial de- 
composition, has a strongly alkaline reaction, is coloured brown by 
the light or the air, dissolves in water in every quantity, likewise 
in alcohol and in ether, readily in fixed oils, less in volatile oils ; 
saturates the acids completely. 

Nig^Uin, Bitter substance of the seeds of Nigella sativa, as- 
yet only obtained as extract. 

Nucin. In the green fruit-shells of Juglans regia. Draw out 
with benzol or with sulphide of carbon for only a brief time 
evaponate, mix the remnant with quartz-sand and sublimate at 60 
to 80°. — Red-yellow, very glossy, very brittle needles, sublimate 
unaltered; non-nitrogenised; insoluble in water, sparingly soluble 
in alcohol, readily in ether. Nucin acquires a beautiful purple 
colour with the hydrates, the carbonates, the borates and the 
phosphates of alkalies and with subacetate of lead; dissolves 
copiously in the above alkalies and alkaline salts, and is reprecipi- 
tated in brown-red flocks from these solutions by acids. 

[Nncitannill. Contained, according to T. L. Phipson, in the- 
epidermis of the walnut (Juglans regia), and procurable therefrom 
by means of water or alcohol. N. is related to the tannic acids, 
and separates with mineral acids into sugar, acetic acid and a new 
acid, Red acid. The latter dissolves easily in alcohol and ammonia, 
little in cold water; with alkalies it forms dark-red salts, with lead 
a brown amorphous salt.] 

Nutmeg-balsam. Obtained by pressing the seeds of Myristica 
fragrans. — Brownish-yellow, with a great many white, granular, 
crystalline veins, presenting a marble appearance; smells and 
tastes strongly of nutmegs, is moderately hard, of 0*956 density, 
fuses at 47°, dissolves slowly in cold alcohol, readily in ether, chloro- 
form, sulphide of carbon and benzol. Contains volatile oil (6%), 
myristin (70%), olein (20%), an acid resin, butyrin, and traces of 
other volatile acids. 

Oeuolin or Oeuolic Acid=:C2o H9 O9 + HO. The red 

dyeing matter of the skins of grapes (from Vitis vinifera). Wash 
the skinny parts with water, and draw out with water containing 


acetic axjid, precipitate the solution with acetate of lead, and 
-decompose the deposit, after washing and while still moist, with 
sulphuret of hydrogen. The sulphide of lead, after washing, yields 
up the dyeing matter to alcoholic? acetic acid, impure Oenolin 
remaining- after evaporating, and which is freed from fat by 
boiling with ether. — An almost black mass, yielding a beautiful 
violet powder, or a red-brown one when diied at a temperature 
of 100° to 120°; permanent at the air; intumesces in the heat and 
becomes decomposed, is insoluble in water, yet dissolves in water 
containing acetic or tartaric acid, likewise in wood spirit, not in 
pure alcohol, but in alcohol containing even very little acetic acid, 
with blue, with more acetic acid with red colour; iiot in ether, 
benzol, chloroform, sulphide of carbon, volatile and fixed oils. 
Acetate of lead occasions in the alcoholic solutions a purely blue 
precipitate, nitrate of lead a ^dolet one, subacetate of lead blue 
and a little brownish, subsulphate of iron blue-violet, sulphate of 
iron dark nut-brown, chloride of iron yellowish, acetate of copper 
nut-brown, subchloride of tin violet-red, subnitrate of mercury a 
precipitate of the colour of wine-yeast, nitrate of mercury light- 
brown, nitrate of silver brown-red; alum causes no precipitate. 

Oil of Achillea Millefolium (milfoil). Obtained by distil- 
lation with water. The oil of the flowers is dark-blue, of sub- 
acid reaction and 0*92 sp. gr. The oil of the herb is also blue 
and of a deeper colour than oil of chamomile, thick and of almost 
butter consistence when cold, of strong smell, tastes similar to the 
herb, afterwards a little burning, has a density of 0*852-0 -9 17. 
The oil of the fruits is greenish. The oil of the root is colourless 
or slightly yellowish, smells peculiar and disagreeable, somewhat 
like valerian, has an unpleasant, but not penetrating or burning 
taste, is lighter than water. ' 

[Oil of Acllillea moscliata (oil of iva). Obtained by distilling 
ijhe herb, before flowering, with water. — Clear yellowish liquid, 
of a very pleasant, strongly ethereous odour, and bitter, warming 
taste. Boils at 180° to 210°.] 

Oil of Achillea nobiliS (showy milfoil). Obtained by aqueous 
distillation of the herb, the flowers or the fruits. — Pale-yellow, 
thick; of a very strong smell, similar, but more refined, than oil 
of milfoil, and at the same time somewhat camphor-like; of an 
aromatic, camphoraceous and somewhat bitter taste; of 0*97-98 
density; dissolves readily in alcohol. 

Oil of Acorns Calamus (sweet flag). Obtained by distillation 
with water from the rhizome. — Pale to dark yellow; of a strong 
penetrating odour similar to the root, and of an aromatic bitter, 
biii*ning, slightly camphoraceous taste; of 0*89-98 density; dissolves 
readily in alcohol; boils at 195°, after the more volatile part (pro- 
bably a hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of turpentine) has passed over. 


Oil of Aleurites triloba (kekune, the candle-nut tree). Fixed 
oil, obtained from the seeds by boiling with water. — Is thin, 
inodorous, and tasteless. Acts as a mild purgative. 

Oil of Allium satiTOm (garlic) ^Ce H5 S. Obtained by 
distillation with water from the bulbs; also from the leaves of 
Sisymbrium Alliaria, and mixed with oil of mustard from the 
herbs and seeds of Thlaspi arvense and other Cruciferse; seems^ 
like oil of mustaixl, not to exist ready formed (certainly not in 
cruciferous plants), but to be produced by the action of water. 
In the raw state it is brownish yellow ; of the most intense garlic 
odour; heavier than water and slowly soluble in it; it is partly 
decomposed on rectifying and an oil = Cq H5 S passes over as 
a pale-yellow or colourless liquid of great light-refracting power 
and of a less nauseous odour; lighter than water; without action 
on metallic potassiiun; soluble in cold concentrated sulphuric acid, 
with purple-red colour, changing to a deep indigo- blue with hydro- 
chloric gas, and precipitating much sulphide of silver from a solution 
of the nitrate. 

Oil of Alpinia Galailg^, A. officinarum (galingal). Obtained 
by distillation with water from the tubers. — Smells similar to 
cajeput oil; is lighter than water; dissolves readily in alcohol; of a 
similar constitution as oil of cajeput. 

Oil of AlldroipO<1^0]l (lemon grass). Obtaiaed by aqueous 
distillation of A. Iwarancusa, A. Calamus, A. citratus, A. 
Martini, A. Schoenanthus, A. muricatus. — Colourless or yellowish; 
thin; smells penetrating, aromatic, similar to roses, but fainter; 
has an acrid taste, similar to oil of citron; of neutral reaction; 
lighter than water; boils at 147° and above. Is a mixture of 
clifferent oils. [It yields a solid compound with bisulphide of soda 
solution. — Flueckiger and Hanbury.] 

Oil of Anemone. See Anemonin. 

Oil of Anime. Obtained by the distillation of the resin. 
— ^Limpid ; of a strong but not unpleasant odour, and of hot taste. 

Oil of AnthemiS nobiliS (chamomile). Obtained by aqueous 
distillation from the flowers. — Blue or greenish; is a mixture 
of a hydrocarbon C20 Hie with angelic and valerianic acids, 
which remain in rectifying the oil with potash-ley. The hydro- 
carbon has a pleasant, lemon-like smell and boils at 175°. 

[According to Demar9ay, oil of chamomile is a mixture of 
several compound ethers, principally the angelates and valerates of 
butyl and amyl.] 

Oil of Apium ^raveolens (celery). Obtained by aqueous 
distillation of the herb and fruits. — Colourless or pale yellow; of 
penetrating odouir; of a sweetish, warming taste, of 0*881 
density; dissolves readily in alcohol. 


Oil of Archanf^liea officinalis (angelica). Obtained by 
aqueous distillation of the root. — Colourless, lighter than water, of 
a penetrating odour, and tastes like the root. 

[OU of Al^emone Mexicana. Fat-oil, obtained by pressing 
the seeds. — ^Light-yellow, still liquid at 5° C, of a slightly nauseous 
odour and raw taste, dries, dissolves in five to six times its volume 
of alcohol of 907o> becomes dirty-brown with concenti'ated sul- 
phuric, red with nitric acid, is easily saponified.] 

Oil of Aristolochia Serpentaria. Obtained by distillation with 
water from the root. — Light-brown, lighter than water; has the 
smell and taste of valerian and of camphor. 

Oil of Arnica montana. Obtained by distilling with water the 
flowers and the root. The former is blue or brownish-green, the 
latter brownish-yellow. 

Oil of Artemisia Absjutliinm (wormwood) =020 H^ O2. 

Obtained by aqueous distillation from the leaves and flowers. — 
Dark-green, smells and tastes of the plant, of 0'973 density, boils 
at 205°, and dissolves readily in alcohol. When distilled with 
another volatile oil, it yields to it the colouring matter. 

Oil of Artemisia Cina and A. Sieberi (worm seed)z= 

C24 H20 O 2 . Obtained by aqueous distillation from the flowers. — 
Colourless to yellowish, smells of the drug; has an acrid, burning, 
aromatic taete; is neutral; of 0*925-945 density; boils at 175° after 
rectification; is a mixture of cin8ebenz=C20 Hie? cinaeben- 
stearopten=iC2o Hig O2, and a little propionate of propyl. 

Oil of Artemisia DraCUnculuS (tarragon). Obtained by dis- 
tilling the leaves with water. — Of 0*935 density; boils at 200° to 
206° ; consists entirely or wholly of anethol. 

Oil of Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort). Obtained by distilling 
the root with water. — Pale greenish-yellow ; butter-like ; crystal- 
line ; of penetrating peculiar odour ; tastes nauseous, somewhat 
bitter, at first burning, afterwards cooling ; neutral ; lighter than 
water ; readily soluble in alcohol. 

Oil of Asa-foetida. Obtained by distillation with water. — 
Yellowish ; heavier than water ; of a strong garlic-odour; dissolves 
to a considerable extent in water, readily in alcohol; boils at 130° 
to 140° ; is a mixture of two oils C12 Hn S and C12 Hii S2. 

Oil of Asarum Europsenm. Obtained by distilling the root 
with water. — Yellowish, thickish, lighter than water (according to 
other observations, of 1*018 sp. gr.) ; smells valerian-like ; of burn- 
ing, acrid taste, neutral; contains oxygen. 

Oil of Aspidiom Filix mas (male fem). By ti*eating the 
ether-extract of the tubers with water containing ammonia, filicic 
acid passes into the water, while the oil remains in the ether, to be 


obtained by evaporation. — ^It is dark grass-green, thicker than 
olive oil; of a mild, afterwards rancid taste ; smells like the root ; 
remains liquid at temperatures much below 0°. 

[Oil of Atherospeima moschatum (Australian sassafras). Ob- 
tained by aqueous distillation from the bark. — Thin, unctuous, pale 
yellow when fresh, becomes yellowish-brown by age. Kesembles 
in odour sassafras oil with an admixture of caraways. Taste 
aromatic, bitter, prickling on the tongue. Sp. gr. 1 *04. Boils at 
230° to 245^ Report of Exhibition of 1862]. 

Oil of Atropa Belladonna (deadly night-shade). Obtained by 
pressing the seeds. — A little thicker than linseed oil, inodorous, of 
mild taste, of 0*925 density, dries slowly, becomes very thick and 
turbid at — 16°, congeals completely at — 27°. 

Oil of Balsam of CopaiTa=C-2o Hie. Obtained by distillation 
with water. Is colourless, thin; smells similar to the balsam; 
has an acrid, lasting, bitter taste, of 0*88 to 0*91 density; boils at 

Oil of Balsam of Peru=C32 Hu O* (Cm H7 O + Cia H 7 

O3), Cinnamein or Cinnamate of Benzyl. Boil the balsam with 
a Solution of soda and wash with water. The remnant separates 
into a resiQ and a yellow-brown liquid. Heat the latter to 170°, 
distil with steam of the same temperature, and desiccate the distil- 
late with chloride of calcium. — A colourless oil of great light-re- 
fracting power, liquid at — 12°; has a faint, pleasant smell and 
an acrid, aromatic taste; of 1*098 density; of neutral reaction; 
boils at 340° to 350° and distils under partial decomposition ; dis- 
solves scarcely in water, readily in alcohol and in ether ; is decom- 
posed by potash-ley into benzyl alcohol and cinnamate of potash. 

Oil of BaJSSia, See Bassia Fat and Galam-Butteb. 

Oil of Betnla alba (birch). Obtained by distilling the leaves 
with water. — Colourless, thin; of a pleasant balsamic odour, similar 
to young birch-leaves or roses ; tastes at first mild, sweetish, after- 
wards peculiarly balsamic, acrid, and hot; becomes a little turbid 
and thickish at 0°, but not hard or crystalline even at — 10°; is 
lighter than water; dissolves in 8 parts alcohol of 0*850. [Not 
to be confounded with the oil of birch-bark, obtained by dry dis- 
tillation, and utilised in the preparation of the fragrant Kussian 
leather. — F. v. M.] 

Oil of Brassica alba and B. nijcra (mustard). Fixed oil, 

obtained by pressing the seeds. Is yellow; of 0*917-920 density; 
of mild smell and taste; thickens at — 12°; is not drying. Con- 
tains the glycerides of erucic and sinapoleic acids. 

Oil of Brassica ni(^=C8H5NS2. Obtained by distillation 
with water, but does not preexist. Oils of similar, but as yet 


tindefined constitution, are also obtained from the root of Cochlearia 
Armoracia and of Sisymbrium Alliaria; from the herb of Cochlearia 
officinalis; from the herb and seeds of Iberis amara; mixtures of 
the oils of mustard and of garlic are obtained from the herb and 
seeds of Thlaspi arvense ; from the seeds of Nasturtium officinale ; 
Thlaspi Bursa pastoris; peculiar oils, containing sulphur, are fur- 
nished by Lepicfium sativum, Raphanus sativus, (fee. — It is colour- 
less or yellowish ; of an intensely penetrating smell and taste of 
mustard; of 1*01 density; dissolves slightly in water; readily in 
alcohol and in ether; attacks potassium metal violently, forming 
another oil and sulphocyanide of potassium; decomposes, on heat- 
ing with monosulphide of potassium, into the sulphocyanide and 
oil of garlic; absorbs much ammonia and is conveii;ed into a white 
crystalline mass of thiosinamin zi Cg He N2 S2. 

Oil of Brassica oleraGea=KAPE-oiL. 

Oil of Baphtlialmnm. See Buphthalmum-Stearopten. 

Oil of BuTSera ^mmifera = C20 Hie. Obtained by distilling 
the Gomart-resin (an exudation of the stem) with water. Is 
similar to oil of turpentine. 

Oil of Camelina satiya. Obtained by pressing the seeds. 
Thicker than hempseed-oil, inodorous and tasteless; of 0925 
density; freezes at — 19°; yields soft soaps. Dries at the air. 

Oil of Canella alba (white cinnamon). Obtained by distilling 
the bark with water. It is a mixture of caryophyllic (eugenic) 
acid, an oil similar to that of cajeput and an oxygenised oil. 

Oil of Cannabis sativa (hemp). The fixed oil is obtained by 
pressing the seeds. — At first greenish or bi*ownish-yellow ; turns 
yellow at the air; has a mild taste; specific gravity ^0*927 ; 
dissolves in thirty parts cold and in any proportion of boiling 
absolute alcohol; saponifies with difficulty, the soaps not being 
so soft as those of linseed oil ; belongs to the non-drying oils. 

The volatile oil is obtained by distilling the herb with water. 
Pale-yellow; smells like the green herb; tastes aromatic, not 
burning, but penetrating; is lighter than water. [According to 
Personne, it consists of two hydrocarbons — one liquid (Cannaben 
z:Ci8 H20), the other solid, forming platy crystals (Hydride of 
Cannaben = Cis H22). ] 

Oil of Carapa Guianensis. Obtained by distilling the seeds 
with water. — Colourless, unctuous; of very bitter taste; becomes 
solid at 4°. 

Oil of Canim Carvi (caraway). Obtained by distilling the 
fruit with water. — Colourless or pale-yellow; thin; of a strong 
taste and smell of the fruit; of 091-97 density; begins to boil at 
175°, Carven passing over, while Carvol distils up to 232°. 


(HI of Canim Petrosellmmi (parsley) =Cao Hie. Obtained, 
besides a less volatile stearopten (see Parsley-stearopten), by dis- 
tiUing the fruits with water. — Is freshly distUled greenish-yellow, 
rectified colourless; thin; smells like the fruit; of 1 *01-1 '04 density; 
solidifies between 2^ and 8°; boils between 160° and 170°; dissolves 
readily in alcohol. 

Oil of Chenopodinm ambrosioides (Mexican tea). Obtained 
by distilling the herb with water. — Pale to greenish-yellow, recti- 
fied colourless; very thin; of great light-refracting power; smells 
strongly of the herb; tastes strongly aromatic and cooling similar 
to peppermint; of 0*902 density; boils at 179-181°; dissolves 
readily in alcohol. 

Oil of Chrysantliemiun Partlieniam (pyrethrum). Obtained 

by distillation with water from the flowering herb. — G-reenish ; 
deposits on keepiag stearopten ; distils between 165-220°. 

Oil of Cinnamomiim Burmanni (massoy). Obtained by the 
aqueous distillation of the bark. — Consists of a light, of a heavy 
oil, and of stearopten. The first is colourless, mobile; smells 
similar to sassafras. The heavy oil is thicker, like the first of 
acrid and pungent taste, but of fauiter smell ; is less volatile ; 
becomes thick at — 10°, but not crystalline. The stearopten is 
white, pulverulent, inodorous, almost tasteless, heavier than water. 

Oil of Cittnajnomnm Campliora. See Camphor. 

Oil of Cinnamomum Calilaban. Obtained like the preceding 
oiL — Colourless; smells like the oils of cajeput and cloves mixed ; 
is heavier than water. 

Oil of Cinnamomimi Zeilanienm and C. Cassia (cinnamon) 

ziCis Hs O2. Obtained by distilling with water the bark and 
flowers of the first and the bark of the latter. — Yellow, rectified 
colourless, of the pleasant odour and burning taste of cinnamon; 
of 1*008 density; boils at 220°. — A steropten= C56 H29 Oio sub- 
sides slowly from the oil and appears, after re-ciystallisation in 
alcohol, under the form of colourless and inodorous, highly 
shining, brittle prisms. The oil of the leaves of C. Zeilanicum is 
very similar to that of cloves ; of 1053 density; contains caryo- 
phyllic and benzoic acids and a hydrocarbon C5 H4 . 

Oil of Citrus Aurantilini (orange). The oil of the flowers 
is obtained by aqueous distillation, and consists of an oil, easily 
soluble in water— constituting the so-called Aqua Naphae — and 
another sparingly soluble, which is colourless or yellowish, of 
extremely pleasant odour, of neutral reaction, of 0:85-90 density; 
forms stearopten on keeping. — The oil of the fruit =C2o Hie, is 
obtained by pressing the rind, and is purified by rectification. It 
lias a pleasant smeU, 0-830-0 -880 density, and boils at 180°. The 
oil of G. Aurantium var. sinensis is obtained from the rind of Idie 


fruit in the same manner, and has the same composition as the 
preceding. It resembles oil of lemon. 

Oil of Citrus Beif^amia (bergamot). Prepared like oil of G. 
Anrantium, from the fruit. — Colourless, thin, of very pleasant 
odonr; of 0-860-0-870 density; boils at 183° Is a mixture of a 
hydrocarbon =0^0 Hie, ^uid a hydrate of the same. 

Oil of Citrus Limetta=C2o Hi^. Obtained like oil of lemon, 
and greatly resembling it. 

Oil of Citrus medica (lemon) =€20 Hie. Obtained like the 
preceding. — Colourless or yellowish, thru; of pleasant lemon-odour, 
and 0-840-0 -860 density; boils at 160°-175^ 

Oil of Coclilearia oflBcinalis (scurvy grass) nCe Hs SO. Ob- 
tained by distillation with water from the herb of Cochlearia 
officinalis, C. Danica and C. Anglica. — Possesses the pungently 
acrid smell and taste of the green herb in the highest degree; has a 
density =0-9 4 2. — The so-called Cochlearia stearopten, which forms 
in the aqueous and spirituous distillates of the herb, is a substance 
crystallising in small iridescent laminae and needles of a faint 
odour, but acrid aromatic taste; of 1*248 density; fuses at 45°, 
sublimates unaltered, and consists of Cq H7 O2 (Cg H5 + 2 HOzz 
hydrate of aUyl). 

Oil of Convolvulus scoparius and C. floridns (rosewood). 

Obtained by distilling the root and stem with water, — Pale-yellow, 
thin^ lighter than water; smells of roses and cubebs, a little rancid; 
has a bitter, aromatic taste. 

Oil of Coriaudrum sativum (coriander) =020 Hig O2. Ob- 
tained by aqueous distillation from the fruits. — Colourless or 
yellowish, of the smell and taste of the fruits; neutral; of 0*859- 
0*871 density; boils at 150°, but not constantly. 

Oil of Corylus Avellana. See Hazelnut-Oil. 

Oil of Crocus sativus. Obtained by distillation with water 
from the stigmata. — Yellow, thin, lighter than water, of the 
specific odour of saffron; becomes slowly converted into a solid 
mass, which sinks in water. [The oil is, according to Bochleder, a 
decomposition product of crocin.] 

Oil of CrotOU Eluteria and C. Sloani (cascarilla). Obtained 
by distillation with water from the bark. — Dark yellow; smells of 
camphor, lemons, and thyme; has an aromatic, somewhat bitter 
taste; of 0*938 density; begins to boil at 180°, the boiling point 
rising afterwards. Consists of, at least, two different oils, the more 
volatile of which is probably a hydrocarbon. 

Oil of Croton Tig;lium=CR0T0N Oil. 



Oil of Cuciirbita Pepo (pumpkin). Obtained from the seeds 
by pressing. — Pale-yellow, thick, inodorous, and tasteless; of 0*923 
density; solidifies at — 15°; dries slowly. 

Oil of Cureuma lon^. Obtained by distillation with water 
&om the root. — Citron-yellow, thin, of penetrating smell and hot 

OU of Cnrcuina Zedoaria (zedoary). Obtained, like the fore- 
going, from the tubers. — PaJe-yellow, turbid, thick, heavier than 
water ; has a peculiar fragrant, camphor-like odour, and a some- 
what bitter, hot, camphoraceous taste. 

Oil of Cyperus escolentus (earth-nut). Obtained by pressing 
the tubers. — Yellow, inodorous, mild; of 0*919 density; solidifies 
et 0° ; is readily saponified ; hardens with hyponitric acid. 

Oil of Dahlia purpfircat Obtained by aqueous distillation 
from the tubers. — ^Yellowish; smells very strongly like the tubers; 
has a sweetish, afterwards sub-acrid taste ; sinks slowly in water; 
becomes thick like butter, somewhat crystalline, and separates 
benzoic acid. 

[Oil of Dapline Hezerenm. Fat-oil obtained by pressing the 
fruits. — ^Yellowish, drying oil of at first sweet, afterwards burning- 
sharp and acrid taste, and of 0*8903 density at 15° C. It dissolves 
in ether, sulphide of carbon and benzol, less in strong alcohol; does 
not solidify at — 16°. It forms with concentrated sulphuric acid a 
deep-red, heavy liquid; with concentrated nitric acid a red 
mass of a bitter-almond-like odour. It consists, according to A. 
Oasselmann, of about 10% stearin, palmitin and myristin, and of 
90% linolein and olein, with traces of volatile fat acids and 

Oil of DaucuS Carota (carrot). Obtained by distilling the root 
with water. — Has a peculiar strong, penetrating smell, and a 
similar taste, warming and somewhat disagreeable; of 0*886 

Oil of Dicypellinm caryophyllatnm (clove-bark). Obtained 

by distilling the bark with water. — Is heavier than water; re- 
sembles in odour oil of cloves, and is somewhat similarly consti- 

Oil of Dryolialanops. See Borneen and Bobneol. 
Oil of Elais Guineensis. See Palm-oil. 

Oil of Eleilli=C2o Hie. Obtained by aqueous distillation. — 
Colourless, mobile, smells like elemi-resin; has an acrid taste; of 
0*850 density; boils at 166°-174° 

Oil of Elettaria Cardamomnm (cardamom). Obtained by 
distilling the seeds with water.— Pale-yellow, of the odour and 
taste of the seeds, of 0*92-0*94 density; neutral ; deposits a stea- 



ropteii=C2o H22 Oe, which is isometnc, or identical with hydrate 
of oil of turpentine. 

[Oil of £rl0Stem0Il sqnameus. Obtained by distilling the 
leaves with water. — Pale-yellow, lighter than water; of a taste and 
odour similar to, but milder than, oil of rue. Hep. o/JSxh. q/*1862.] 

Oil of ExcaBCaria. See Tallow, Chinese. 

[OH of EncalyptuSa Obtained by distillation with water from 
the leaves and branchlets of various species of Eucalyptus, especially 

E. amygdalina, the first samples of which were exhibited by Baron 

F. V. Mueller in 1854, and subsequently in 1862 prepared by Mr. 
Johnson, and especially by Mr. J. Bosisto. — ^The oils, obtained 
from different species, often vary very considerably in physical 
properties, as will be seen by the following short description of a 
few of the oils : — £. amygdalina : Pale-yellow, thin; of pungent 
odour, resembling, but coarser than, lemons ; tastes rather mild, 
and cooling, afterwards bitter; of 0*881 sp. gr. at 15°; boils at 
165°-188°; deposits stearopten at — 18°, which melts at — 3°; 
becomes resinous at the air. E, oleosa: Thin, mobile, pale-yellow, 
of mild taste ; flavour camphoraceous, suggestive of turpentine ; 
odour mint-like; sp. gr. = 0*911 ; boils at 16P-177°. E.sideroxyhn: 
Thin, limpid, very pale-yellow, taste and smell like E. oleosa ; sp. 
gr. =0*923; boils at 155°-178°. E. gmiocalyx: Pale-yellow; of 
pungent, penetrating, rather disagreeable odour; taste exceedingly 
unpleasant; sp. gr.zi0*918; boils at 152^-175**. E. globvlvrs: Very 
pale-yeUow, diin ; of cajeput-like odour, but of less disagreeable, 
more cooling, and mint-like taste; of 0*917 sp. gr. ; boils at 
149°-177°. E, corymhoza: Smells slightly of lemons and roses; 
tastes slightly bitter, somewhat camphor-like; colourless; of 0*881 
sp. gr. at 15°. E. ohliqua: Reddish-yellow, of mild odour and 
bitter taste; of 0*899 sp. gr.; boils at 17P-195°; becomes turbid 
at — 1 8°. E, Jissilis: Pale reddish-yellow; smells similar to the pre- 
ceding oil; of 0.903 sp. gr.; boils at 177''-196°. E. odoratar 
Pale-yellowish with a greenish tinge ; smells aromatic ; sp. gr. r= 
0*899-922 ; boils between 157° and 199°. E. langi/olia: Of oily 
consistence ; taste aromatic, cooling; odour fragrant, camphor-like; 
of 0*940 sp. gr.; boils at 194'>-215°. E, rostrata: Pale yellow to 
reddish-amber; smells and tastes like E. odorata; of 0*918; 
boils at 137°-181^ E. viminalis: Pale yellowish-green; of dis~ 
agreeable, but not penetrating smell; of 0.921 sp. gr.; boils at 
159°-182*'. All these oils are now manufactured on a large scale 
by Mr. J. Bosisto, who, by untiring energy, by expenditure of 
capital, and by perseverance, has succeeded in establishing the 
Eucalyptus oils amongst the prominent articles of commerce. 
(Eepwt of the ExhUntum q/'1862.) 

The Eucalyptus oils dissolve resins, <kc., with great ease. 
These substances, arranged according to their diminishing sola* 


bility, form the following series : — Camphor, rosin, mastich, 
callitrifi-sandarac, eiemi, sandarac, kaorie-gum, dammara, asphalt, 
xanthorrhcea-resin, dragon's-blood, benzoin, copal, amber, anime, 
shellac, caoutchouc, beeswax. Gutta-percha is not dissolved. 
(Rep. qfJEoch. of 1862.) According to Cloez, Eucalyptus oil contains 
hycfrocarbons and a distinct compound, Eucalyptolz=C24 H20 O2, 
obtained by repeated fractional distillations. Eucalyptol is a very 
mobile, colourless liquid, boiling at 175°, and of 0*905 sp. gr. at 8^. 
It rotates polarised light to the right ( [a]=:-{- 10*42°), remains 
liquid at — 18°; is little soluble in water, completely in alcohol, the 
43Qlution having a rose-like odour when highly diluted. Eucalyptol 
is slowly acted upon by nitric acid ; converted into a tarry mass 
by oonoentrated flulphuric add; forms, when distiUed with phos- 
phoric anhydride, Eucalyptin=:024 Hig, a liquid boiling at 165°, 
and of 0*836 density.] 

Oil Of Eugenia caryophyllns (cloves). Obtained by distilling 
the flower-buds and flower-stalks with water. — Colourless, but be- 
•comes coloured by age; of the smell and taste of cloves; of 1*030- 
1*060 density. Is a mixture of eugenic acid and a hydrocarbonz: 
•020 Hie- The latter is obtained by distilling the crude oil with 
potash-ley, washing the oily product, desiccating with calcium- 
chloride, and rectifying. It is colourless, of great light-refracting 
power; smells like oil of turpentine, but dissolves more sparingly 
in alcohol; is of 0*910 density; boUs at 142° to 151°. 

Oil of Euonynms Enropseus. Obtained by pressing the 
.•seeds. — Pale-yellow; smells like rape-oil, tastes bitter, afterwards 
rancid; has 0*938 density; solidifies at — 12°; yields the bitter 
principle to warm water ; dissolves with difficulty in alcohol with 
an acid reaction. Contains olein, palmitin, acetin, and free benzoic 

Oil of Fa^ns Sylratica (beech). Obtained by pressing the 
seeda — ^Yellow, of a mild and pleasant taste; of 0*920 density; 
becomes thick and turbid at — 10°, solidifies at — 17°; turns 
easily rancid. 

Oil of Fcenicidum officinale (fennel). Obtained by distilling 
the fruits with water. — Pale-yellow ; smells and tastes like the 
fruit, sweetish and aromatic; solidifies below 10°; is of 0*968 
density at 20°; consists of a hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of 
turpentine, boiling at 185° to 190°, and of liquid and solid 

Oil of Galipea Cusparia (angustura). Obtained by distilling 
the bark with water. — Pale-yellow; smells peculiarly aromatic, 
similar to Idgusticum; tastes at first mild^ afterwards acrid; has a 
density of 0*934; boils at 266°. Is a mixture of a hydrocarbon 
and an oxygenised oil 


Oil of Galbanuill. Obtained by distilling the gum-resin with 
water. — Colourless, of galbanum-odour; of 0*904 density; boils at 
160^; is isomeric with oil of turpentine. 

Oil of Garcinla. See Brindonia Tallow. 

Oil of Gaultiera. See Salicylate of Methyl. 

Oil of Geam urbanmil (avens). Obtained by distilling the 
root with water. — Greenish-yellow, of butter-consistenoe, smells of 

Oil of Hedwl^a balsamifera. Obtained by distillation with 
water from the balsam. — Yellow, has a pleasant turpentine-like 
odour and a hot taste; is lighter than water. 

Oil of HeliantllUS annuilS (sunflower). Obtained by pressing 
the seeds. — Pale-yellow, thicker than hempseed oil, of 0*92& 
density, dries slowly; becomes turbid even at an ordinary tempera- 
ture; solidifies completely at — 16^. 

Oil of Hesperis matronalis. Obtained by pressing the seeds. 
— Greenish, turns brown pn keeping; of 0*928 density; almost 
inodorous, drying readily; still completely liquid at — 16^. 

Oil of HumulllS Lupulus (hops)=C2o H^, mixed with C20 Hie 
+ 2 HO. Obtained by aqueous distillation from the female 
flowers.— Colourless or yellowish, thin; smeUs penetrating-narcotic 
of hops; tastes hot, slightly bitter like wild marjoram and thyme; 
is neutral, of 0-910 density. The hydrocarbon distils between 
125°-175^ the hydrate at 210°. 

Oil of HyOSCyamns ni^r (henbane). Obtained by pressing 
the seeds. — ^Pale green-yelloV, rather thin, inodorous, mild, of 
0*913 density, dissolves scarcely in 60 parts absolute alcohol. 

Oil of HySSOpnS oflBcinaliS (hyssop). Obtained by distilling 
the herb with water. — Colourless, of peculiar odour; of acrid, 
camphoraceous taste and of neutral reaction; has a density of 
0-88-0 -98 ; distils between 142° and 162^ the last portion coloured; 
is a mixture of at least two different oils. 

Oil of latroplia Curcas. From the pressed seeds, called physic- 
nuts. — Colourless, inodorous, mild, of 0*91 density, congeals at — 8° 
butter-like; dissolves scarcely in alcohol; contains the glycerids of 
ricinoleic and isocetic acids. 

Oil of Illicimu amsatmn (star-anise). Obtained by distilling 
the capsules with water. — ^Yellowish, of a sweetly aromatic smell 
and taste, of 0-976 density at 20°; separates cold a stearopten 
consisting of anethol. 

Oil of niipe. See Galam Butter. 

Oil of Iris. See Iris Stearopten. 

Oil of Inrinj^a. See Dica Fat. 


Oil of Jof^lans regtiu See Walnut Oil. 

Oil of JonipeniS COmiI11inis=C2o Hie. Obtaiaed by distil- 
ling the berry-Hke fruits with water. — Colourless or yellowish, 
smells strongly of the fruits; of 0*847-0 '870 density; dissolves little 
in alcohol. The oil of the ripe fruits boils at 205°; deposits on 
keeping or in a cold place a stearopten, which is heavier than 
water. The oil of the unripe fruits contains a more volatile oil, 
boiling at 155°, and another boiling at 205°^ like the oil of the ripe 

Oil of Junipems Sabina (savin) =020 Hie. Obtained by dis- 
tilling the branchlets with water. — Colourless, of a strong taste 
and smell of the shrub, of 0-89-0-94 density; boHs at 155°-161^ 

Oil of Junipems Tirg^iniana (pencil or red cedar). Obtained 
by distilling the wood with water. — ^A soft, white, crystalline mass 
of a peculiar aromatic smell; solidifies at 27° after desiccation, 
distils on the main at 282°. — Mixture of a liquid hydrocarbon and 
an oxygenised stearopten. The hydrocarbon, Cedren^iCso H24, is 
obtained by pressing the crude oil and rectifying the liquid 
portion, when cedren passes over at 264°-268°, and is re-distilled 
with metallic potassium. It is now colourless, of 0*948 density, 
and boils at 237°. The cedar-stearopten forms white needles of 
satin-lustre, and fuses at 79°. 

Oil of Laums iiobilis=BAY Oil. 

Oil of Lavandala (lavender). Obtained by aqueous distilla- 
tion from the flowers of L. Stoechas, L. angustifolia, and L. lati- 
folia. — Pale-yellow, thin, of a pleasant smell of the flowers; has a 
burning, bitter, aromatic, acrid taste; is neutral, of 0'876--0*880 
density, boils at 185°-188°, dissolves readily in alcohol. Its com- 
position is Csd H28 O 4 , but it consists of two portions, a liquid 
and a solid one, the latter being identical with common camphor. — 
The oil, distilled from the stalks and leaves or from the whole 
herb, is called oil of Spike. It smells not so pleasant as oil of 
Lavender, has a greater density and contains more stearopten. 

Oil of Ledum palUStre (wild rosemary). Obtained by distil- 
lation with water. — Consists in the main of a hydrocarbon :iiC20 H 
and of an oxygenised oil. It has, fresh, the composition Cso Hes O5 . 
Prom the oil soon a stearopten crystallises, which forms colourless, 
flne prisms of a faint odour of the herb, and somewhat similar to 
roses and turpentime; of a warming, aromatic taste; fuses with 
a gentle heat, sublimates at a higher temperature, and contains a 
hydrocarbon z=C2o Hie, and its hydrate zz5Cio Hg + 3H0. 

Oil of Lepidinm satiyam (cress). Obtained by pressing the 
seeds. — Brown-yellow, of specific taste and odour, of 0*924 
density; becomes thick and turbid at -r- 6°, solid at — 15°; dries 


Oil of Llnum. See Linseed Oil. 

Oil of Liiciima. See Shea Butter. 

Oil of Lyeopus Earopaens. Obtained from the herb by dis- 
tillation with water. — ^Green, butter-like; smells like the herb; has 
an acrid taste. 

Oil of Hadia sativa. Obtained by pressing the seeds. —Deep- 
yellow, thick, mild, of 0*935 density; solidifies at — 10° to — 17°; 
dries slowly. 

Oil of JHatricaria Cliamomilla (German chamomile). Ob- 
tained from the flowers by distillation with water. — Dark-blue, 
thick, smells strongly of the flowers, tastes aromatic hot, is lighter 
than water. Has nearly the same composition as common cam- 
phor zi C20 Hie O 2 . 

[According to Kachler it contains capric acid, an oil isomeric 
or polymeric with common camphor, and boiling at 150°— 165°; 
another oil of the same composition, deep-blue, of 281°-289° 
boiling point, and identical with blue oil of galbanum (of 281" 
boiling point); also a small quantity of hydrocarbon ZZC20 Hie. 
The distilled water contains, besides, propionic acid.] 

Oil of Helalcuca (cajeput). Obtained by aqueous distillation 
from the foliage and branchlets of different species, especially M. 
Leucodendron. — Pale-green, rectified colourless, of a penetrating 
camphoraceous smell and burning taste, of 0*9 1-0*94 density; 
boils at 175°; dissolves readily in alcohoL 

[HI, ericifolia* Pale-yellow, taste and smell like cajeput-oil ; 
thin, of 0*899-0*902 density, boils at 149°-184° — Jlf. WUsanii. 
Resembles cajeput-oil; of 0*925 density. — M. parvi/lora. Of oily 
consistence and amber colour, 0*938 density; boils at 185°-209°; 
resembles the foregoing. — M. uncinata. Green, smells like M. 
ericifolia with an admixture of peppermint. — M, genisti/olia. 
Pale greenish-yellow, mild in odour and taste. — M, sqita/rrosa. 
Green, of disagreeable taste. — M, lina/rifolia. Light straw- 
coloured, mobile; of rather pleasant, cajeput-like odour; taste very 
agreeable, suggestive of mace, afterwards mint-like; of 0*903 
density; boils at 175^-187°— ^ep. of Exh. of 1862.] 

Oil of Helissa officinalis (balm). Obtained from the whole herb 
by aqueous distillation. — Pale-yellow, thin, of a pleasant lemon- 
like smell and of 0*85-0*92 density. 

Oil of Mentha. Obtained by distilling the herb with water. — 
M, piperita (peppermint): Colourless, yellowish or greenish- 
yellow, of peculiar odour and burning, camphoraceous, then cooling 
taste; of 0*84-0*92 density; boils at 188°-193°; dissolves readily 
in alcohol — M. Pulegivm (penny-royal) zzCgo Hie O2 . Of 0*927 
density; boils at 183°-188«.— Jf. viridis (spearmint): Of 0-91- 


0*93 density; after the stearopten has been removed by rectifica- 
tion, of 0*876 density; boils rather constantly at 160°. [Glad- 
stone found in the crude oil a hydrocarbon almost identical with 
oil of turpentine, mixed with an oxydised oil=C2o H14 O 2, which 
is isomeric with carvol, of 0*951 density, 225° boiling point, and 
bearer of the peculiar smell of the plant. — M, australis: Like 
peppermint-oil of second quality. — M, gracilis : Odour between 
peppermint and penny-royal; of 0*914 density. — M. laaci flora: Of 
■coarse smell; of fiery, bitter, very unpleasant, naoseous taste; of 
0*924 density.— jBqo. o/Exh. of 1862.] 

Oil of MercmialiS anniia. Obtained from the (dried) herb 
by distillation with water. — Of a thickish consistence. The green 
herb is said to yield no oil. 

Oil of HoriniCft Oleifera (ben). Fat-oil of the seeds. — Pale- 
yellowish, of 0*912 density; fluid at 25°, thick at 15°, solid at lower 
temperatures; inodorous, of a pleasant mild taste (according to 
others, acrid and bitter); saponifies slowly ; contains a peculiar, 
solid fat-acid, Benic acid =€44 H44 O4. — The oil of M, aptera 
<;ontains a peculiar but liquid fat-acid, Moringic acid, which 
scarcely differs from oleic acid. 

Oil of Hyriea. See Myrica Wax. 

Oil of Myrica Gale (gale). Obtained by distilling the leaves with 
water. — Brownish-yellow, at 12° thickish; of a peculiar, pleasant, 
balsamic odour ; tastes at fiinst mild, afterwards hot, and lastingly 
styptic; is of neutral reaction, of 0*876 density; dissolves in 40 
parts alcohol of 0.875. 

Oil of Myristica frajprans. Obtained by distillation with 
water. — (a) From mace, the covering of the seeds; yellowish, thin, 
smells strongly like mace, of a burning aromatic taste ; separates 
no solid at — 12°, begins to boil at 160°, the temperature slowly 
rising to 180°. The composition of the oil is 3C2oHie + HO, the 
more volatile portion being a hydrocarbon of thyme-like odour, 
0*853 density.- ~(6) From the seeds (nutmegs). Nearly colourless, 
thin, of a strong smell and taste of the seeds, neutral ; yields no 
sediment, even at — 7°; is of 0*850 density; commences to boil at 
160°, the temperature rising slowly beyond 200°. Its composition 
is exactly like oil of mace. 

Oil of Myrrh =020 Hu O2. Obtained by distillation with 
water. Pale-yellow, thickish, of the taste and smell of myrrh ; 
lighter than water ; of acid reaction. 

Oil of MyrtuS COmmnnis (myrtle). Obtained from the leaves, 
flowers, and fresh fruits by aqueous distillation. — ^Yellowish or 
.greenish yellow, lighter than water. 


Oil of Narcissus Jonqnilla (jonqiiil). Extracted' from tli& 
flowers by ether. — Yellow, of butter consistence, of pleasant smell 
of the flowers. 

'Oil of Nastnrtium officinale. Obtained by distillation. — ^BoOs 
between 120-280°. Consists in the main of Cig H9N, which boils- 
at 253*3**, and is of 1-0014 sp. gr. at 18°. — ^Hoffman.] 

Oil of NicotianaTabacum (tobacco). Fixed oil of the seeds. — 
Gold-yellow, inodorous, mild, of 0*917 density, liquid even at 
— 15°; dissolves in 168 parts alcohol of 93 %; saponifies easily; is. 
not drying. See also Nicotianin. 

Oil of iVij^ella Sativa. Obtained by distilling the seeds with 
water. — Colourless, with a bluish fluorescence ; lighter than water,, 
smells like a mixture of fennel and oil of bitter almonds. 

Oil of (Enantlie Pliellandrinm. Essential oil of the fruits. — 
Yellow or brownish, thin; smells and tastes penetrating, similar Uy 
the fruit ; is of 0*852 density, and neutral reaction. 

Oil of Olea Eiirop8ea=: Olive Oil. 

Oil of Olibanuin* Obtained by aqueous distillation. — ^Yellowish,, 
thin ; smells turpentine-like, but pleasanter ; of 0*866 density ; 
boils at 162°; consists of two oils, one of which contains oxygen, 
the other being a hydrocarbon = C20 Hie- 

Oil of Ori^nnm Hajorana (sweet marjoram). Obtained from 
the herb by aqueous distillation. — Yellow-green, of a lighter hue 
after rectification ; of a penetrating odour of the herb ; of a warm- 
ing, acrid, slighiiy bitter taste ; of sub-acid reaction and 0*89 
density; boils almost constantly at 163°; forms by age or intense 
cold a stearopteni=Ci4 H15 Oq, 

Oil of Origanum VUl^rc (wild marjoram)=C5oH4oO. Ob- 
tained like the preceding. — ^Pale or brown-yellow, smells strongly 
of the herb, has an acrid aromatic taste, is neutral, of 0*86-90 
density; forms a stearopten on keeping. 

Oil of Osmitopsis asterlscoides = C20 , Hig O2. Obtained 

from the flowers by aqueous distillation. — ^Yellowish, rectified 
colourless, thin; smells penetrating, unpleasant of camphor and 
cajeput;. has a burning, rancid taste; dissolves readily in alcohol; 
has a density of 0-921; boils at 178°. 

Oil of Papaver somnifcnmi (poppy). Fixed oil of the seeds. 

— Gold-yellow, thin, has a slightly acrid taste and a density of 
0*924 ; solidifies at — 18°; dries at the air more readily than linseed 
oil; dissolves in 25 parts cold and in 6 parts hot alcohol; saponifies 

[Oil of Pastinaca satiTa. Obtained from the fruits of aqueous 
distillation. — Colourless, clear, of not unpleasant odour and 


aromatic taste^ of neutral reaction and 0*8672 density at 17*5^; 
consists for the greater part of butjrate of octyl (capryl). YoN 

on of Pelaifionlimi* Obtained by aqueous distillation from the 
leaves and flowers of P. odoratissimum, P. Kadula and P. capi- 
tatimi. — Colourless, of thick fluidity and roselike odour, becomes 
turbid at 0"". Consists of pelargonic acid and a neutral oil. 

Oil of Peneedaniim. Obtained by aqueous distillation. — (a) 
From the herb of P. OreMdinum : Of a strong, aromatic, juniper- 
like odour and 0*840 density; boils at 163°; hydrocarbonn 
C20 H16. — (6) From the root of P. Osi/rutJiium : Colourless or 
pale-yellow, thin, of penetrating odour; of a warm, camphoraceous 
taste similar to oil of carrots. Is a mixture of various hydrates of 
a hydrocarbon = C20 Hie. 

OH of Philadelphus coronariiis* Obtained from the flowers 
by extraction with ether. — Gold-yellow, in large quantities nar- 
cotic; of a delicious odour when diffused. 

Oil of Pimenta officinalis (allspice). Obtaiaed from the 
fruits by aqueous distillation, — Greatly resembles oil of cloves; has 
also a similar constitution; of 1*030 density. 

Oil of Pimpinella. Obtained by distillation with water. — (a) 
From the fruits of P, Anisum (anis): Colourless or yellowish, 
possessing in a high degree the odour and the sweetish aromatic 
taste of the fruits; liquefies at 17®; has at 20° a density of 0*977; 
dissolves readily in alcohol; contains variable quantities of an 
elseopten and a stearopten, of the latter 25% to 80%. As for 
constitution, see Anethol. — (b) From the root of PimpineUa 
nigra : Light-blue, lighter than water, of a less penetrating odour 
than the following o3 ; of a burning taste of the root, afterwards 
irritating the throat. — (e): From the root of P. saoci/raga (pim- 
pernel) ; gold-yellow, thin, lighter than water, resembles in 
smell parsley-fruits; has a nauseous, bitter, afterwards rancid 

Oil of PimiSt The volatile oil (oil of turpentine =iC2o Hie) 
pervades all parts of the numerous species of the above genus, 
and is mostly obtained from the resinous exudations by distil- 
lation with water. It is colourless, thin, of 0*850-0*880 density, 
boils at 150^-160°; has a strong, specific smell and taste; dissolves 
only by traces in water, sparingly in alcohol, readily in ether; is 
converted by hydrochloric gas into two compounds, a solid and a 
liquid one. 

The fat-oils of Pinus are obtained by pressing the seeds, (a) 
From P. Abies: Brown-yellow, of turpentine-like smell and taste^ 
and 0*928 density; remains liquid at — 15°. — (b) From P. Piceat 
Brown-yellow; of pleasant, balsamic odour and mild, aromatic 


tftste; of 0*926 deDsity. Is a mixture of renn, a v(datile and a 
falroil, the latter more ^lowlj drying and more readily soluble in 
absolute alcohol, than other drying oils. — (c) From F. splvestris: 
Brown-yellow, of turpentine-like taste and smell, and of 0*931 
density; becomes thicker at — 16^, at — 27^ whitish and turbid, at 
— 30° solid; dries readily. 

Oil of Pinus 8aMiiiaDa= Abieten. 

Oil of Piper Cubeba^ Obtained from the fruits' (cubebs) by 
aqueous distillation. — Colourless, thick; the portion which distils 
laat in rectifying almost of butter-consistence; has a density of 
0*936 : distils mostly at 250°-260°: has a faint aromatic odour, and 
a wailing taste ke camphor Ud peppermint; is of neitntl 
reaction, and consists of a liquid hydrocarbon and an oxygenised 
stearopten.. The hydrocarbon, Cubebeni^Oao H24, distils first, is 
less thick than the crude oil, and has a density of 0*919. — The 
stearopten^Cso Has O2, is obtained by cold pressing and re- 
crystallising from alcohol. It forms colourless, klmorhombic 
prisms of glass-lustre; smells faintly like cubebs; tastes hot, after- 
wards cooling; is of neutral reaction; liquefies at 69° to an oil of 
0*926 density; boils at 160°; sublimates unchanged in small 
quantities ; dissolves readily in alcohol, ether, oils, and acetic acid, 
not in alkalies. 

Oil of Piper angUStifolimn (matico). Obtained by distillation 
from the leaves. — Pale-green, somewhat thick, of a strong, cam- 
phoraceous smell and taste; is, when long kept, heavier than water, 
becomes thicker, and at last crystalline. 

Oil of Piper nigrum (pepper) = C20 Hie. Obtained from the 
fruits by distilling with water. — Colourless, thin, of a hot peppery 
taste and smell, and 0*864 density; boils at 167*5° to 170**. 

[Oil of PittOSponmi imdlllatlllll» Obtained from the flowers 
by distillation. — Limpid, colourless, lighter than water; of an 
exceedingly agreeable, jasmine-like odour; taste disagreeably hot 
and bitter, slightly reminding of turpentine and rue. — Eep. of 
Exh. of 1862.] 

Oil of Popnlus (poplar). Obtained by aqueous distillation from 
the leaf-buds of P. nigra and other species. — Colourless, lighter 
than water ; of pleasant, balsamic odour. 

Oil of Prminla Auricula, See Pbimbose-Steabopten. 

[Oil of Prostantliera. Obtained from the leaves by aqueous 
distillation. — P. Ladanthoa: Oreenish-yellow, of mint-like odour 
and taste, and 0*912 density. — P, rot^ndifoUa: Of darker colour 
and 0.941 density, otherwise resembling the foregoincr oiL — Bep, of 
J^asfe. 0/1862.] 


Oil of PnuillS Amy^lllS. The fat-oil (almond-oil) i» 
obtained by pressing the seeds. — Yellowish, mild, thinner than 
olive-oil; of 0*920 density; becomes thickish at — 10°, at — 16° 
white and at — 21° of butter-consistence; contains more oleinthan 
olive-oil; dissolves in 25 parts cold and in 6 parts hot alcohol^ in 
any quantity of ether; does not dry. 

The volatile oil, Oil of Bitter Almonds zzCi4 Hg O2, does not 
exist ready formed, but is produced from amygdalin, when in con- 
tact with water and emukin, together with hydrocyanic acid. Of 
plants,, yielding those two products, many are known in the order 
of Rosace® (see Amygdalin). The oil, obtained by distillation, is 
freed from hydrocyanic acid by shaking with potash-ley or 
hydrated iron-suboxyd and water or mercury-oxyd and water; 
then poured off and rectified. — ^A colourless, thin oil of peculiar 
obour and burning aromatic taste; of 1*043 density; boils at 
180°; dissolves in 30 parts water, readily in alcohol and ether; is, 
by keeping at the air, converted into benzoic aoid; solidifies under 
the influence of ammonia slowly to a crystalline mass (hydro- 

(HI of ^nercns. Obtained by distilling the fruit (acorns) of 
Q. robur with water, — Of butter-consistence and peculiar, strong 
smell; lighter than water. 

Oil of Reseda lnteola% Obtained by pressing the seeds. — 
Dark-green, thin, of nauseous taste and smell; of 0*935 density; 
remains liquid at — 15°; dries readily. 

Oil of Reseda Odorata. Obtained from the flowers by ex- 
traction with ether. — Is yellowish, thickish through the admixture 
of wax; lighter than water; of a most pleasant odour. 

Oil of Riei]ias=0AST0B Oil. 

Oil of Rosat Obtained by aqueous distillation from the 
flowers of various roses, especially from R. centifolia, R. Damas- 
cena, R. Indica, R. moschata, and R. sfempervirens.-rColourless, at 
ll°-16° of lamellai'-crystalline appearance, fuses at 20° to 30°, has 
a fragrant rose-odour and a mild, somewhat sweetish flavour; is of 
0*870 density at 18°, and boils at 227°. It is a mixture of an 
inodorous stearopten=:Ci6 Hie, fnsing at 32° to 35°, distilling un- 
decomposed at 280°— 300°, and an oxygenised elseopten, which is 
the odoriferous principle. [According to R. Baur, the elseopten is 
convertible into the stearopten by treating with zinc, hydrochloric 
acid, and alcohol.] 

Oil of Rosmarinus Oificinalls (rosemary). Obtained from the 
leaves and flowers by aqueous distillation. — Colourless or yellow- 
ish, tastes and smeUs of the herb, somewhat camphorlike; of 
0*886-0*933 density; dissolves readily in alcohol. It is a 


mixture of hydrocarbon, isomeric with oil of turpentine, and an 
oxygenised oU. 

Oil of Rnbus Idacns. See Easpberbt-Steabopten. 

Oil of Ruta f^TeolenS (rue). Obtained from the whole 
plant by distillation as usual. — Colourless, has a strong smell 
and taste of the herb, is of 0*831 density, congeals at — V to 
2° completely to a mass of laminaa, boils at 228°-230°. Is in the 
main capryl aldehyde C20 H20 O2. 

Oil of Sa^apennm, By distilling the resin with water. — 
Thin, yellow, lighter than water; fresh of a nauseous, garlic-Uke 
odour, assuming by and by the smell of turpentine; yields, on 
drying, a translucid varnish; dissolves readily in alcohol. 

Oil of Salvia officinalis (sage). Obtained from the herb 
by aqueous distillation. — Greenish-yellow, has the smell and taste 
of the herb; is of 0*864 density; boils between 130° and 160°. 
Is a mixture of several oxygenised oils, also of a stearopten, 
which forms spontaneously on keeping. 

Oil of SambttCUS ni^ra (elder). Obtained from the flowers by 
distillation. — Light-yellow, thin or of butter-consistence, smells 
strongly of the flowers ; has a bitter, burning, afterwards cooling 
taste ; is lighter than water. 

Oil of Sassafras 0fficilia.liS=Ci8 Hio O 2 . Obtained from the 
root by distillation with water. — Brownish-yellow ; of a fennel-like 
smell and taste, and 1*09 density; boils between 115° to 228°. 
[Consists, according to Grimaux and Ruotte, of Safren = C20 Hie, 
Safrol = C20 Hio O 4 , and a very small amount of a phenol. Safren 
boils at 155**-! 5 7°, is dextro-rotating (H-17^° for 10 centimeters), 
and has at 0° a density of 0*8345. Safrol is optically inactive, of 
1-1141 density at 0^ and boils at 231 -233^ It must be distilled 
in a current of hydrogen gas.] 

Oil of Sesamum orientale (sesam6). Obtained by pressing 
the seeds. — Light-yellow, inodorous, mild, of 0*919 density at 23°, 
congeals at — 5°. Sesam^ oil, either pure or mixed with oils of 
almond or olive, assumes a beautiful transient green colour, when 
agitated with a mixture of one-half volume of nitric and one-half 
volume of sulphuric acid. 

Oil of Spiraea Ulmaria (meadow-sweet) =€20 His O4. Ob- 
tained from the flowers by aqueous distillation. The crude oil 
contains also salicylous acid and a stearopten, from both of which 
it is purified by agitating with potash-ley and subsequent rectifi- 
cation. — Colourless, lighter than water, similar in smell to salicylous 
acid, of a slightly burning taste, partly solidifying by cold; readily 
dissolving in alcohol. 

Oil of Storax. See Styrol. 


Oil of Syrinj^ Tnljpiris (lilac). Extracted from the flowers 
loj ether. — Amber-yellow, smells similar to the flowers; deposits on 
keeping a hard, wax-like substanca 

Oil of Tanacetum vnlj^re (tansy). Distilled with water from 
the herb and flowers. — ^Yellow, thin, of the specific odour of the 
plant, lighter than water. 

Oil of Tencrium Hamiii. See Marum-Camphob. 

Oil of Thea CMnensis (tea). Obtained by distilling Chinese 
tea with water, shaking the turbid distillate with ether, pouring 
the ethereous solution off, and evaporating. — Lemon-yellow, 
lighter than water, solidifies on keeping, is of a strongly narcotic 
i^hke odour and a simikr taste, but without any astringency. 

Oil of Theobroma. See Cacao-fat. 

Oil of Thuya OCCidentaliS. Distilled from the green parts by 
w^ater. — Colourless to greenish-yellow, of 0*925 density and cam- 
phoraceous smell and taste, boils at 190°, and for the greater part 
^t 193''-197°; dissolves readily in alcohol. Is a mixture of at 
least two oxygenised oils. 

Oil of niymus Serpillnm. Obtained by distillation with 
water. — Gold-yellow; of a pleasant odour of lemon and thyme, and 
•of an aromatic, somewhat bitter taste ; of 0*89-0 '91 density. 

Oil of Tilia Enropaea. Distilled by water from the flowers. — 
Colourless or yellowish, lighter than water, smells strongly and 
pleasantly of the fresh flowers, has a sweetish taste; dissolves 
readily in alcohol. 

Oil of Tropaeotum majHS. Obtained by distilling the fruits 
with water. — ^Yellow, heavier than water ; of a peculiar, strongly 
^aromatic odour and acrid, burning taste; inflames the skin even 
more than mustard-oil; boils at 120°-130°; contains sulphur. 
[Contains, according to A. W. Hofrnann, as chief constituent on 
oil=:Ci6 H7 N, of aromatic odour, colourless, of 1'0146 density 
at 18°; boils at 226°. The same compound also occurs in the 
ethereal oil of Lepidium sativum, obtained from the herb, the 
^ueous distillate of which requires agitating with benzol^ in order 
to deliver up the oil.] 

Oil of Tarpentine. See Oil op Pinus. 

Oil of Yaleriaiia officinalis. Distilled from the root by water. 
— ^Thin, yellowish, neutral; smells of the dried root; is of 0-90-0 '9 6 
density; dissolves readily in alcohol. It is a mixture of valerol 
(70%)=zCi2 Hio O2, valeren or bomeenziC2o Hie, bomeol = 
Oao His 2 , and valerianic acid. 

Oil of Vitis vinifera. Obtained by pressing the seeds (raisin- 
stones).. — Colourless or yellowish, almost devoid of smell ; has a 


sweetish^ aromatic taste; of 0*920 density; solidifies to butter- 
consistence at — 11°; turns readily rancid, yellow, and thick at the 
air; yields very soft soaps. [Contains, according to Fritz, mainly 
erucic, also stearic and palmitic acids as glycerids.] 

[Oil of Zieria Smitllii. Distilled from the leaves by water. — 
Pale-yellow, of the taste and odour of rue; of 0*950 density. 
—R&p. ofExh, 0/1862.] 

Oil of lABUpibet ofBeinale (ginger) = C20 Hw + HO. Obtained 
from the tubers by aqueous distillation.— Yellowish, very thin, 
smells strongly of ginger, tastes burning-aromatic; has a density of 
0-893; boils at 246°. 

Olcandrln. Alkaloid of the leaves and branches of Nerium 
Oleander^ accompanied by another alkaloid named Fseudo-curarin. 
To prepare it, precipitate the concentrated aqueous decoction 
exactly with tannic acid, treat the deposit, after washing with a 
little cold water, for a short time only with an aqueous solution of 
tannic acid. Tannate of pseudo-curarin is hereby dissolved, and 
the tannate of Oleandrin remains. The latter, after dissolving in 
ether, is treated with hydrate of lime, in order to remove tannic 
acid and chlorophyll, and the filtrate is allowed to evaporate spon- 
taneously. — Slightly yellowish, resin-like; very bitter, slightly 
soluble in water, readily so in alcohol and in ether, forms with 
acids uncrystaJlkable salts; is pi«cipitable by chloride of gold and 
by chloride of platinum. It acts as a poison. 

Oleic Acid=C3e Hsg O3 + HO. Contained as tri-olein in most 
of the (non-drying) liquid and solid fats. Saponify for instance 
oil of almonds or olive-oil with soda-ley, decompose the soap with 
hydrochloric acid, digest the separated fat-acids for several horns 
at 100° with lead-oxyd and treat the product with ether, the latter 
dissolving the Oleate of lead, while leaving behind the compounds 
of lead with the solid fat- acids. The ethereous solution, when 
agitated with an excess of aqueous hydrochloric acid, throws down 
chloride of lead, which sinks to the bottom of the lower aqueous 
fluid, while the Oleic' acid remains with the ether and is obtained 
after the evaporation of the solvent, though contaminated by the 
products of oxydation and by dyeing matters. To remove these, 
allow the acid to solidify at — 6° to 7° and press between blotting 
paper, which absorbs the impurities. — Forms beautiful, snow-white 
needles, inodorous and tasteless; has a neutral reaction even when 
^ unchanged and dissolved in alcohol; fuses at 14^, congeals at 4° to 
a hard crystalline mass, is of 0*898 density at 15% evaporates in a 
vacuum without decomposition, becomes brown above 100® and 
decomposes more and more; is in the solid state unalterable at 
the air, but absorbs, when liquid, much oxygen and turns rancid; 
is insoluble in water and mixes with alcohol and ether in every 


proportion. The Oleates are soft, frequently oily, or readily 
fusible to an oil ; they dissolve more readily in alcohol, and 
especially in ether, than in water. The Oleic acid forms a solid 
mass with hyponitric acid. 

Oleln (Tri-olein)zzCio8 Hio4 OiaziCe Hg O3 + 3 C36 H33 O3. 
Forms the main ingredient of the non-drying oils, and is in less 
quantity contained also in solid fats. Expose any fixed oil of 
this kind to a temperature of — 5°, press, treat the liquid portion 
again to a temperature of — 10°, and press again, removing the solid 
part. — Neutral oil, inodorous, of mild taste, and of 0*914 density ; 
remains liquid below — 10°; volatilizes in a vacuum, undecomposed^ 
and partly at ordinary temperature; dissolves very little in 
alcohol, copiously in ether, is more readily saponified than the 
drying oils and the solid fats; becomes rancid at the air, and of a 
thicker consistence in thin layers, but not dry. Is solidified by 
hyponitric acid. 

Olibamuil. Gum-resinous exudation of Boswellia Carterii. — 
Yellowish or brownish grains, on the surface of a mealy appear- 
ance, of a faint aromatic smell, which becomes stronger on 
warming, of an aromatic, somewhat acrid, bitter taste ; contains^ 
56% resin, 31% gum, 6% bassorin, and 5% volatile oil. The resin 
is reddish yellow, brittle, tasteless, softens at 100°, but fuses only 
at a much higher temperature, and consists of C40 H32 Oe. 

Olivamarin. Bitter ingredient of all parts of Olea Europsea, 
occurring especially in the leaves, and still more in the unma- 
tured frmts, but as yet only known as extract. 

Olive OH, Obtained by pressing the succulent part of the 
fruit of Olea Europsea. — Greenish yellow, of mild and pleasant 
taste, and of 0*916 density ; congeals partly at 10° to granules, at 
0° completely ; dissolves very little in wood spirit and alcohol. 
Consists in the main of 30% palmitin, and of 70% olein. 

Olivil = C28 His Oio + 2 HO. In the gum of the olive-tree, 
associated with resin and with a little benzoic acid. Treat the gum 
with ether, which dissolves the resin; boil the residue with alcohol 
of 36° B. ; filter hot and let cool. A crystalline pulp is obtained, 
which has to be washed with cold alcohol, and recrystallised in 
boiling alcohol. — ^Forms colourless crystals, inodorous, of a bitter- 
sweet and slightly aromatic taste, neutral, fuses at 120°, losing its 
water ; decomposes in a higher temperature ; dissolves little in 
cold, in 32 parts boiling water, readily in alcohol, wood spirit, and 
concentrated acetic acid, little in ether and oils ; turns blood-red 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, and becomes later carbonized; 
is not altered by diluted sulphuric or hydrochloric acids. 

Onoceiilli=C24 H20 O2. In the root of Ononis spinosa. 
Evaporate the alcoholic tincture of the root to the consistence of 


syrup, press the crystals which will have formed after a few days; 
wash with cold water^ and re-crystallise with aid of animal char- 
coal. — Small, delicate, very voluminous crystals of a beautiful 
satin-lustre ; inodorous and tasteless, highly electrified by friction, 
neutral, fusible, insoluble in water, soluble in boiling alcohol, very, 
little so in ether, readily in warm oil of turpentine ; unaffected by 
alkalies and hydrochloric acid. 

Ononid = C36 H22 Oie. Bitter-sweet substance of the dried 
root of Ononis spinosa, perhaps formed on drying from glycyrr- 
hizin. Precipitate the aqueous decoction with diluted sulphuric 
acid; wash the brown flocks with cold water, dry, dissolve in 
absolute alcohol, evaporate the solution to dryness, and repeat 
dissolving and evaporating until the remnant is perfectly soluble 
in absolute alcohol. — ^Dark-yellow, amorphous, brittle mass of at 
first bitter, afterwards lasting sweet taste; has an acid reaction; 
fuses by heat and becomes decomposed; dissolves in water and 
alcohol ; is precipitable by metallic salts. 

OllOIli]l=Oeo H34 O26. Crystalline substance of the root of 
Ononis spinosa. Precipitate the decoction with acetate of lead; 
impregnate the filtrate with sulphuret of hydrogen; wash the 
deposit, consisting of sulphide of lead and of Ononin, dry, boil 
with alcohol, and recrystallise the Ononin which has been dis- 
solved out, with aid of animal charcoal. — Forms colourless, 
quadrangular needles or leaflets, inodorous and tasteless; fuses at 
235°, is decomposed by more heat; is insoluble in cold, little soluble 
in boiling water, sparingly in strong alcohol, almost insoluble in 
ether ; dwsolves in concentrated sulphuric acid, with red-yellow 
colour, passing to cherry-red; separates, on boiling with diluted 
acids, into sugar and Formonetin (formate of OnonetinirCie H19 
O9 H- C2 HO 3), the latter separating in a crystalline form; by 
boiling with alkalies or with alkaline earths formic acid is formed 
and crystalline OnospinzzCgs H34 O24. Formonetin is tasteless, 
Onospin nearly so. 

[OpheliC Acid=C26 H20 O20. Discovered by Hoehn in the 
root and herb of Ophelia Chirata. Prepared by extracting the 
pulverised herb with alcohol of 60%, &c. — A deliquescent, syrupy, 
yellowish-brown substance, of at first slightly acid, afterwards 
intensely and lastingly bitter taste, of gentian-like odour, espe- 
cially on warming ; dissolves in water, alcohol, and ether; reduces 
alkaline copper and silver solutions ; becomes darker by alkalies, 
reddish-yellow by chloride of iron, dirty green by sulphate of 
copper, yellow by neutral and basic acetates of lead ; yields with 
acids amorphous combinations.] 



Opiailin=Ce6 Hae N2 O21. In opium, but as yet only found 
in the Egyptian kind. Draw out with water, precipitate the 
liquid with ammonia, wash the deposit (mixture of morphin and 
Opianin) with water and alcohol, dry, dissolve in hot alcohol, de- 
colourise by means of animal charcoal, and leave to crystallise, 
when the Opianin will separate first. — Forms colourless, klino- 
rhombic crystals, inodorous, of a strong and lasting bitter taste 
when dissolved in alcohol; of strongly alkaline reaction; remains 
unaltered up to 100°, is decomposed by more heat ; is insoluble in 
water, slightly soluble in boiling alcohol, in sulphuric acid, con- 
taining nitric acid, with blood-red colour. Is believed by some to 
be identical with narcotin. 

Opianyl = Meconin. 

[Opium Alkaloids. C. Hesse describes some new bases ob- 
tained in the following manner : — The aqueous extract of opium 
is precipitated by excess of soda or lime, and shaken with ether. 
From the latter the bases are removed by acetic acid; the acid 
solution is slowly added to a moderately diluted potash or soda 
ley; after 24: hours the precipitate is filtered off", and the filtrate, 
after being acidified by hydrochloric acid, is again supersaturated 
with ammonia. The liquid, together with the precipitate, -is 
treated with chloroform, itxe latter solution with acetic acid, and 
the acid solution with ammonia, which produces a precipitate con- 
taining Lanthopm^CiQ H26 NOg. After 24 hours the liquid is 
added to potash-ley, and becomes turbid by Codein, which is re- 
moved by ether. The solution contains yet Mecomdin^ Coda/min, 
LoAidanin, and the base X, all of which pass into the ether on 
addition of chloride of ammonium. On evaporating the ethereous 
solution as slowly as possible, LavdaninzzCio II26 NOe, crystal- 
lises first. After washing the mother-ley with bicarbonate of 
soda under addition of ether, Oodamin = Gs8 II23 NOg, crystal- 
lises. The yet remaining Meconidin = C42 H23 NO g is separated 
from the base X by acidifying the mother-ley and saturating with 
chloride of sodium ; the precipitate is dissolved in weak acetic 
acid, and thrown down again by chloride of sodium. The pre- 
cipitate is dissolved in water, mixed with bicarbonate of soda, 
shaken with- ether, and decolourised by animal charcoal. On 
evaporating the ether, the Meconidin remains as a yellowish 
amorphous mass.] 

Opobalsamnm siccum=ToLu Balsam. 

Opobalsanmiii Yeniin= Mecca Balsam. 

Opoponax. Gum-resinous exudation of Opopanax Chironium- 
From red-yellow to nearly white, opaque, of a disagreeable 
balsamic odour, and of a bitter and acrid taste. Contains 42% 
resin, and besides, gum, caoutchouc, wax, and volatile oil. The 

M 2 


resin is red-yellow, fuses at 50°, dissolves in alcohol, ether, and 
alkalies, and has the formula C40 H25 O14. 

Oreille: Ci4 Hg O4 4- 2 HO. Peculiar, sweet substance; occurs in 
Lecanora, Roccella, and Variolaria, lichens used for the preparatio 
of archil and litmus. To obtain it, draw out with alcol^ol, evapo- 
rate the solution, keep cold, pour oJff from the resin which will 
have formed, evaporate the liquid to honey-consistence, draw out 
with water, evaporate the aqueous solution to the consistence of 
syrup, keep cold, and purify the ciystals which will have formed, 
by recrystallisiiig. — Forms colourless crystals, which become 
anhydrous when dried in a vacuum and recrystallised in anhy- 
drous ether ; of a very sweet but disagreeable taste, of neutral 
reaction ; fuses with a gentle heat, losing its water; boils at about 
280°, and distils undecomposed; dissolves most readily in water, 
alcohol and in ether. The aqueous solution yields, with chloride 
of iron, a dark-red precipitate, from which the Orcin is dissolved 
by anmionia ; sub-acetate of lead gives a white precipitate, turning 
quickly red at the air. The solution, mixed with a little ammonia, 
l)ecomes slowly brown-red when exposed to the air, under forma- 
tion of Orcein z=Ci4 H7 NOe. Nitrate of silver, chloride of 
mercury and sulphate of copper produce no precipitates with 
Orcin. When mixed with nitrate of silver, and afterwards with 
ammonia, a flocky precipitate is formed ; on boiling the silver is 
deposited as a mirror, and the liquid turns red. 

Oreoselon, See Peucedanin. 

Otoba-fat, from Myristica Otoba, is similar to nutmeg-balsam. 

Oxalic Acidz:C2 O3 + HO -f 2 eq. water. It occurs as an 
acid Oxalate of alkalies in the stalks and leaves of Oxalideae, 
Polygoneae, and Chenopodese, and is widely distributed as Oxa- 
late of lime, especially lq roots and woods. The Oxalate of lime, 
being insoluble in water and in vegetable acids (acetic acid, &c.)^ 
does not pass into the aqueous vegetable extract. Oxalic acid was 
formerly produced from species of Oxalis and Rumex, these herbs 
containing a large quantity of the acid ; but at present it is pro- 
duced more economically by the action of nitric acid on sugar, or 
by treating certain organic substances (sawdust, <fec.) with caustic 
alkalies at rather high temperatures. — ^The pure Oxalic acid 
crystallises in colourless and inodorous klinorhombic prisms and 
needles of a strongly acid taste ; it loses in a gentle heat its 
water of crystallisation (2 eq.), and volatilizes in a stronger heat 
(at 150°) mostly undecomposed in white, pungent vapours; on 
rapidly heatiug it fuses at 98°, arid is completely decomposed at 
155° into formic acid, water, oxyd of carbon, and carbonic acid. 
It dissolves in 10 parts cold, and in equal parts boiling water ; in 
2 J parts cold, and in 2 parts boiling alcohol; little in ether. 


Heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, it separates into carbonic 
acid and oxyd of carbon. Most of the Oxalates are insoluble in 
water; few of them dissolve in a solution of Oxalic acid or of 
•chloride ammonium; all dissolve in diluted nitric acid, though 
more spai'ingly than most of the salts of the other organic acids, 
which are by themselves iosoluble in water ; the soluble Oxalates 
precipitate the salts of lime, including the sulphate, from their 
solutions^ except in the presence of an excess of any strong mineral 

The qualitative and quantitative determination of Oxalic acid 
is based upon its behaviour towards lime, with which it yields a 
white, pulverulent precipitate, insoluble in acetic acid, and con- 
vertible into carbonate of lime at a low red-heat without turning 
black. As the Oxalic acid generally occurs as Oxalate of lime, it 
is generally contained in the extract prepared by diluted hydro- 
chloric acid. See No. vi., Div. iii., Pt. ii 

Oxyacantllill=C32 H23 NOn". Alkaloid, besides berberin in 
the root bark of Berberis vulgaris, and also discovered in another 
species of Berberis from Mexico, and likely to occur La many other 
species. Dilute the mother-ley obtained in the preparation of the 
chloride . of berberin with water ; precipitate with carbonate of 
soda, wash the precipitate with water, treat with hydrochloric 
acid, filter, precipitate with ammonia, wash and dry the precipi- 
taifce, draw out with ether, evaporate the solution, treat again 
with hydrochloric acid, precipitate with* ammonia and dry. — Snow- 
white, amorphous, highly electric powder, tm-ning yellow at the 
sunlight ; is converted into fine needles by pouring on it a little 
ether or alcohol ; has a pure bitter taste and an alkaline reaction ; 
loses at 100'' 3*13% ; fuses at 139°, and becomes later decomposed; 
nearly insoluble in water, in 30 parts cold, and in one part boiling 
alcohol of 90%, in 125 parts cold, and in 4 parts boiling ether, 
most readily in chloroform, also in oils, in concentrated sulphuric 
acid with brown-red colour; liberates iodine from iodic acid; 
combines with acids to mostly crystaDisable salts, soluble in water 
and in alcohol. 

Oxypinotannic Acidz=Ci4 Hg O9. Occurring towards mid- 
winter in the leaves of Pinus sylvestiis and allied species. Is 
obtained in the preparation of pinopicrin (see this) as Oxypinotan- 
nate of lead. Treat this with diluted acetic acid, throw down 
the filtrate with sub-acetate of lead, wash the precipitate, decom- 
pose with sulphuret of hydrogen, and evaporate the filtered liquid 
over the water-bath. — A grey or brownish powder, inodorous, of a 
very astringent taste ; dissolves readily in water and in alcohol, 
precipitates neither glue nor tartarated antimony, imparts a green 
colour to salts of oxyd of iron. By boiling with diluted sulphuric 
acid a red powder is foimed, but no sugar. 



[Oxyiiarcotill=: 0^4 H23 NOie. Alkaloid, discovered by Beckett 
and Wright in opium. When partly puriJfied Narcein is boiled 
with water, a crystalline mass remains, which is dissolved in hot, 
dilute sulphuric acid, filtered and exactly neutralised with carbo- 
nate of soda. The dense, crystalline deposit, after resting for 
several hours, is separated from the liquid and repeatedly boiled 
with small quantities of water. The remaining crystals of O. are 
freed from traces of Narcein by hot alcohol, dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid, re-precipitated by a small excess of potash-ley, washed 
and dried. — It forms small, asbestos-like, sandy crystals, little 
soluble in water and alcohol, even at the boiling heat. The con- 
centrated solutions of its salts are precipitated by pure alkalies 
and their carbonates, but only slowly when diluted.] 

Palmitic Acid =032 H31 O3 -h HO. As to occurrence see 
Palmitin. Saponify palm oil with soda-ley, decompose the soap 
with sulphuric acid, and recrystallise repeatedly in alcohol, untH 
the fusing point remains constant. — Small, white scales, inodorous 
and tasteless, readily friable; fuse at 62°; have an acid reaction; 
distil almost unaltered; are insoluble in water, dissolve in alcohol 
of 0'820 at 40° in every proportion, readily in ether. The palmi- 
tates of alkalies dissolve in water and in alcohol. 

Palmitin (Tri-palmitin)zzCio2 Hgg O12. As palmitate of gly- 
ceryl zz Cq Hf, O3 + 3 C32 H31 O3 widely distributed among the 
fats of the vegetable kingdom, and especially abundantly in 
palmoil (from Elais Guineensis), in the tallow of Excaecaiia 
sebifera, in Japanese wax (from Bhus succedanea in the wax of 
Myrica cerifera). Press the palm-oil strongly between calico, boil 
the remnant repeatedly with alcohol, in order to remove free 
palmitic and oleic acids, and recrystallise the remnant repeatedly 
in ether. — Small, pearly crystals, fusing at 61°, slightly soluble in 
boiling absolute alcohol, readily so in ether. 

Palm-Oil. Obtained from the pericarp of Elais Guineensis. — 
Yellow, of butter-consistence, smells of violets, has a mild taste, 
fuses at 27°, when older, only at 32° to 36°; turns easily rancid, 
bleaches at the sunlight. Contains olein and palmitin. 

Pana4Ililon=C24 H25 Oig. Peculiar ingredient of the root of 
the American Ginseng (Panax quinquefoUus). Macerate with 
cold water, boil the solution, filter, evaporate to a syrup-consist- 
ence; mix with a concentrated solution of sulphate of soda, which 
yields a dense, brown deposit, which has to be washed with the 
same salt solution, and treated with absolute alcohol, the latter 
dissolving the Panaquilon. Evaporate the alcoholic solution, and 
dissolve the remnant in water; decolourise by means of animal 
charcoal; filter, evaporate and purify by redissolving in absolute 
alcohol. — Amorphous, yellow powder, has a taste similar to gly- 


cyrrhizin, but more bitter; fuses under decomposition, dissolves 
readily in water, and in alcohol, not in ether ; becomes brown with 
alkalies; is precipitable by tannic acid, but not by other acids, or 
the chlorides of mercury and of platinum. Concentrated acids 
convert it under evolution of carbonic acid into a new body: 
crystalline, tasteless and insoluble in water. 

PaiiaTerin=C4o H21 NOs, In c^ium. Precipitate the aqueous 
extract' with sodarley, treat with alcohol the deposit, consisting in 
the main of morphin, evaporate the brown tincture, dissolve the 
remnant in diluted acid and mix with ammonia, producing, at 
first, a brown resinous deposit. Dissolve the latter in diluted 
hydrochloric acid, and add acetate of potash, which separates a 
dark resra. Wash this with water, and boil with ether, the Papaverin 
crystallising on cooling from the ethereous solution. — Forms white 
needles of slightly alkaline reaction; is insoluble in water; with 
difficulty soluble in cold alcohol and ether, readily when warm; 
becomes blue or purple with concentrated sulphuric acid; dissolves 
in nitric acid unaltered; but is decomposed on warming the solu- 
tion. Its salts are mostly sparingly soluble in water. 

Paramaleic Acid=PuMARic Acm. 

Paramenispenuill* Composed like menispermin, and obtained 
together with it. Forms quadrangular rhombic prisms or concen- 
trically radiated masses, fuses at 250^ and sublimates undecom- 
posed, is insoluble in water, soluble in absolute alcohol and in 
dilut^ acids, scarcely in ether; forms no salts with acids. 

PaTamorpliin =Thebain. 

Parellln or ParelUc Acid=Ci8 He Og + HO. Is sometimes 
obtained in the preparation of lecanoric acid from Lecanora 
Parella. The two acids are distinguished by their behaviour 
towards a solution of baryta. The lecanoric acid forms with the 
latter a soluble, the Parellic acid an insoluble salt. The Parellate 
of baryta is decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the subsiding 
Parellin is recrystallised in alcohol. — Forms colourless crystals, 
which lose their water at 100°, bitter when masticated or in 
alcoholic solution, the latter being of an acid reaction; fuses 
and becomes decomposed by heat; dissolves scantily in cold 
water, better in alcohol, and is thrown down by water as a jelly; 
is also soluble in ether. 

Paricin=iC46 H26 N2 Oe. Alkaloid of the Quina Carabaya 
from Cinchona succirubra. Exhaust with alcohol of 80°/^, distil 
off the alcohol from the solutions, evaporate to dryness, draw out 
with water and some hydrochloric acid, precipitate the solution 
with carbonate of soda, wash and dry the deposit, dissolve in 


ether, evaporate, treat with water mixed with some hydrochloric 
acid, decolourise the solution with aimnal charcoal, filter, throw 
down with carbonate of soda and dry. — ^Yellow, amorphous, 
resinous mass of very bitter taste, dissolves little in water, 
readily in alcohol and in ether, assumes a beautiful dark-green 
colour with nitric acid, likewise with concentrated sulphuric acid, 
but is destroyed afterwards. Yields amorphous salts. 

Paridin^Cie H14 O7 + 2 HO. Acrid substance of Paris 
quadrifolia. Exhaust the dried herb with water and acetic acid, 
prepare from the residue an alcoholic extract, remove from the 
latter the fat and chlorophyll by means of ether, dissolve the 
remaining extract in alcohol of 0*920, decolourise the solution 
with animal charcoal, filter warm, distil off the alcohol, dissolve 
the remnant in 16 to 20 parts hot water and allow the solution 
to stand cold for a few hours and the Paridin to form in crystals, 
which have to be purified by recrystallising. — Forms fine, shining 
laminae or needles, at first tasteless, then poignantly acrid not 
bitter, loses its water at 100°; dissolves little in cold, a little more 
in hot water, much more readily in alcohol, little in ether; 
becomes red Vith concentrated sulphuric acid, and with phosphoric 

pSSiS '^''* } =Chrysophanic Acid. 

Parsley-Stearopten=:024 Hu Og. In the herb and seed of 
Carum Petroselinum besides a liquid volatile oil. Distil with 
water, collect the crystals forming in the distillate, press and 
recrystallise from alcohol. The stearopten is mostly contained in 
the oil that passes over towards the end of the distillation. — 
Forms fine, white, sexangular needles, heavier than water ; smells 
faintly of parsley, has a burning, camphor-like, afterwards 
rancid taste; neutral; fuses at 30°, boils at 300** under decompo- 
sition; dissolves slightly in cold, more readily in hot water, readily 
in alcohol, ether, volatile and fixed oils. 


[Paytin = C21 H12 NO + HO. Alkaloid, discovered by Hesse 
in Quina blanca de Payta. The coarsely pulverised bark is ex- 
tracted with alcohol; the solution is evaporated, saturated with an 
excess of soda, and shaken with ether, which takes up the alkaloid. 
The latter is converted into the sulphate, almost completely neutra- 
lised with ammonia, and mixed with excess of iodide of potassium. 
The precipitate is rendered alkaline with solution of soda and 
shaken with ether, which on evaporation leaves the P. in well 
defined colourless crystals. — The P. is of alkaline reaction, and 
bitter taste, dissolves easily in ether, benzol, chloroform, petro- 

. 169 

learn ether, and alcohol, little in water; fuses at 156^; does not 
completely neutralise acids.] 

Pectin. A matter, the chemical constitution of which is not 
known. It contains a larger amount of oxygen than the carbo- 
hydrates, and cannot therefore be regarded as one of the series. It 
occurs especially in fleshy fruits and roots, and is recognisable by 
its property of coagulating like a jelly, when the juice of such 
vegetable parts is mixed with alcohol. By pressing this jelly, re- 
dissolving in hot water, precipitating with alcohol, and diying the 
deposit of Pectin, it is obtained as an almost colourless, gummous, 
half-transparent^ foliated, tasteless substance, which dissolves in 
water to a sHmy and very thick liquid ; it yields with nitric acid 
oxalic and mucic acids, with diluted sulphuric acid no sugar but 
other kinds of metamorphoses, as likewise by boiling with water. 
It contains always one or more per cent, of lime-compounds. 
Pectin, gimi, and mucilage cannot be separated from each other, 
as they are all prepared and isolated in the same manner ; as a 
distinguishing character of Pectin from either of the two serves 
its property of setting into a jelly, as mentioned above. 

Pelarj^IliC Acidi=Ci8 H17 O3 + HO. In the volatile oil of 
Pelargonium. Distil the herb with water, saturate the distillate 
with baryta, distil off the neutral oil, and decompose the remaining 
Pelargonate of baryta with sulphuric acid. The acid separates, 
and has, after washing, to be desiccated by means of chloride of 
calcium. — Colourless, oily liquid, smells feintly of butyric acid; 
congeals when cold, and fuses at 10° ; boils at 260% and distils 
unaltered; dissolves little in water, readily in alcohol and in 
ether. The Pelargonates of the alkalies and of the alkaline 
earths are soluble in water. 

Pelosill=C36 H21 NO 6. Alkaloid of the root of Cissampelos 
Pareira. Boil with water containing sulphuric acid, saturatie the 
united decotions with carbonate of soda, collect the deposit, wash, 
dry, re-dissolve in acid water, treat with animal charcoal, filter, 
precipitate again with carbonate of soda, dry, draw out with 
absolute ether, and evaporate the ethereous solution. — ^Yellowish, 
amorphous mass, friable to a white powder, of a disagreeable 
sweetish-bitter taste, of alkaline reaction ; dissolves not or little 
in water, most readily in alcohol, slowly but abundantly in ether; 
with ether containing water, hydrated Pelosin (with 3 eq. water : 
a nearly white amorphous powder) is formed, which does not dis- 
solve in ether. It fuses readily when warmed, and is decomposed 
by more heat ; becomes brown when exposed to damp air, especially 
in the presence of alkaUes. Its salts are not crystaUisable, only 
the chloride of P. forms warty concrescences. [According to 
Flueckiger and Hanbury, Pelosin is identical with Bebirin.] 

170 . 

Peppenilillt-Stearopten=C2o H20 O2. Forms in the oil of 
peppermijit when kept at a low temperature. Colourless, trans- 
lucent, shining prisms, of the smell and taste of the oil, fusible at 
25° to 36% boiling at 208° to 213% readily soluble in alcohol. 
Yields with anhydrous phosphoric acid the hydrocarbon Men- 
then :=C2o If 18* 

Pereirin. Alkaloid of the Pereira-bark, which comes from 
Picranmia ciliata. Draw out with acidulated water, precipitate 
the extract with ammonia, withdraw the P. from the deposit with 
ether, evaporate and purify by dissolving in acid water and precipi- 
tating with ammonia. — White-yellow, amorphous powder, very 
bitter, of alkaline reaction, fuses without loss of weight and is 
afterwards decomposed, dissolves very little in water, imparting to 
it a bitter taste, also in alcohol and in ether, in concentrated sul- 
phuric acid with a beautiful violet colour passing into brown, on 
dilution with water successively into olive-green and grass-green ; 
readily soluble in diluted acids, forming neutral, amorphous salts, 
mostly soluble in water and in alcohol. 

Peru-Balsam or Black Pern-Balsam. Exudation, aided by 

artificial heat, of the stem of Myroxylon Pereirse (Flueckiger and 
Hanbury), according to former authors, also of M. peruiferum and 
M. pubescens. It is similar in colour and consistence to dark 
molasses, smells vanilla-like but somewhat empyreumatic, tastes a 
little bitter, sharp and burning, has a density of 1 '15-1 '16 and an 
acid reaction, dissolves completely in strong alcohol, partially in 
ether and oils.— =-It consists of about 23°/^ resin (agreeing with 
the resins of tolu-balsam and benzoin), a little styracin, 7°/^ 
cinnamomic acid and 697© volatile oil. The latter is not 
obtainable by simple distillation, but the Balsam has to be 
treated first with soda-solution, as directed under Oil of Balsam of 

Peucedanin = C24 H12 Oe. Crystalline substance of the root 
of Peucedanum officinale and P. Ostruthium. By concentrating 
the alcoholic extract of the root, the P. crystallises and has to be 
recrystallised in alcohol. — It forms colourless, rhombic prisms 
without smell and taste, while the alcoholic solution has a 
burning, aromatic and long-lasting acrid taste; it fuses at 75° and 
is decomposed with more heat, is insoluble in water, little soluble 
in cold, readily in hot alcohol, in ether, in volatile and in 
fixed oils, likewise unaltered in concentrated but not in diluted 
sulphuric acid; decomposes with alcoholic potash into angelic acid 
and Oreoselon = Ci4 H5 O3, isomeric with benzoic acid. The 
latter is a yellowish-white, crystalline, inodorous and tasteless 
substance, fusible at 190°, becomes carbonised by more heat, 
is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol and in ether, 


readily in concentrated sulphuric acid and in concentrated potash- 
ley, but in both not unaltered. 

Phaeoretin. See Aporetin. 

Phaseolin* Ingredient of French beans (seeds of Fhaseolua 
Yidgaris), which, like amygdalin of almonds, produces a volatile 
oil by decomposition. The beans which have no smeU in the 
dry staite, evolve, after being moistened with water, a disagreeable 
peculiar odour, caused by the formation of a volatile oil. By 
extracting the pulverised beans with absolute alcohol, they lose, 
like bitter almonds, the power of forming this oil with water. 
The Ph. has as yet only been obtained in the amorphous state, 
viz., by extracting with alcohol, treating the extract with ether 
(to remove the sugar) and evaporating the ethereous solution. 

PhillyrinizCsi H34 O22 + 3 HO. Bitter glucosid of the 
bark of Phillyrea angustifolia and P. latifoHa. Boil the bark with 
water, clarify the decoction with albumen, precipitate with milk 
of lime, press the black-green precipitate (compound of lime with 
an acid resin and Ph.) after keeping for a long period, treat 
repeatedly with alcohol, shake the tinctures with animal charcoal 
and evaporate. — Forms silvery scales, inodorous, tasteless at first, 
then bitter; loses the water over sulphuric acid, or at 50° to 
60°; fuses at 160°, and is decomposed by more heat; dissolves in 
1300 parts cold, and copiously in boiling water, in 40 parts cold, 
and more readily in boiling alcohol; not in ether, oils, in warm 
acetic acid; is not altered by alkalies, separates, on boiling with 
diluted acids, into sugar and another crystalline product (philly- 
genin) ; dissolves in coDcentrated sulphuric acid with a violet-red 

Pholobapheil=02o Hs Og. Bed pigment of the bark of 
many trees (species of Betula, Pinus, Ciuchona, Platanus, cfec), also 
in the Polyporus annosus, and probably many of its congeners. 
Exhaust with ether first, draw out with alcohol afterwards, evapo- 
rate the alcoholic solution, boil with water and dry what has re- 
mained undissolved. — Bed powder, inodorous, not fusible, insoluble 
in water and in diluted acids, readily soluble in alkaiies with deep 
brown-red colour, almost insoluble in alcohol when previously dried 
at 100°. 

Phl01Thizin=:C42 H24 O20 + 4 HO. Bitter glucosid of the 
bark of the root of fruit trees (apple, pear, cherry, plum tree), in 
less quantity in the bark of the stem and of the branches, also in 
the leaves of the apple tree, and, to aU appearance, in the bark of 
the root of Bibes rubrum; not in the bark of the apricot, peach, 
almond, and walnut tree. Best adapted for its preparation is the 
root-bark of the apple tree. Draw out with weak alcohol, distil 
and re-crystallise what mil have formed in the remaining liquid. 


with aid of animal charcoal. — Forms white, silky, often concentri- 
cally united needles of bitter, then sweetish taste, and of neutral 
reaction; loses the water at 100°, fuses at 109° to a colourless 
resin, becomes hard again at 130°', fuses again at 158° to 160°, and 
becomes decomposed with more heat; dissolves in 833 parts cold 
water, most readily at 50°, and in every proportion in boilmg water, 
readily in alcohol, wood spirit, acetic acid, very little in ether, in 
warm concentrated sulphuric acid under decomposition with a red 
colour; breaks up, on heating with diluted acids, into grape-sugar 
and phlorrhetin (C30 H14 Oio) ; becomes with ammonia successively 
orange-red, purple and dark blue. 

Physalin=:C28 Hie Oio. The bitter ingredient of the leaves of 
Physalis Alkekengi. Exhaust with cold water, add^to 1 liter of 
the liquid 20 grammes of chloroform, shake with two changes of 
the latter, evaporate the chloroform, dissolve the remnant in hot 
alcohol, shake with animal charcoal, throw down the filtrate with 
water, wash the deposit and dry. — Voluminous, white, or slightly 
yellowish powder, becomes electric by friction, not crystalline; 
of at first slight, afterwards lasting bitter taste; softens at 180°, 
becomes plastic at 190°, decomposes afterwards, dissolves very 
little in cold, a little more in boiling water, readily in alcohol and 
in chloroform, little in ether, very little in diluted acids, readily in 
liquor of ammonia. 

PhyS0dill=i:C24 H12 Oie. Crystalline resin of Pannelia phy- 
sodes. Draw out with ether, evaporate, wash the remaining white^ 
powder with alcohol, and recrystallise in boiling anhydrous 
alcohol. — White, loose mass, consisting of microscopic needles (or 
larger crystals by spontaneous evaporation), neutral, fuses at 125°, 
behaves to water like a resin; is insoluble in alcohol of 80%, dis- 
solves in boiling absolute alcohol, not in ether, acetic acid, readily 
in the hydrates and carbonates of alkalies. 

PhysoStigminrzCso H21 N3 O4. Alkaloid of the Calabar 
bean (Physostigma venenosum). Mix the newly prepared 
alcoholic extract with an excess of bicarbonate of soda, shake the 
solution with an adequate quantity of ether, treat the ethereous 
solution with a very diluted acid, separate the acid solution com- 
pletely from the ether, drive off the ether which has dissolved in the 
aqueous solution, filter through wet paper, add an excess of bicarbo- 
nate of soda, shake again with ether and evaporate the latter. — Forms 
colourless, rhombic laminae*; fuses at 45°, becomes slightly decom- 
posed when kept for a longer time at a temperature of 100°; dis- 
solves readily in alcohol, ether, benzol, sulphide of carbon, chloro- 
form, less readily in cold water; is of strongly alkaline reaction, and 
neutralises the acids completely. When divided imder water, and 

* V^e describes the Ph. as rhombic leaflets, fusible at 69°. 


impregnated with carbonic acid gas, it dissolves soon, and yields a 
tasteless solution of alkaline reaction, but becomes slowly decom- 
posed, and more quickly when warmed, while assuming a red 
colour. The salts of the Ph. are like the pure base, tasteless. 
Alkalies precipitate the Ph. from the solution of the salts, but 
decompose them at the same time with a red colour. They are 
also precipitable by chloride of mercury, chloride of gold, tannic 
acid, iodide of potassio-mercuiy. 

Phytomelin = Rutin. 
Piehurim tallow = Laurostearin. 

Picrolicheilill=C24 H20 O12. Crystalline bitter substance of 
Pertusaria communis. Evaporate the alcoholic tincture of the 
lichen to a syrup consistence,. and allow to stand cold; the crystals 
which will have formed after a few weeks have to be purified by 
washing with a weak solution of carbonate of potash, and by 
repeatedly recrystallising in alcohol. — Forms colourless, shining, 
rhombic pyramids, inodorous, very bitter; fuses above the fusing 
point of sulphur, is decomposed by more heat; is insoluble in cold, 
slightly soluble in hot water, readily in alcohol, ether, sulphide of 
carbon, volatile oils, acetic acid, and in caustic alkalies. 

PicrotOXill=C2o H12 Og. Indifferent bitter substance of Coc- 
culus indicus, the seeds of Anamirta paniculata. Pulverise the 
seeds, remove most of the fixed oil by pressing, extract the 
presscake with alcohol, bring the tinctures to dryness with 
pulverised charcoal, grind the mass, draw out with ether, 
drive off the ether from the tincture after addition of water, 
remove the supernatant congealed fat, allow the Picrotoxin to 
crystallise from the liquid, and recrystallise in alcohol. — White 
crusts and shining needles, inodorous, extremely bitter, fusible by 
heat, and decomposed in higher temperatures; dissolves in 150 
parts cold, and in 25 parts boiling water, in 10 parts cold, and in 
equal parts boiling alcohol, in 2^ parts ether, also in diluted 
aikaUes; the latter solution turns yellow on heating, and leaves a 
brick-red residue. 

Pimaric Acid, ^ee Abietic Acid. 

Pine-sugam PiNiT. 

Pinic Acid. See Abietic Acid. 

Pinit = C12 H12 Oio. Peculiar kind of sugar in the sap of Pinus 
Lambertiana. Dissolve the crude, hardened sap in water, de- 
colourise the solution with animal charcoal, allow to evaporate 
spontaneously and recrystallise the crystals which have formed. — 
Forms colourless, hard, radiated warts, nearly as sweet as cane- 
sugar; fuses above 150°; is of 1*52 density, and of neutral reaction; 
is carbonised on heating, with an odour of burnt sugar; dissolves 


most readily in water, little in aqueous, scarcely in absolute alco- 
hol, not in cUoroform ; yields with nitric acid nitro- compounds 
and a little oxalic acid ; is not altered by diluted sulphuric acid, 
even on boiling; becomes black with sulphuric acid poured rapidly 
on it, but dissolves when brought into contact with it gradually 
and with a moderate heat ; does not ferment with yeast, is not 
altered when boiled with potash-ley, ammonia, baryta, alkaline 
tartarate of copper, or chloride of iron. 

PillOCOrretlll=C24 H19 O5 (isomeric with Quinovic acid). In 
the bark of Pinus sylvestris. Boil the bark freed from the outer 
layers, with alcohol of 40%, remove by filtering the ceropic acid 
which forms in the decoction on cooling; evaporate most of the 
alcohol, mix the remnant with water and precipitate the turbid 
liquid with acetate of lead, throwing down pinocortannic acid and 
Pinocorretin, while cortici-pinotannic acid and sugar remain dis- 
solved. The washed precipitate of lead, when treated with very 
dilute acetic acid, separates into pinocortannic acid, which dissolves 
(and may be obtained from the solution by precipitating with sub- 
acetate of lead, decomposing the deposit with sulphuret of hydrogen, 
and evaporating the filtrate under exclusion of the air) into a 
glutinous, dark residue, which has to be dissolved in strong 
alcohol, and is to be treated with sulphuret of hydrogen and 
filtered off from the sulphide of lead. The filtrate, on evaporating, 
leaves Pinocorretin, to be purified by dissolving in alcohol, filtering 
and evaporating the liquid. The solution, containing cortici- 
pinotannic acid and sugar, is freed from the former by precipi- 
tating with sub-acetate of lead, which forms cortici-pinotannate of 
lead. — The Pinocorretin is a black-brown, glutinous mass, almost 
completely soluble in ammonia. 

Pinocortannic Acid =032 H19 O23. In the bark of Pinus 
sylvestris. As to preparation, see Pinocorretin. — Red-brown 
powder, after drying very scantily soluble in water, turning green 
with chloride of iron. 

Pinopicrin=iC44 Hse O22. In the leaves and bark of Pinus 
sylvestris and allied species, also in the green parts of Thuja 
occidentalis and congeneric plants. Draw out with alcohol of 40%, 
distil off the alcohol, mix the remnant with water, pour off from 
the subsiding resinous mass, mix the liquid with a few drops of a 
solution of acetate of lead, filter, precipitate from the filtrate the 
oxy-pinotannic acid with acetate of lead, and after removing the 
deposit throw down the pinotannic acid with sub-acetate of lead 
boiling hot, filter, treat the filtrate with sulphuret of hydrogen, 
evaporate the liquid, freed from the sulphide of lead, in a current 
of carbonic acid gas to honey consistence, and shake with anhy- 
drous ether-alcohol, which dissolves the Pinopicrin and leaves the 
sugar. Precipitate from the solution a small quantity of foreign 


matter by sub-acetate of lead, treat the filtrate with sulphuret of 
hydrogen, remove the sulphide of lead and evaporate. — Vivid- 
yellow powder, hygroscopic, of very bitter taste; softens at 55®, 
completely liquified At 100°, is decomposed by more heat; dissolves 
readily in water, also in alcohol, ether-alcohol, and in aqueous not 
in pure ether; the aqueous solution evolves immediately on 
heating the odour of ericinol (C20 Hie O2 ), while breaking up 
completely into this substance and into sugar. 

Pinotaimie Acid=Cu Hg Og. Contained towards midwinter 
in the leaves of old trees of Pinus sylvestris and other true pines, 
also in the green parts of Thuja occidentalis and allied trees. Is 
obtained in the preparation of pinopicrin [see this] as Pinotannate 
of lead. Heat the liquid, from which the oxypinotannic acid has 
been precipitated by acetate of lead, to the boiling point, precipi- 
tate carefully with sub-acetate of lead, and let cool. * Decompose 
the washed precipitate with sulphuret of hydrogen, warm the 
liquid together with the sulphide of lead, filter, and bring to dry- 
ness in an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas. — ^Yellow-red; if pre- 
pared from thuja, brownish-yellow powder ; of slightly bitter and 
acerb taste, becomes soft and glutinous at 100°, dissolves readily 
in water, alcohol, and ether; does not precipitate glue, precipitates 
chloride of iron with brown-red colour. By heating with diluted 
acids, a red product is obtained. 

Piperlll=C34 Hi9 NO 6. Alkaloid of the fruit of Piper nigrum 
and P. longum. ' Exhaust the powder with cold water, digest the 
remnant with alcohol of 80%, evaporate the tincture to honey 
consistence, wash with cold water, dissolve the residue in alcohol, 
add a little hydrate of lime, digest for one day, filter and allow to 
crystallise. — Colourless (if not quite pure yellow), glassy, flat, 
klinorhombic prisms, almost tasteless (when yellow of pepper-like 
taste), neutral, fusible at 110°, decomposed by more heat; insoluble 
in cold, little soluble in hot water, in 30 parts cold and in 1 part 
boiling alcohol, in 100 parts ether, readily in acetic acid. 

Pipltzahoic AcldziCso H20 O & . Discovered by Rio de la Loza 
in the Baiz (root) del Pipitzahuac, which comes from Perezia 
Humboldtiana. Draw out with alcohol, evaporate, and purify by 
recrystallising. — ^Tufts of gold-yellow, foliated crystals ; fusible at 
100**, and sublimable in gold-yellow leaflets; dissolves scarcely in 
water, readily in alcohol and in ether; alkalies produce a purple 
colour in the solutions, and yield amorphous compounds, which 
dissolve readily in water, alcohol, and in ether. 

[PittOSporin. Glucosid of the bark and fruits of Pittosporum 
undulatum. The pulverised bark is extracted with hot alcohol, 
filtered when cold, mixed with an equal bulk of ether, filtered 
again, and evaporated. — ^Whitish, loose powder of at first sweetish, 


afterwards bitter and acrid taste; dissolves in water and alcohol, 
not in ether; froths with water, gives precipitates with acetate 
and sub-acetate of lead. Separates, by boiling with diluted acids, 
into sugar and a white substance, insoluble in water. — Baron F. 
von Mueller and L. Rummel.] 

Pityxylonic Acid=C25 H20 Og. In the stem of Pinus 
sylvestris, probably also in Pinus Abies and other species. Boil 
the finely rasped wood with water, strain, evaporate the liquid 
mixed with carbonate of baryta to a small bulk, filter, evaporate 
again and treat the remnant with ether. Digest the exhausted 
mass with alcohol, which dissolves the P. acid, and leaves it after 
evaporation. — Brown-yellow, amorphous, hygroscopic mass, very 
bitter, of acid reaction; dissolves slowly in cold, readily in boiling 
water with pale-yellow colour, readily in alkaline water. 

Plumba^Ilt Acrid, crystalline ingredient of Plumbago Europsea. 
Draw out the bark of the root with ether, evaporate the liquid, 
boil the extract with water and purify the Plumbagin, which will 
have subsided on cooling from the decoction, by recrystallising in 
ether or in ether-alcohol. — Crystallises in delicate, orange-yellow, 
tuftily-united needles, tastes at first sweetish, irritating, afterwards 
burning and acrid, fuses readily, volatilizes partly unaltered, is of 
neutral reaction, dissolves sparingly in cold, more in hot water, 
readily in alcohol and in ether. Sulphuric and nitric acids dissolve 
it with yellow colour, ammonia with red colour, and acids restore 
the yellow colour. The aqueous solution becomes likewise 
coloured with sub-acetate of lead, under formation of a carmine- 
red precipitate. 

Pollenin. The main ingredient of the pollen remains, after 
the pollen has been treated successively with water, alcohol, 
ether, diluted acids and alkalies. — Subtle, light, tasteless powder, 
putrifies in the moist state under evolution of ammonia. Is most 
likely not quite pure in this state, and perhaps in the main 

Polychroit = Crocin. 

Polygaliii= Saponin. 

[Polygonic acid. Prepared by Rademaker from the herb of 
Polygonum hydropiper, by exhausting with dilute alcohol, evapo- 
rating to one-third, filtering and precipitating the filtrate by 
acetate of lead. The precipitate is well-washed, decomposed by 
sulphuret of hydrogen and the filtrate treated with ether, which 
dissolves the P. acid, and leaves it behind on evaporation. — Green, 
deliquescent, crystals of an acrid, bitter taste, and strongly acid 
reaction, soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, less so in 
aqueous alcohol; neutralise the bases completely, forming well- 
defined salts.] 


Popillin=:C4o H22 O16 + 4HO. Besides salicin the other glu- 
cosid of the bark, the leaves and the roots of species of Populus. 
Boil with water, precitate with subacetate of lead, free the filtrate 
from lead by sulphuric acid, concentrate, boil with animal charcoal 
and allow the salicin to crystallise. The mother-ley yields with 
carbonate of potash a deposit of Populin, which has to be 
recrystallised in hot water. — Forms white, silky, shining, very 
voluminous needles, of the appearance of starch or of magnesia, 
tastes irritating, sweet, similar to liquorice, looses at lOO*' the 
whole of its water, fuses at 180*^, and decomposes with more heat, 
yielding benzoic acid. Dissolves in 2000 parts cold, and in 70 
parts boiling water, in 100 parts cold absolute alcohol, in boiling 
alcohol more readily than in boiling water, scarcely in ether, 
behaves towards concentrated sulphuric acid like salicin, forms, 
on boiling with dilute sulphuric acid, benzoic acid, grape-sugar and 
saliretin, on heating with chromate of potash and sulphuric acid 
loauch salicylous acid. Is not precipitable by any metallic salt. 

Porpliyroxin. In opium. Exhaust with hot ether, warm the 
remnant with water and a little carbonate of potash, and treat 
again with hot ether, which dissolves codein, thebain, porphyroxin, 
and caoutchouc; all these substances remaining after the spon- 
taneous evaporation of the ether. Dissolve the renmant in diluted 
hydrochloric acid, filter and precipitate with ammonia, which 
throws down thebain and Porphyroxin, while codein remains 
dissolved. Dissolve the deposit, after drying and triturating, in 
boiling ether, and leave to evaporate at the air, obtaining thereby 
crystals of thebain and resinous Porphyroxin, separable by alcohol, 
which dissolves the P. readily. — Fine, shining needles, neutral, 
insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol and in ether; assumes 
with concentrated sulphuric acid or with nitro-sulphuric acid, an 
olive-green colour ; dissolves colourless in diluted sulphuric, hydro- 
chloric, and nitric acids, the solutions turning purple-red on 
boiling, but not the solution in acetic acid. Alkalies decolourise 
the red liquids, and produce a white precipitate, but all acids (also 
acetic acid) reproduce the red colour even when cold. 

Porphyroxin. This particular alkaloid, according to what is 
known, is not identical with Poi-phyroxin of opium. It occurs in 
the root of Sanguinaria Canadensis, accompanied by chelerythrin 
and puccin. Draw out with water mixed with some acetic acid; 
precipitate the chelerythrin from the liquid by means of ammonia, 
neutralise the filtrate with acetic acid exactly, precipitate with 
tannic acid, wash the precipitate, mix intimately with lime, dry, 
draw out with alcohol, impregnate with carbonic acid, distil off 
the alcohol, bring the remnant to dryness, treat with boiling 
water, evaporate the solution, dissolve the remnant in ether, 
evaporate the ether and recrystallise in alcohol. — Small, white 



tabular crystals, inodorous and tasteless, very little soluble in 
water, better in alcohol and in ether; form with acids colourless, 
neutral, crystallisable, bitter salts. 

Primrose Stearopten. Passes over with the water in the 
distillation of the root of Primula Auricula and subsides in the 
turbid distillate. Has a strong and peculiar, pleasant odour; its 
alcoholic solution imparts a deep-red colour to solutions of iron. 

Primulill, Indifferent, crystalline substance of the root of 
Primula veris. Treat the aqueous and well-dried extract of the 
root repeatedly with alcohol of 90°/^, evaporate the spirituous 
liquids slowly, press the separated crystalline mass between 
blotting paper, redissolve in alcohol, digest with carbonate of lead, 
filter and let crystallise. — Forms colourless needles or lustreless 
grains, inodorous and tasteless, neutral, readily soluble in water, 
also in alcohol (but more in aqueous than in anhydrous), not in 
ether, fuses by heat and decomposes in higher temperatures. Is 
not precipitable by metallic salts. 

[Dr. L. Mutschler states, that according to his researches 
Primulin is identical with Cyclamin, and appears to be widely 
distributed among the order of Primulacese. He also believes 
that Cyclamin and Primulin may probably be identical with 

Prophetin. See Ecbalin. 

Propionic Acid = Ce H5 O3 4- HO. Has been found as yet 
only occasionally in the aqueous distillates of a few vegetable 
parts (Flores Millefolii, &c.), but is probably more widely 
distributed. Its presence in such a distillate is recognisable 
to some extent by its odour, resembling butyric and pyro-acetic 
acids. By saturating this distillate with carbonate of soda, 
drying and mixing the salts with sulphuric acid, the said odour 
becomes very striking, and on heating the salt by itself, the odour 
of 'alkarsin is evolv^. The acid, after being isolated from the 
concentrated solution of the Propionate of soda by means of sul- 
phuric acid, floats upon the surface in the form of an oily liquid 
and disappears only on addition of more water. The Px-opionates 
are unctuous to the touch, and are all soluble in water. The Pro- 
pionate of soda, dried at 100°, is anhydrous and contains 64*87 % 

Protein Substances. In the vegetable and more so in the 
animal kingdom there exist, either dissolved or as solids, a number 
of amorphous, not volatile, inodorous and tasteless, nitrogenised, 
indifferent substances, which exhibit a great analogy in their com- 
position and in their general properties. Being originally formed 
in the vegetable organism, they from thence are introduced by the 
food into the animal body, and are found there again with little or 


no alteration. Amongst the Protein-substances are classed albumin, 
fibrin, casein, legumin, &c^ and which bear the same relation to 
«ach other as cellulose, starch, gum, sugar, <Sz;c. The bodies 
belonging to each of these two series, have nearly the same 
chemical composition and are conyertible into each other, while 
the one series comprises the nitrogenised compounds which pre- 
ponderate in the animal kingdom, the other the carbohydrates 
predominating in the vegetable life. These latter may be con- 
sidered to contain as their radical the cellulose zzCi2 Hio Oio; 
starch having the same composition, while gum and sugar contain 
in addition one equivalent of water. 

Mulder tri^ to show that those nitrogenised substances con- 
tained also a common radical, which is combined in the various 
Protein substances with varying quantities of sulphur and partly 
also of phosphor. He named this radical Protein, and expressed 
its composition by ^e formula Cgg H25 N4 Oio, which demands 
in 100: 57-29C, 6-64H, 14-85N, and 21-220. In the free 
state, and combined with two equivalents water, Mulder's Pro- 
tein is obtained by dissolving any of the abovenamed matters in 
potash-ley, boiling the solution imtil, by addition of an acid, 
sulphuret of hydrogen is evolved, neutralising carefully with 
Acetic acid, and wasMng the gelatinous deposit with water. When 
freshly precipitated it is a transparent, grey, flocky mass, which 
becomes hard and brittle after drying, inodorous and tasteless; 
fuses by heat, yields ammoniacal and other products, and leaves a 
slowly, but completely combustible coal; it sinks in water, swells 
up and resumes a gelatinous appearance; is insoluble in water, 
alcohol, ether, oils. By continued boiling with water it is par- 
tially dissolved, but at the same time altered in its properties. 
Acetic, tartaric, citric, malic and phosphoric acids dissolve it 
readily, also diluted mineral acids ; concentrated acids throw down 
from the solution a combination of Protein and acid, insoluble in 
the liquid. From the acid solutions the Protein is precipitated 
by ferrocyanide and ferricyanide of potassium, tannic acid, most 
of the metallic salts and by neutralisation with an alkali Diluted 
sulphuric acid colours Protein purple-red on boiling. Concentrated 
hydrochloric acid dissolves it with indigo-blue colour, the solution 
turning black on boiling. Concentrated nitric acid colours it 
yellow. Nitrate of mercury, containing nitrous acid, produces on 
warming a red tinge. With sugar and sulphuric acid it assumes a 
beautiful purple violet colour. 

According to recent investigations the above Protein retains 
more than 1 per cent, of sulphur, from which it cannot be freed. 
It is on this account that the Protein-theory has been abandoned 
by many chemists, though, to my belief, without a just cause, as 
the proportions of the four elements C, H, N and O to each other 
are not altered by the presence or absence of sulphur. Besides 



Protein is in the same condition as many other organic radicals^ 
which though not isolated as* yet, are nevertheless acknowledged 
or assumed to exist. 

The Protein substances behave in general like Protein (con- 
taminated with sulphur); in their composition they only differ 
from it sometimes by a larger amount of sulphur, sometimes by 
an additional amount of phosphor; but in all instances they 
contain certain inorganic salts, notably phosphate of lime, and 
therefore leave, when incinerated, an ash, the qiiantity of which 
often amounts to 10%. 

Prussic Acid=HYDROCYANic Acid. 

PseildOC1irarill« As to distribution see Oleandrin. Boil the 
solution of tannate of Ps. obtained in the preparation of olean- 
drin, with oxyd of lead, evaporate the filtrate almost to dryness, 
remove from it the oleandrin by ether, dissolve the remnant in 
alcohol and evaporate the filtrate. The residue is Pseudocurarin. 
— A yellowish gum-like amorphous mass without smell or taste; 
most readily soluble in water and in alcohol, not in ether; foims 
with acids salts which do not crystallise ; is not precipitable by the 
chlorides of platinum or of mercury. Acts not poisonous. 

P8eudomorphin=C34 H19 NOg + 2 HO. In Opium. Is 
best obtained by connecting its preparation with that of morphin 
after the well known method of Robertson-Gregory (see Codein). 
By adding to the purified mixture of the chlorides of morphin— 
codein, etc., in alcoholic solution, a small excess of ammonia, the 
Ps. remains dissolved, while only the morphin is thrown down. - 
Saturate the solution, freed from the morphin, with a slight excess 
of hydrochloric acid, distil off the alcohol and strain the remaining 
solutioi;^ through a coal filter. The solution, which is now com- 
pletely clear, but mostly coloured, yields, on neutralising with 
diluted ammonia, a voluminous deposit, consisting chiefly of Ps., 
which has to be collected, washed and dissolved in acetic acid. 
Add to the filtered solution carefully as much diluted ammonia as 
enables the liquid, after the precipitation, to redden very slightly 
blue litmus-paper. By this operation the Ps. subsides, which by 
combining with hydrochloric acid, yields a well-crystallising salt, 
which is purified by re-crystallisation in water. Finally dissolve 
the purified salt in much hot water and decompose by ammonia. — 
Fine, crystalline deposit, suspended in a liquid of a vivid, silky 
lustre, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, sidphide of 
carbon, diluted sulphuric acid, and in solutions of carbonate of 
soda, readily soluble in potash and soda-ley, and also a little in 
milk of lime, slightly in liquor of ammonia, readily in alcoholic 
ammonia; is of neutral reaction, does not saturate the acids, is 
tasteless in its combinations; dissolves in concentrated sulphuric 
acid, with olive-green colour, in concentrated nitric acid with 


orange-red colour, passing soon into yellow as with morphin; be- 
comes blue with chloride of iron. 

PseudoTeratrin = Helonin. 

Pteritannlc Acid =0^4 H15 0$. In the rhizoma of Aspidium 
Filix mas. The ethereous solution, obtained in the preparation of 
t-annaspidic acid, leaves on evaporating a black-brown residue, 
which has to be digested with petroleum as long as the latter 
assumes a brown colour. Collect the undissolved powder, press, 
triturate, and boil with water, dissolve the remaining resinous mass 
in ether and evaporate. — Black-brown, amorphous, shining mass, 
friable to a drab-coloured electric powder, tasteless, of a faint smell, 
of acidulous reaction, fuses with a gentle heat, is insoluble iu water, 
dissolves in strong, less in diluted alcohol, readily in ether, not iu 
volatile and in fixed oils; precipitates glue. 

Pnccin. In the root of Sanguinaria Canadensis, associated with 
chelerythrin and porphyroxin. Draw out with water and sulphuric 
acid, precipitate the solution with ammonia, wash the deposit with 
water, dry, draw out with ether, digest the solution with animal 
charcoal, filter and add sulphuric acid, which produces a deposit of 
sulphate of chelerythrin of a pale-cinnabar colour, insoluble in 
ether, like all other salts of this alkaloid. The ethereous solution 
leaves, after filtering and evaporating, a dark-red, amorphous 
residue, which has to be redissolved in ether and mixed with 
diluted sulphuric acid, in order to remove the rest of the chelery- 
thrin. After filtering and evaporating to dryness, the dark-red 
mass is treated with alcohol and the Puccin is thrown down from 
the solution with water. — ^Appears, after drying, as a red, tasteless 
powder, insoluble in cold water, fusing to a resin in boiling water. 
The alcoholic solution becomes pale-yellow with animal charcoal, 
And leaves a pale-red residue, which turns to a deep-red with 
hydrochloric acid and forms pinkish needles. 

Pulsatilla camplior=ANEMONiN. 

Plirpiirin=:Ci8 He Oe. In the madder (from Rubia tinc- 
torum). Allow the pulverised root to ferment with yeast and 
water, wash with water, and boil with a solution of alum. Let 
cool and add sulphuric acid, which yields reddish flocks of purpu- 
rin, which have to be fe^ed from alumina by boiling with diluted 
hydrochloric acid, and are recrystallised in alcohol or in ether. — 
Forms red needles, anhydrous (crystallising from weak alcohol as 
orange-yellow needles with 1 equiv. of water) ; fuses by heat and 
sublimates at 225°, mostly leaving a little coal ; dissolves more 
readily in water than alizarin with a reddish, in diluted acids with 
yellow, readily in alkalies with ciimson colour, also readily in 
alcohol and of a deeper red than alizarin, most readily in ether ; 


unaltered in concentrated sulphuric acid and reprecipitable hj 
water; yields a purple deposit with acetate of lead. 

[Pyrocatechill has been found by E. v. Gorup-Besanez in the- 
green leaves of Vitis quinquefolia. Wiesner also recognised it as 
ingredient of the Eucalyptus kino, and F. A. Fllickiger likewise 
as constituent of the kinoes of Pterocarpus Marsupium and Butea 

Pyrrhopinir Chelerythrin. 

Qliassiin=C2o H12 O e . In the wood and bark of Quassia amara^ 
Picraena excelsa and Simaruba amara. Treat the alcoholic 
extract with water, bring the solution to honey-consistence, treat 
repeatedly with small quantities of absolute alcohol, evaporate the 
solutions to dryness, draw out with hot water, decolourise the- 
pale-yellow solution with animal charcoal, and evaporate. — Fine^ 
white, silky, shining needles, permanent at the air, inodorous, 
neutral, very bitter, fuse a little less readily than colophony, 
decompose in higher temperatures, dissolve in 222 parts cold, more- 
readily in hot water, readily in alcohol, very little in ether; the 
alcoholic solution is precipitable by tannic acid in dense^ white 

ttliercetllir=C46 Hie O20. In the grains of Avignon (the fruits, 
of Khamnus grsBcus, R. prunifolius, R. infectorius, R. saxatilis, 
R. amygdalinus, R. oleoides), readily formed; probably in many 
other plants, too, as in the yellow berries of Hippopha^ rhamnoides,. 
according to Filhol, also in the green leaves, and in the flowers. 
Gellatly's Rhamnetin is alleged to be Quercetin. Draw out the 
berries with ether containing alcohol, evaporate the gold-coloured 
solution, mix the remnant with water, dissolve in alcohol what 
has been separated and evaporate the solution under addition of 
water. — Very flne, small, bright-yellow needles or citron-yellow 
powder, tasteless^ of a slightly salty and somewhat styptic taste- 
(according to other statements, very bitter like quinin), when dis- 
solved in water, fusible above 250° and sublimable partly unde- 
composed; scarcely soluble in cold water, little in boiling water, 
readily even in weak alcohol, much less so in ether, readily in 
alkaline liquids with gold-yellow colour; turning dark-green with 
chloride of iron, and dark-red when warmed. 

Qnercin* Bitter ingredient of the bark of Quercus Robur. 
Draw out with milk of lime, precipitate the flltrate with carbonate* 
of potash, evaporate the filtrate to honey-consistence, treat with 
alcohol, evaporate the tincture and recrystallise. — Small, white,, 
inodorous, bitter crystals, readily soluble in water and in aqueous 
alcohol, not in absolute alcohol and in ether, has a neutral reaction, 
turns orange-yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid, dissolves, 
also in lime-water. 


(laercit=Ci2 H12 Oio. Peculiar kind of sugar of the fruits of 
Quercus racemosa and sessiliflora. Throw down, hot, with lime 
the tannic acid from an aqueous extract of acorns, filter, destroy 
any fermentable sugar by fermentation with yeast, evaporate to a 
syrup-consistence, wash the ciystals which will form with cold 
alcohol, and recrystallise in water or in weak alcohol. — Forms 
hard, permanent, klinorhombic crystals of sweet taste, unaltered 
at 215°, fusiQg at 235^, partly sublimating, soluble in 8 to 10 parts 
cold water, also in hot weak alcohol, does not ferment with yeast, 
yields with nitric acid, on heating, oxalic but no mucic acid, dis- 
solves in concentrated sulphuric acid colourless, is not altered on 
boiling with alkalies, acetate of copper, or with alkaline tartarate 
of copper. 

Quercitrin = C70 Hse O40. Yellow glucosid of the bark of 
Quercus tinctoria. Formerly confounded with rutin. Boil the 
bark with water, leave the decoction to stand cold, collect the 
Quercitidn which has formed, triturate it with a little alcohol of 
35° B. to a pulpy state, heat over the water-bath, collect on 
calico, remove impurities by pressing, dissolve the remnant in a 
larger quantity of boiling alcohol, filter hot, mix with boiling 
water until it becomes turbid, and allow to stand cold. Collect 
the crystals of Quercitrin, and purify by again submitting them to 
the same treatment. — Forms sulphur or chrome-yellow, microscopic, 
rhombic, tabular crystals, inodorous and tasteless, slightly bitter 
when dissolved; fuses after desiccation at 168°; yields in higher 
temperatures crystals of quercetin under decomposition; dissolves 
in 2485 parts cold and in 143 parts boiling water, the straw-yellow 
solution becoming colourless by acids; dissolves in 23 parts cold 
and in 4 parts boiling alcohol, little in ether, most readily in 
diluted alkalies, these solutions turning dark at the air; breaks 
up on boiling with diluted acids into sugar and quercetin. 

Qllilia-Red=Ci2 H7 O 7. In the bark of the genus Ciuchona, 
produced by the oxydation of tannic acid. Draw out with diluted 
liquor of ammonia, precipitate the red-brown solution with hydro- 
chloric acid, wash and heat the deposit (Quinovin and Quina-red) 
with thin milk of lime, dissolving the quinovin and leaving 
Quina-red lime undissolved, wash the latter with hot water; de- 
compose with diluted hydrochloric acid, wash the deposit of 
Quina-red, redissolve in ammonia, precipitate with hydrochloric 
acid, wash the precipitate, dissolve in alcohol, filter and evaporate 
to dryness.— ^Red-brown, inod()rous and tasteless, not fusible j in- 
soluble in water and in diluted acids, readily soluble in alcohol, 
ether, alkalies with dark-red colour; the amn^oniacal solution 
after a rather long time throws down the glue on addition of water. 

Quinic Acid = Cu Hn On + HO. In the genuine quina- 
bark^s (from Cinchona), in the Quina Maracaibo, Quina nova 


Surinamensis (from Cascarilla magnifolia), in the seeds and leaves 
of Coffea Arabica, in species of Galium (Gr. Mollugo, &c.); in species 
of Vaccinium (V. Myrtillus, &c.), and probably in the following 
plants, the leaves of which yield kinon (quinon) on heating with 
sulphuric acid and peroxyd of manganese, viz.: — Cyclopia lati- 
folia, and others; Fraxinus excelsior, and others; Hedera Helix, 
Ilex Aquifolium, Ilex Paraguayensis, Ligustrum vulgare, and 
other species; Quercus Ilex, Quercus E-obur, and other oaks; 
XJlmus campestris, and other species. It appears hereby that 
Quinic acid is not confined to the genus of Cinchona, as formerly 
stated, but that it belongs largely to the family of Rubiaceae, 
and to many other orders of plants widely distant in natural 

Preparation from the quina bark: Evaporate the liquid ob- 
tained in the preparation of quinin, by precipitating the sulphuric 
acid extract with milk of lime to the consistence of a syrup, 
decant from the lime-sulphate, evaporate over the water-bath to 
honey consistence, boil with alcohol several times and dissolve the 
remnant in little water. The solution yields, after a few days, 
a crystalline mass, which has to be strongly pressed, and is purified 
by recrystallisation. From the bilberry herb: Boil the green 
herb, gathered in spring, with water and lime, evaporate the 
decoction, and throw down the Quinate of lime with alcohol. 
Dissolve the glutinous precipitate in water mixed with some 
acetic acid, free from dyeing matters by means of acetate of lead 
and evaporate the filtrate, after removing the lead, to the density 
of a syrup, when Quinate of lime will form in crystals after a few 
days. The Quinate of lime, obtained by any of these methods, is 
purified by repeatedly recrystallising or by precipitating with alcohol 
of 36° B., and by dissolving in alcohol of 18° B. In order to isolate 
the acid, the Quinate of lime is dissolved in water and decomposed 
by oxalic acid. The filtered liquid is freed from the excess of 
oxalic acid by means of acetate of lead, the excess of the latter by 
sulphuret of hydrogen, and the filtered liquid is then allowed 
to crystallise. 

Foims large, hard, tabular, klino-rhombic crystals with a 
characteristic hemitropism on the right side of the horizontal axis; 
has a pure and strong acid taste; loses at 100° nothing of its 
weight, fuses at 161°, and decomposes by more heat; dissolves in 
2^ parts cold and in less hot water, more readily in aqueous 
than in strong alcohol, scarcely in ether. By heating with super- 
oxyd of manganese and sulphuric acid an orange coloured, neeiile- 
shaped sublimate of Quinon (C12 II4 O4) is obtained. The 
Quinates are m6stly crystallisable and of neutral reaction; with 
the exception of the basic Quinate of lead, soluble in water, not in 
strong alcohol ; yield by the destructive distillation tannic acid and 


[Qainamill. Alkaloid found by Hesse in the bark of Cinchona 
■succinibra. — Very delicate, long, asbestos-like, white prisms, of 
alkaline reaction, readily soluble in ether, alcohol and petroleum- 
«ther, little soluble in dilute alcohol, insoluble in water, potash- ley 
and ammonia. The sulphate and chloride are easily soluble. 
Chloride of platinum forms only in concentrated solutions a yellow 
precipitate. Chloride of gold becomes reduced to the metal. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves the Quinamin colourless, 
yellow to brown on heating; with concentrated nitric acid it 
becomes first yellow, then orange, and at last colourless. The 
-Quinamin fuses at 172°, and on cooling, presents a radiated, crystal- 
line mass; in higher temperatures it becomes brown and amor- 
phous. It has a bitter taste.] 

Qlli]lidin=:Cig Hn NO. In species of Cinchona. The prepara- 
tion is similar to that of cinchonidin. — Appears in colourless, hard, 
Minorhomboidal prisms of glass-lustre and of moderately bitter 
taste ; fuses at 1 75° without loss of weight and is decomposed by 
more heat, dissolves at 17° in 2580 pts., at 100° in 1858 pts. water, 
in 143 pts. ether, and in 12 pts. alcohol of 0*835°. The solution in 
x;hlorine-water is not altered by ammonia. Most of its salts dis- 
solve more readily than those of quinin. 

tluillin=C2o Hi2 NO 2 + 3 HO. In all true quinarbarks of the 
genus Cinchona, always accompanied by larger or smaller quantities 
of cinchonin, in some barks also by quinidin, cinchonidin, and by 
other bases. Draw out with water acidulated with hydrochloric 
acid, saturate the liquid with an excess of hydrate of lime, collect 
the deposit, wash, dry, treat with ether, evaporate the solution, 
dissolve the remnant in the least possible quantity of water and 
sulphuric acid, prepare the pure sulphate by evaporating and 
'decompose the sulphate by soda-ley. — Loose, white, easily 
friable mass or silky tufts of needles (crystallised from alcohol), 
loses only a little hygroscopic water at 100° to 150°, fuses at 196° 
without loss of weight, and decomposes in a higher temperature; 
has a very bitter taste, dissolves in 364 parts cold water, in 6 parts 
cold and in 2 parts boiling alcohol of 0*820, in 21 parts ether, in 
2-6 parts chloroform, in benzol, in 200 parts glycerin, in 62 parts 
fixed oils; in chlorine wat«r colourless, the solution, when over- 
saturated with ammonia, assuming a graas-green colour and 
yielding a precipitate of the same colour; in concentrated sulphuric 
acid colourless, the solution turning yellow-brown on heating. 
The solutions of its salts become brown in the direct sunlight, 
and are precipitable by the hydrates and by the carbonates of 

t^nlnotannlc AcIdziCu Hs O9. In the barks of the genus 
•Cinchona. Boil with water, mix the decoction with a little burnt 
magnesia, precipitating thereby quina-red; throw down the filtrate 


with acetate of lead, decompose the deposit under water with 
sulphuret of hydrogen; precipitate the liquid after filtering off 
from the sulphide of lead (quinovin and a little quina-red), with 
sub-acetate of lead ; dissolve the deposit, after filtering, in diluted 
acetic acid (quina-red remaining undissolved), and precipitate the 
acid filtrate with ammonia. Wash the light-yellow deposit, de- 
compose by sulphuret of hydrogen, filter off from the sulphide of" 
lead, and precipitate the filtrate again with alcoholic solution or 
acetate of lead. After the deposit, consisting of Quinotannate of 
lead, has been decomposed under water with sulphiu-et of hydrogen, 
and after the liquid, freed from the sulphide of lead by filtering, 
has been evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid and of a 
mixture of sub-sulphate of iron and lime, the Quinotannic acid 
remains, though already a little altered. — It is light-yellow, friable,, 
very electric and hygroscopic; of an acidulous and very acerb, not 
bitter taste; dissolves readily in water, alcohol, and ether; yields- 
on heating no pyrocatechuic acid ; is precipitable by glue, becomes 
green with salts of oxyd of iron. 

Qlli]IOVa-Red=Ci2 He O5. In Quina-nova bark (from 
Cinchona species). Precipitate the decoction of the bark with 
acetate of lead, decompose the precipitate, consisting almost entirely 
of the Red, imder water by means of sulphuret of hydrogen,, 
wash the residting mixture of Quinovarred and sulphide of Jead 
with water, and boil with alcohol, and precipitate the Quinova-red 
from the filtrate by means of much water. — Almost black, lustrous, 
resinous substance, friable to a dark-red powder; dissolves 
spaiingly in water, readily in alcohol, ether, and alkalies ; is pi-e- 
cipitable from the alcoholic solution by an alcoholic solution of' 
acetate of lead, not by tartarated antimony. 

QuinOTa-Taimic Acid=:Ci4 H9 0$. In the bark Quina nova 
or Surinamensis (from Cascarilla magnifolia). Precipitate the 
decoction with acetate of lead, remove the deposit, containing 
quinova-red, divide the filtered liquid into three parts, precipitate 
one of them completely by sub-acetate of lead, and mix wiUi the 
remaining two parts. The deposit, which contains quinovin, the 
rest of the quinovarred, and a little Quinova-tannic acid (but 
which cannot be used with advantage for the preparation of the 
latter) is also removed, and the liquid precipitated by sub-acetate 
of lead. Decompose the washed precipitate under water by 
sulphuret of hydrogen, remove the sulphide of lead, drive away 
the sulphuret of hydrogen by heating, add acetate of lead, and 
miy the filtrate with a great quantity of strong alcohol, whereby 
flocks of Quinova-tannate of lead are obtained. From these isolate 
the acid by sulphuret of hydrogen, and evaporate in a current or 
carbonic acid gas. — Amber-yellow, translucid, friable substance, or 
acerb and slightly bitter taste; dissolves in water and alcohol, not 


in ether, does not precipitate glue, colours chloride of iron dark- 
green; is not precipitated by tartarated antimony and acetate of 
lead, but is so by sub-acetate of lead, and by a solution of acetate 
of lead in alcohol. The aqueous solution throws down a red 
powder (quinova-red) when allowed to stand at the air. 

^(llinOTic Acid=C24 H19 O5. Found in the leaves of Pinus 
sylvestris, and in the green parts of Thuja occidentalis and many 
other coniferse. Boil with alcohol of 40%, remove from the ex- 
tracts the alcohol by evaporating, mix the renmant with water, 
dissolve the green resinous deposit in alcohol of 40%, precipitate 
the solution with alcoholic acetate of lead, throw down the excess 
of lead in the filtered liquid with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter and 
distil the alcohol; dissolve the remaining resin in very diluted 
potash-ley; throw down the resins by chloride of calcium, saturate 
the filtered liquid with hydi'ochloric acid, which precipitates pale- 
yellow flocks of Quinovic acid. These have to be re-dissolved in 
very diluted potash-ley, purified by treating with animal charcoal 
and precipitated with hydrochloric acid. — White or slightly 
yellowish, brittle mass, friable to a highly electric powder. 

Ra^emlC Acid = C4 H2 O5 -\- HO + Aq. Observed as yet 
only in cream of tartar, associated with tartaric acid. The isola- 
tion and purification of this acid is identical with that of tartaric 
acid. It is distinguished from the latter by the klinorhomboidal 
form of its crystals, by its tendency to effloresce at the air, and by 
losing one equivalent of water at 100°, and then having exactly 
the same composition as tartaric acid. Its aqueous solution be- 
comes turbid by sulphate of lime and the deposit obtained by lime 
water is insoluble in chloride of ammonium. 

Rap€-011. Obtained by pressing the seeds of several varieties 
of Brassica oleracea; is brownish-yellow, originally mild, assume* 
by keeping a nauseous odour and taste, is of 0*912 to 0*920 density,, 
thickens below, 0°. Not drying. 

Raspberry Camphor. Obtained by distillation with water from 
the fruits of Rubus Idseus. — Small, white laminae, either lighter 
or heavier than water, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and alka- 

Katanllia Tannic A€id=Ci8 Hg O7. In the Eatanhia-root 
and in the bark of the root of Savanilla-Hatanhia (from Krameria 
triandra and K. Ixina). Exhaust with ether, .treat the ethereous 
extract with alcohol and evaporate the. solution. — Ruby-red, 
amorphous, permanent at the air, of a bitter and astringent taste, 
of acidulous reaction, fusible by heat, dissolves in water, alcohol, 
ether; colours and precipitates chloride of iron dark-green, precipi- 
tates glue, not tartarated antimony; becomes decomposed with 


•diluted acids into a brown-red, hard resin (ratanlia-red zi: 
Oi2 Hg Os, also existing ready formed in the root), and into a 
i8weet body which reduces the solution of copper. 

[RataillllIl=C2o Hi3 NOe (Peckolt's Angelin). Contained in 
the American Ratanhia extract (according to Ruge), and in the 
resin of Hillia spectabilis. In order to prepare it from the last- 
named substance, the pulverised resin is repeatedly digested with 
water, the residue dissolved in water and hydrochloric acid and 
•evaporated vdth a gentle heat to form crystals. The crystals are 
freed from the mother-ley by pressiug, again dissolved in acid 
water and recrystallised. After repeating this process six or seven 
iiimes, a white crystalline mass is obtained, which is dissolved in 
boiling distilled water and set aside to crystallise. — ^The Ratanhin, 
purified in this way, presents delicate, flexible needles, of a pure 
white colour and a vivid satin lustre. It is nearly insoluble in 
cold, and only sparingly soluble in boiling water ; it is still less 
soluble in alcohol, both cold and boiling, and almost insoluble in 
ether. It is tasteless, without odour, and of neutral reaction. R. 
dissolves in acid and in alkaline liquids, but is thrown down again 
on neutralising the solution. It is likewise precipitated by alcohol, 
:alcohol-ether, and in acid solutions by phosphomolybdic acid and 
by Nessler's reagent, not by chloride of platinum. Heated above 
150° it melts and volatilises in a higher temperature, while 
emitting a not unpleasant aromatic odour. Quickly heated, it 
becomes carbonised with a horny odour and under formation of 
inflammable gases. Ratanhin, when formed into a thin pulp with 
water and an adequate quantity of dilute nitric acid, and boiled 
for some time, becomes flrst of a rose colour, and then changes 
from blood-red to violet and blue, while exhibiting a splendid 
red fluorescence.] 

Red Pigment of Berries is mostly anthocyan, reddened by 
acids; yet there are some exceptions. For instance, the red of 
strawberries behaves like cissotannic acid, likewise, the red pig- 
ment of the berries of Ligustrum vulgare behaves differently and 
is named ligulin. 

Red Pigment of Flowers is mostly anthocyan, reddened by 

[Re^ianill, found by T. L. Phipson in the green pericarp of the 
walnut (Juglans regia). Crystallises in yellow, protracted 
octahedra or needles, little soluble in water, better in alcohol and 
benzol; becomes after a few hours transformed into black, amor- 
phous Regianic acid; forms with alkalies soluble salts of a splendid 
purple colour, with oxyd of lead an insoluble, brown-violet salt. 
On boiling the aqueous or alcoholic solutions of R. with hydro- 
•chloric acid, Regianic acid separates as a dense, black precipitate.] 


Resins. A very large and widely-diflPused class of bodies,, 
which seem to origrnate fix)m volatile oils by the oxydising 
influence of the atmosphere. Combined with volatile oils, they 
either exude spontaneously, or by the aid of incisions, or are 
extracted by solvents. They eidiibit the following characteristics :, 
They are colourless or coloured, translucid or transparent, not 
brittle, mostly amorphous, seldom crystalline, assume negative 
electricity with friction, are of 0*93 to 1-20 density, inodorous or 
odoriferous from traces of volatile oil, tasteless, or bitter and acrid,, 
fusible by heat, are decomposed by more heat under carbonisation,, 
bum with a smoking flame; they are insoluble in water, soluble in 
alcohol (sometimes only in the strongest), mostly in ether and in 
oils, the solutions being mostly of acid reaction ; they dissolve as a 
rule in alkalies, yielding soap-like compounds. They contain 
principally carbon and hydrogen, mostly oxygen, too, but no nitrogen.. 

Rlianmill, Yellow, crystalline ingredient of the unmatured 
berries of Khamnus cathartica, associated with rhamnocathartin. 
Press the berries, boil the remnant repeatedly with water 
and allow the decoctions to stand cold. Purify the cauliflower- 
shaped crystals which are formed, by pressing, dissolving in boiling 
alcohol, washing the crystals that have formed with cold water and 
weak alcohol, and by recrystallising in boiling alcohol with aid of 
animal charcoal — Forms pale-yellow, cauliflower-shaped, small 
grains, seldom tuftily united needles, of a slight, peculiar taste,, 
fuses by heat and decomposes afterwards; not or scarcely soluble 
in cold water, swells up considerably in boiling water, dissolves 
little in cold, readily in boiling alcohol, not in ether; in cold con- 
centrated sulphuric and also in hydrochloric acid with saffron- 
yellow colour and precipitable by water, also in hot diluted 
sulphuric acid, and crystallising from it on cooling; in the hydrates 
and carbonates of alkalies with saffron-yellow colour, and precipi- 
table by acids. 

BliainilOCartliartill. The uncrystallisable bitter substance of 
the berries of Khamnus cathartica. Evaporate the juice of the 
ripe berries to honey-consistence, exhaust with hot alcohol, evapo- 
rate the tinctures and mix the remnant with water, which throws, 
down yellow-green, pulverulent rhamnotannic acid; the filtrate,, 
when shaken with animal charcoal until devoid of bitter taste, 
yields up the Rh. to the coal. Wash the latter with cold water,, 
dry, treat with hot alcohol and evaporate the tincture. — Trans- 
parent, amorphous, yellowish, brittle mass, friable to a yellow 
powder, assumes on friction a peculiar smell, tastes most nauseously 
bitter and acrid, is of neutral reaction, tolerably permanent at the 
air, fuses by heat to a yellow oil and is afterwards decomposed, 
dissolves in water in every proportion, likewise in alcohol, not in 
ether; the aqueous solution assumes with alkalies or with subace- 


tate of lead a brownish, gold-yellow colour without any deposit, 
and becomes colourless with acids; colours chloride of iron dark- 

Rliaiunotanilic Acid. Is obtained in the preparation of 
rhamnocathartin and is purified by washing, drying, dissolving in 
^ther and evaporating. — Green-yellow, amorphous, easily-friable 
mass of a bitter and acerb taste, fusible, dissolves scarcely in cold, 
slightly in boiling water, readily in alcohol and in ether, colours 
and precipitates the salts of oxyd of iron olive-green, precipitates 
also slowly tartarated antimony, but not glue. 

Rlianmoxantbin=Ci2 He Oe or C40 H20 O20. Yellow, crystal- 
line substance of the bark of the root and of the stem, also of the 
•seeds of Eliamnus cathartica and Bh. Frangula and doubtless 
many other species. Cover the branchlets of Rh. Frangula with 
sulphide of carbon and keep for three to four days, evaporate the 
liquid to dryness, treat the remnant with alcohol, which leaves the 
fat undissolved, evaporate again and recrystallise in ether. — Citron- 
yellow, crystalline mass of a dull, silky lustre, without taste or 
smell; fuses at 226° under evolution of yellow fumes, and subli- 
mates under partial decomposition in gold-yellow needles; is not 
soluble in water, dissolves in 160 parts warm alcohol of 80%, and 
separates from it on cooling almost completely; scarcely soluble in 
ether, soluble in sulphide of carbon, fixed and volatile oils, in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid with dark-ruby-red colour and reprecipi- 
table by water, in hot concentrated nitric acid unaltered; in 
-alkalies with a splendid piu'ple colour. 


[R]linantllin=C58 H52 O40 + sHO. Glucosid, discovered by 
Ludwig in the seed of Alectorolophus hirsutus. To prepare it 
treat the pulverised seeds with strong, boiling alcohol, evaporate 
the filtrate to dryness, remove the oil by means of ether, dissolve 
the residue in water, filter and evaporate to a syrupy consistence. 
The crystals, which will slowly form, are to be purified by recrys- 
tallisation. — The E,. foims colourless ciystals of a bitter-sweet 
taste; is readily soluble in water and in alcohol, not in ether; of a 
neutral reaction. It is not precipitated by subacetate of lead, 
reduces ammoniacal silver solution when warmed, and separates 
with acids into glucose and a darkblue-green body, soluble in 
alcohol but not in water. Heated with sulphuric or hydrochloric 
acids, R. turns brown, while emitting an aromatic rye odou|\] 


Rhodotannic Acid^Cu He O7. In the leaves of Rhododen- 
dron ferrugineum and probably many of the congeners. Distil 
the alcoholic extract; mix the remnant with water, filter, precipi- 


tate the filtrate with acetate of lead, treat the deposit with diluted 
:a<3etic acid, filter, heat the filtrate to boiling point and precipitate 
with snbacetate of lead. Decompose the deposit under water with 
sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporate the filtrate in a current of 
carbonic acid gaa — ^Amber-yellow powder of an acidulous, acerb 
taste, greens the salts of oxyd of iron, separates on heating with 
•diluted acids a red-yellow powder (Bliodoxanthin=z2 C14 H7 Og 
+ HO). 

Kh06adln=C42 H21 NO12. Peculiar alkaloid occurring in all 
parts of Papaver Rhoeas and allied species. Treat the whole herb 
with warm water, concentrate the extract, oversaturate with car- 
bonate of soda and shake repeatedly with ether. Transfer the Khoesr 
-din from the ethereous solution to an aqueous solution of bitartarate 
of soda by shaking, throwaway the ether and precipitate the aqueous 
liquid with ammonia, wash the deposit, dry, and boil with alcohol, 
in order to remove dyeing matters and an alkaloid which exists in 
the plant in small quantity only, and seems to be thebain. The 
B.hoeadin remains by this process for the greatest part undissolved. 
To purify it completely, dissolve the remnant in acetic acid, shake 
with animal charcoal and precipitate with ammonia. — Forms small, 
white prisms, tasteless either by itself or in solution; fuses at 232^ 
without loss of weight, becomes brown and sublimates j>artly; is 
almost insoluble in ether (in 1280 parts), benzol, chloroform, 
alcohol, water, liquor of ammonia, soda-ley and lime-water; the 
alcoholic solution has a scarcely perceptible alkaline reaction. 
Dissolves in acids, without being able to neutralise them or even 
to remain in contact with them without alteration (to turn red), 
especially hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, yielding purple-red 
solutions. Alkalies restore the original colour. The red coloura- 
tion is accompanied by the production of a colouring substance, 
and of a new alkaloid of highly basic properties and of the same 
composition as Rhoeadin. Concentrated sulphuric and nitric 
acids dissolve the Khoeadin under decomposition, the former acid 
with olive-green, the latter with yellow colour. The colourless 
solution of Rh. is precipitable by tannin, chloride of mercury, etc. 

Rhoitannic Acid = Cis H14 ds. In the leaves of Rhus 
Toxicodendron. Shake the ethereous extract with warm water, 
filter, allow to rest for two days, filter anew, throw down sulphuric 
and phosphoric acids by means of a little acetate of lead, filter 
and precipitate completely with acetate of lead, decompose the 
latter deposit under water with sulphuret of hydrogen; filter and 
evaporate. — Amorphous, yellowish-green, gum-like mass, of slightly 
bitter taste and acidulous reaction, colours and precipitates the 
salts of oxyd of iron dark green, colours tartarated antimony dark 
yellow without precipitation, turbidifies solutions of glue when 


Biclnin* In the seeds of Ricinus communis. Boil repeatedly 
with water, evaporate the liquids, after the fixed oil has been re- 
moved as completely as possible, to honey-consistence, boil witL 
alcohol, filter, free the tincture from the resin after 24 hours, and 
distil off the alcohol. In the remnant, crystals of Bicinin are 
formed after some time, which have to be purified by recrystal- 
lising in alcohol with aid of animal charcoal. — Forms colourless,, 
rectangular prisms and scaly laminae of a slight taste of bitter 
almonds; fuses by heat, sublimates unaltered; dissolves in water 
and in alcohol, scarcely in ether, in benzol, in concentrated 
sulphuric acid without colour, the solution assuming a green tinge- 
with chromate of potash ; in nitric acid without decomposition. 

Ricinoleic AcidzzCge H33 O5 + HO. In the oil of the seeds, 
of Ricinus communis. Saponify, salt out, decompose the soap with 
hydrochloric acid, and refrigerate the oily mixture containing the 
R. acid and a little solid acids, under addition of ^ volume of alcohol 
to a temperature of — 10° to — 12°, when the solid acids will crystal- 
lise. After removing the latter, and driving off the alcohol,. 
Ricinoleate of lead is obtained by digestion with oxyd of lead, and 
which has to be dissolved in ether, and is decomposed with water 
and hydrochloric acid. Purify the R. acid which remains after the 
evaporation of the ethereous liquid by dissolving in liquor of am- 
monia, precipitating with chloride of baryum, recrystallising the 
baryum-compound in alcohol, decomposing with tartaric acid and 
washing with water. — Light wine-yellow, syrup like liquid of 0'94 
density, inodorous, of a strong and lasting, disagreeable, acrid taste, 
dissolved in alcohol of acid reaction, congeals at — 6° to — 10^ 
(according to others at 0°) to a granular mass, dissolves in alcohol 
and in ether in every proportion. The Ricinoleates dissolve all 
in alcohol, some of them also in ether, are not liable to oxydise 
by keeping. 

RlozoUc AcidrrPiPiTZAHoic Acid. 

Robillin=C5o H30 O32 + II HO. Yellow, crystalline glucosid of 
the flowers of Robinia Pseudacacia. Boil with water, use the decoc- 
tion six to eight times for boiling anew fresh flowers, evaporate to a 
syrup thickness, treat with hot alcohol, filter, distil the alcohol off 
and allow the remnant to form in crystals. Dissolve the latter, 
after freeing from the bulk of the mother-ley by pressing and 
washing with cold alcohol, in boiling water, and mix the solution 
with acetate of lead, which throws down foreign matters and 
leaves the Robinin dissolved. The R. is obtained by evaporating 
the filtrate, freed from the lead by sulphuret of hydrogen, and ia 
then recrystallised in water. — Forms very fine, straw-yellow 
needles of a slight satin-lustre, neutral, tasteless, in aqueous solu- 
tion of a slightly astringent taste; loses its water at 100?, fuses at 
195°, and decomposes in a higher temperature, producing quercetin 


and an odour of burnt sugar; dissolves little in cold, readily in 
boiluQg water, the light-yellow solutions becoming colourless with 
acids ; little soluble in cold, more so in hot alcohol, not in ether, 
readily in alkalies with gold-yellow colour; the ammoniacal solu- 
tion becomes brown by keeping, but not the solutions of the fixed 
alkalies; breaks up with diluted acids into sugar and quercetin. 

RoecelliC Acid=C34 H30 06+2 HO. In Roccella fuciformis 
and in Lecanora tartarea. Treat with water and ammonia, preci- 
pitate the filtrate with chloride of calcium, decompose the deposit 
with hydrochloric acid and purify the crystals that have formdd 
by dissolving in ether. — Forms delicate, white, silvery, quadrangu- 
lar, tabular crystals, obtained in short needles from alcohol, 
inodorous and tasteless, of acid reaction in the alcoholic solution ; 
fuses at 130° without loss of weight, evaporates partly below 200°, 
and is partly converted into the anhydrous acid and decomposed 
by a higher temperature; is quite insoluble in water, dissolves in 
1'8 parts alcohol of 0*819, readily in ether; forms with alkalies half- 
acid soluble, with the other bases mostly insoluble salts. 

K0CC6llillill=C3a H16 O14. In Koccella tinctoria. Treat with 
water containing lime, filter, precipitate the filtrate with hydro- 
chloric acid and boil the deposit, consisting of Roccellinin and 
lecanoric acid (named formerly /Sorsellic acid), repeatedly with 
water, leaving the R. undissolved, which has to be recrystallised 
in alcohol. — Fine, hair-shaped crystals of silky gloss, insoluble in 
water, slightly soluble in cold alcohol and in ether, a little more 
when hot, readily in alkalies and in alkaline earths ; assumes a 
permanent green-yellow colour with solutions of chloride of lime. 

Rottlcrill (Kamalin) = C22 Hio Og. In the kamala, the 
stellated hairs and glandules that cover the fniit of Mallotus 
Philipinensis. It crystallises from the ethereous tincture in yellow 
needles of a silky gloss, fuses by heat and becomes decomposed 
in higher temperatures; is insoluble in water; dissolves in alkalies 
with deep-red colour, little in cold, more in boiling alcohol, and 
readily in ether. 

Buberythric Acid=C72 H40 O40 or Cge Hsi O31. In the root 
of Rubia tinctorum, according to Rocbleder; Schunck believes the 
above acid to be a product of decomposition of rubia n, and perhaj s 
identical with a substance named by him rubianic acid. Precipitate 
with acetate of lead the aqueous decoction of madder, remove the 
deposit (which may be used for the preparation of alizarin and 
purpurin), and precipitate the filtrate with subacetate of lead, but 
not in excess, producing a dark flesh-coloured and almost brick-red 
deposit, which contains Ruberythric, rubichloric, a little citric and 
phosphoric acids. Decompose the deposit under water with sul- 
phuret of hydrogen; separate the liquid, containing mostly rubi- 


chloric acid, by filtering off the sulphide of lead. Wash the 
latter for a short time and withdraw from it the R. acid hj means 
of boiling alcohol. Evaporate the alcoholic solution4o ^, add water 
and a little solution of baryta, thereby obtaining a white deposit, 
which has to be removed when, after addition of more solution of 
baryta, Ruberythrate of baryta will be precipitated in crimson-red 
flocks. Collect the latter, dissolve in diluted acetic acid, neutralise 
the solution with ammonia almost completely, and add subacetate 
of lead, which throws down the compound of lead with a cinnabar- 
red colour. This compound has to be washed with diluted alcohol, 
and is decomposed under alco]|^ol with sulphuret of hydrogen. Heat 
the whole to the boiling point, filter hot and evaporate, obtaining 
thereby light-yellow crystals of R. acid, which have to be purified 
by pressing and by reciystallising in a little water. — ^The Rube- 
rythric acid forms yellow needles of a silky gloss, slightly bitter; 
loses at 100^ nothing of its weight ; dissolves slowly in cold, readily 
in hot water ; the aqueous solutions become cloudy when heated 
with hydrochloric acid, and form on boiling a yellow jelly, which 
conglomerates to flakes of alizarin; dissolves in alcohol and in 
ether with gold-yellow colour (Schimck's rubianic acid is insoluble 
in ether) ; dissolves in aqueous alkalies with blood-red colour, the 
solutions assuming on boiling the purple-red hue of the alkaline 
solutions of alizarin and throwing down alizarin after the addition 
of acids. 

Rubiacin = C32 Hn Oio. In the root of Rubia tinctorum, 
perhaps combined with lime. Proceed at first, as indicated under 
Rubian ; mix the residue, remaining affcel* the edulcoration of the 
rubian, with the remnant left after the evaporation of the alcohol^ 
containing verantin and rubiretin, and treat the mixture with a 
boiling solution of chloride or of nitrate of iron. Rubiretin and 
Rubiacin dissolve (the latter partly as such, partly by oxydation 
as rubiacate of iron-oxyd) in the liquid, while verantin remains in 
combination with oxyd of iron. Filter the deep red-brown solution 
after short boiling, keep the renmant for the preparation of veran- 
tin, precipitate from the filtrate with hydrochloric acid Rubiacin^ 
rubiacic acid, and rubiretin, as a yellow (after washing, brown) 
deposit, dissolve moist in boiling alcohol, dissolving Rubiacin and 
rubiretin and separating the former on cooling in small, citron- 
yellow crystals. By evaporating more of the alcohol, a mixture of 
Rubiacin and rubiretin is obtained as a dark brown-red residue, 
which forms on boiling with water dark-brown drops of rubiretin, 
while Rubiacin remains suspended as a light powder, and is easily 
decanted. After repeating the boiling with water several times, 
and pouring off the yellow powder which has formed, rubiretin 
remains as a dark, red-brown mass. — Forms splendid tabular 
ciystals and needles, similar to iodide of lead, of a strong, reddish- 


green lustre; dissolves slightly in boiling water with reddish-yellow 
colour, little in cold, more in boiling alcohol, readily in ether, little 
in diluted sulphuric acid, in concentrated sulphuric acid with 
yellow colour and undecomposed even on boiling, in ammonia 
with brownish, in potash-ley with rose-red, in soda-ley with orange 
colour, turning blood-red on boiling. 

Rubian = C56 H34 O30. Bitter glucosid of the root of E.ubia 
tinctorum. Boil with water and precipitate the decoction with 
diluted sulphuric or hydrochloric acids, to produce a dark-brown 
deposit which, freed by cold water from the acid, contains different 
substances, viz., Bubian, alizarin, rubiacin, rubiretin, verantin, 
pectic acid, and a dark-brown decomposition-product. (In the 
ifiltrate remains chlorogenin and sugar). Boil the deposit moist 
with several changes of alcohol as long as the latter assumes a 
yellow colour, pectic acid and the decomposition-product remaining 
undissolved, while the dark-brown decoction on cooling frequently 
throws down the verantin as a dark-brown resinous powder, 
removable by filtering. Heat the alcoholic solution to boiling, 
adding newly precipitated hydrate of alumina and allow to digest 
until the solution is nearly decolourised, precipitating thereby 
alizarin, Rubian, rubiacin, and portions of rubiretin and verantin. 
Collect the alumina-deposit and add to it, after washing with 
alcohol, a concentrated boiling solution of carbonate of potash, 
filter the deep-red solution, containing all the other substances, 
from the undissolved alizarin-alumina (convertible into pure ali- 
zarin as described above); precipitate the alkaline filtrate with 
hydrochloric acid, to throw down Bubian, rubiacin, rubiretin, and 
verantin, collect the deposit and wash thoroughly with water. As 
soon as the water passes off without acid reaction, the Bubian, 
being insoluble in acid water but soluble in pure water, begins to 
dissolve, imparting to the latter a yellow colour and a bitter taste. 
By dissolving it in this manner and evaporating the filtered liquid, 
it is obtained as a yellow extract. The latter is freed from pectic 
acid by dissolving in alcohol, but retains 5% to 8% inorganic 
substances, from which it cannot be separated. — Hard, dry, brittle, 
amorphous mass, similar to dried varnish or to gum-arabic, perma- 
nent at the air, dark yellow, intensely bitter, is decomposed at 
130* under loss of water; gives out orange-coloured vapours, 
consisting mostly of alizarin, when heated to a higher temperature, 
and leaves much coal; fuses on platinum-foil, dissolves most readily 
in water, a little less so in alcohol, not in ether, in concentrated 
sulphuric acid with blood-red colour, and becomes carbonised by 
heat; is decomposed by boiling with diluted sulphuric or hydro- 
chloric acid, into sugar and into opalescent, afterwards orange- 
coloured flocks, consisting of alizarin, rubiretin, rubiacin and 
verantin; dissolves in hot caustic potash-ley with blood-red, then 

o 2 


purple-red colour under decomposition. The Rubian in aqueous 
solutions also becomes blood-red with caustic baryta or ammonia. 
The aqueous solution of Rubian is not precipitated by acids; is 
not altered on boiling with phosphoric, oxalic, acetic, or tartaric 
acids, is not precipitated by alum or the acetates of alumina, lead, 
copper, or zinc, the chloride of tin, mercury, gold, the sub-nitrate 
of mercury, or the nitrate of silver. 

Rubicllloric Acld=: C14 Hs O 9 . In the root and herb of Rubia 
tinctorum, in the herb of Asperula odorata, Galium Aparine, G. 
Molugo and G. verum, and probably therefore largely present in 
that group of the RubiacesB to which these herbs belong. Occui-s 
in traces in the deposit produced by acetate of lead from the 
aqueous decoctions of the above vegetable parts; in a little larger 
quantity in the deposit produced by sub-acetate of lead, in the 
filtrate, and in the largest quantity in the deposit, effected by 
ammonia, from the liquid remaining after the filtration of the 
two former pi-ecipitations. In operating with Asperula adorata^ 
for instance, the third mentioned deposit has to be washed with 
alcohol, and is then, suspended in alcohol, decomposed with 
sulphuret of hydrogen. Free the liquid from the sulphide of 
lead and from the sulphuret of hydrogen, precipitate again with 
alcoholic solution of acetate of lead and a little ammonia, decompose 
the deposit in alcohol with sulphuret of hydrogen; filter and 
evaporate in a vacuum. — Colourless or slightly yellowish, amorphous 
mass, inodorous, of an insipid nauseous taste, dissolves readily in 
water and in alcohol, not in ether, becomes yellow with alkalies 
and is decolourised by acids; becomes on heating with hydro- 
chloric acid blue, afterwards green, forming dark-green flocks 
(chlorrubin), under formation of formic acid. 

RubiTeti]l=:Ci4 He O4 (isomeric with hydrated benzoic acid). 
In the root of Rubia tinctorum. It takes its origin, according to 
Higgin, like verantin by the boiling with water or as decomposition- 
product of purpurin, according to Strecker and Wolff, under the 
influence of alkalies. As to preparation see Rubian and Rubiacin. — 
Dark reddish-brown brittle resin, soft at 65°, fuses at 100°, yields 
usually with more heat a slight sublimate of alizarin, dissolves 
little in boiling water, readily in alcohol, in alkalies with purple- 
red colour. 

Rubitannic Acid = C14 H s O 9. In the leaves of Rubia tinc- 
torum. Precipitate the aqueous extract by means of acetate of 
lead, treat the deposit with diluted acetic acid, filter, precipitate the 
liquid with ammonia, wash the deposit with alcohol and decompose 
under alcohol with sulphuret of hydrogen; mix the liquid, after it has 
been filtered and the alcohol is driven off, with water, precipitate 
with subacetate of lead, decompose the deposit under water with 
sulphuret of hydrogen and evaporate the filtered liquid. — Very 


hygroscopic, precipitates the salts of oxyd of iron with a beautiful 
green colour. 


Rutin or RutiC Acid=:C5o H28 O30 + 4 HO. Glucosid of Ruta 
graveolens, of the flower-buds of Capparis spinosa, of the Waifa 
(the flower-buds of Sophora japonica). Formerly confounded with 
quercitrin. The safflower-yeUow is, according to Stein, uncrystal- 
lisable Rutin, as likewise the pigments of straw, of -^thalium, of 
Hippophag, and of Fagopyrum [also, according to Mylius, of Sedum 
acre]. Boil the herb of cultivated rue with vinegar, press and let 
rest ; wash the slowly forming Rutin with cold water, boil with a 
mixture of 1 pt. acetic acid and 4 pts. water, filter, allow to crys- 
tallise, wash the crystals, dissolve in boiling alcohol, treat the 
solution with animal charcoal, filter and let crystallise. — Forms 
light-yellow, fine needles of a feeble, silky gloss, inodorous and 
tasteless, bitter in solution ; neutral ; loses its water at 160°, con- 
glutinates at 190°, fuses and becomes carbonized with a smell of 
burnt sugar; dissolves scarcely in cold, in 185 pts. of boiling water, 
little in cold absolute alcohol, readily in boiling alcohol of 76 ^, 
not in ether, readily in alkaUes and in alkaline earths, and repre- 
cipitable unaltered by acids; yields on heating with diluted acids 
sugar and quercetin. 

Sabadillic Acid. Peculiar volatile fat-acid of the melanthaceous 
group of liliaceae, especially observed in the seeds of Schoenocaulbn 
officinale and of Colchicum autumnale, and in the root of Veratrum 
album. Treat preferably the seeds of Schoenocaulon (or Sabadilla) 
with ether, evaporate the solution, saponify the fixed oil, which 
has separated, with potash-ley, decompose the soap with tartaric 
acid, dSstil the aqueous liquid, saturate the distillate with baryta 
and distil the desiccated Sabadillate of baryta with concentrated 
phosphoric acid. — The S. acid sublimates in white needles of 
mother-of-pearl lustre, fusible at 20°, of the odour of butyric acid, 
soluble in water, alcohol and ether. 

Sabadillin=:G2o H13 NO 5. Alkaloid, associated with veratrin 
in the seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale. Is obtained by extracting 
with alcohol, distilling the tincture, dissolving the remnant in 
•diluted sulphuric acid, digesting the solution with animal charcoal, 
and precipitating with caustic potash. The deposit consists of 
veratrin, Sabadillin, and sabadillin-hydrate, and contains besides 
two, not basic substances (only one of which, the helonin, has been 
^closely investigated). To separate these substances, redissolve the 
deposit in diluted sulj^uric acid, add nitric add as long as a black, 
pitch-like deposit is produced, precipitate the filtered solution with 
potash-ley, wash the deposit, dry, dissolve in absolute alcohol, 
evaporate the solution and boil the remnant with water, veratrin 


and helonin remaining behind, while Sabadillin^ and sabadillin- 
hydrate are dissolved. — From the aqueous solution nearly the whole 
of the Sabadillin crystallises in slightly reddish, concentrically 
aiTanged, sexangular prisms, which become white by recrystallising. 
It has an extremely acrid taste, fuses at 200°, losing 9*53 % water, 
is decomposed in higher temperatures; dissolves little in cold,, 
readily in boiling water, also in alcohol, but crystallises not from, 
it ; is insoluble in ether. It has a strongly alkaline reaction, and 
forms with acids mostly crystallisable salts. 

Sabadillin-Hydrate = C20 Hu NOe (=C2o H13 NO5 + HO). 

By evaporating the liquid from which the sabadillin has crystal- 
lised, oily drops are formed, congealing to a red-brown, resin-like,, 
brittle substance. — Dissolves readily in water and in alcohol, not 
in ether, is of alkaline reaction, forms with acids amorphous 

Saicapcnmil. Gum-resinous exudation of Eerula persica and F. 
Scovitziana. Yellow, brown, or reddish conglutinated grains of 
garlic-odour and of acrid, bitter taste, softening with the- warmth 
of the hand. Contains two resins, gum, bassorin and volatile oil. — 
One of the resins is red-yellow, pellucid, at first tough, smells 
faintly garlic-like, tastes mild, afterwards bitter, dissolves readily 
in alcohol and in ether, little in ammonia and in oils, partially in 
potash-ley. The other resin is brown-yellow, brittle, inodorous and 
tasteless, dissolves readily in alcohol and in warm potash-ley, not 
in ether, ammonia and oils. 

Sallcin=C26 His O14. Bitter glucosid of the bark, the leaves, 
and other parts of species of Salix and Populus, probably also in 
some species of Spiraea, which yield salicylous acid when distilled 
with water. Boil the bark with water containing lime, clarify the 
decoctions with albumen, strain, evaporate to a syrup consistence, 
add pulverised charcoal, dry, extract with alcohol, distil the tino- 
ture and allow the remnant to crystallise. Becrystallise what has 
formed in water with aid of animal charcoal— Forms small, white, 
shining needles and scales, is inodorous, of a veiy bitter taste 
similar to willow-bark ; fuses at 198° without loss of weight, de- 
composes in a stronger heat; dissolves in 22 parts cold and in half 
part boiling water, in 30 parts cold and in three parts boiling 
alcohol of 80 %, not in ether; has a neutral reaction ; dissolves in 
concentrated sulphuric acid with purple-red colour, and water pre- 
cipitates a dark-i*ed powder from the solution ; yields, on boiling 
with diluted sulphuric acid, grape-sugar and a resinous substance 
(saliretin = C14 H e O 2 ) ; on heating with the su[)eroxyds of lead 
and manganese, or with chromate of potash and sulphuric acid,, 
formic and carbonic acids are produced, in the latter case associated 
with salicylous acid. Metallic salts yield no precipitates. 


Salicylate of Hethyl=Ci6 Hg 06=C2 Hs O+Cu Hg Og. 

In the herb of Gaultiera procumbensy and doubtless of other 
species; it forms in the main the oil of wintergreen, obtained from 
that plant by distillation with water, and has also been observed 
lately as constituent of Monotropa Hypopitys. Tn the rectification 
of the above oil a light oil of the composition of oil of turpentine 
passes over at 200°; the boiling point rises rapidly, and when it is 
as high as 222° Salicylate of Methyl begins to distil. — ^This is a 
colourless oil, of a pleasant and very penetrating odour, and of a 
sweet, aromatic, refreshing taste, of 1*18 density, boils at 222°, 
dissolves little in water, the solution becoming purple-violet with 
salts of oxyd of iron ; mixes with alcohol, ether, and oils in every 
proportion, splits up with aqueous alkalies into salicylic acid and 
wood-spirit, forms with bases compounds wherein 1 eq. H is sub- 
stituted by 1 eq. metal, the potassium-compound dissolving readily 
in water, not so readily that of sodium, still less those of baryum^ 
zinc, lead, copper, and mercury. 

Salicylic Acid=Ci4 H 5 O 5 + HO. In the flowers of Spiraea 
Ulmaria, combined with methyl in Gaultiera procumbens. May be 
obtained from the distillation of the crude salicylite of soda (see 
Salicylous acid), or by extracting the above flowers with ether, 
distilling the ether from the solution, dissolving the remnant in 
water, saturating the solution (containing salicylic and tannic 
acids) with carbonate of soda, evaporating and distilling with 
sulphuric acid. The aqueous distillate, by slow evaporation, yields 
the acid in colourless needles. From the oil of Gaultiera it is 
obtained by heating with strong potash-ley, until the whole of the 
wood-spirit is driven off", precipitating the remnant with hydro- 
chloric acid, washing the deposit with hot water and i*ecrystallising 
from hot alcohol. — The Salicylic acid crystalb'ses in colourless 
needles and in tolerably large quadrangular prisms, has a sweetish, 
acid, afterwards irritating taste, reddens litmus paper, fuses at 
150°, sublimates mialtered at 200° without boiling, dissolves 
little in cold, abundantly in hot water, readily in wood-spirit, 
alcohol and ether. The aqueous solution, like salicylous acid, 
colours the salts of oxyd of iron purple-violet. The Salicylates of 
.the alkalies, of the alkaline earths and of zinc dissolve readily in 
water, those of lead, copper and silver with difficulty, all being 
crystallisable. The aqueous solutions of the Salicylates of alkalies 
turn brown at the air. In the destructive distillation most of its 
salts yield carbolic acid and carbonates. 

Salicylous Acid=Cu Hs O3. Found as yet in all parts, but 
especially in the flowers of Spirsea Ulmaria; also in other herba- 
ceous kinds of Spiraea, in the flowers of Crepis foetida, but seems 
to be only formed under the concurrence of water. It is obtained 
by distilling with water. The acid distillate is saturated with 


soda, evaporated to dryness, and the remaining salt distilled with 
sulphuric or better phosphoric acid, when Salicylous acid passes over 
first and salicylic acid sublimates afterwards in long needles. The 
liquid distillate is desiccated by chloride of calcium, and rectified. — 
Colourless, oily liquid, smells pleasantly aromatic, somewhat like 
bitter almonds; has a burning aromatic taste, congeals at — 20° to 
a translucent crystalline mass; has a density of 1*173, boils 
between 160° and 170°; reddens litmus-paper first, and bleaches 
it afterwards; dissolves copiously in water, in every proportion in 
alcohol and ether; in alkalies with yellow colour; the aqueous 
solution, even when largely diluted, colours the salts of oxyd of 
iron purple-violet. The Salicylites of the alkalies are yellow and 
moderately soluble, and give the same reaction with oxyd of iron 
compounds as the free acid. Tae Salicylites of the other metallic 
bases are for the greater part insoluble in water. 

[8amaderill. De Vry's Glucosid (1) of the bark of Samadera 

indica. Obtained by treating the alcoholic extract with water, 

. digesting the aqueous liquid with charcoal, and exhausting the 

latter by hot alcohol. — Is extremely bitter, and only obtained in 

the amorphous state.] 


Sandarac. Resinous exudation of Callitris quadrivalvis. Pale- 
yellow grains, similar to mastic, but not softening in the mouth, 
readily soluble in alcohol of 80%, also in ether. By treating with 
cold alcohol of 60%, one-third remains undissolved (sandaracin). 
It contains three resins, one of which is precipitable from the 
alcoholic solution by alcoholic potash, while the two other ones are 
separable by alcohol of 60%. 


rSailtal=:Ci6 He Og. Obtained by Weidel from sandal-wood 
(Pterocarpus saiitalinus) by exhausting with boiling water, con- 
taining a little potash; precipitating with hydrochloric acid; dis- 
solving the precipitate in boiling alcohol, and allowing to crystal- 
lise. — Forms colourless crystals, devoid of taste or smell, not 
soluble in water, benzol, chloroform, sulphide of carbon, and but 
sparingly in ether; yields with potash a faintly yellow solution, 
which soon turns red and green.] 

Santalin or Santalic Acid=C8o Hu Oio. The red pigment of 
the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Boil the ethereous or the 
alcoholic extract with water, the S. remaining undissolved. — 
Forms microscopic, beautifully red prisms, inodorous and taste- 
less, of an acid reaction; fuses at 104°, decomposes above the 
fusing point; is insoluble in water, dissolves readily in alcohol 
with blood-red, in ether with yellow colour, less in fixed and in 
volatile oils, readily in acetic acid and precipitable therefrom by 


^ater, likewise in concentrated sulphuric acid, in alkalies with a 
yiolet-red hue. Combines with bases to amorphous salts, the 
soluble ones (of the alkalies) possessing a slightly acerb taste. 

Santonin or Santonic Acid=C3o Hi8 Oe. Bitter, resinous 
acid of wormseed (Artemisia Cina and A. Siberi). Digest with 
alcohol of 40% and with hydrate of lime, strain, distil the alcohol, 
filter the remnant, concentrate and acidify with acetic acid. Collect 
the Santonin which has formed, wash with cold alcohol and re- 
crystallise from boiling alcohol with aid of animal charcoal. — 
Forms colourless, klino-rhombic needles and tabular crystals, in- 
odorous, slightly bitter ; more bitter when dissolved in alcohol; 
fuses at 169°, sublimates and becomes decomposed afterwards; 
turns yellow slowly in difiiised, rapidly in direct sunlight ; dis- 
solves in 5000 parts cold and in 250 parts boiling water, in 43 
parts cold and in 3 parts boiling alcohol of 80%, in 75 parts cold 
and in 42 parts boiling ether, in 4*35 parts chloroform, the solu- 
tions being of neutral reaction; in diluted acids not more 
abundantly than in water; readily in alkalies and in alkaline 
<earths, also in oils, undecomposed and colourless in concentrated 
sulphuric acid and reprecipitable by water. It behaves to- 
wards bases like a weak acid; the compounds of the alkalies and 
alkaline earths being soluble in water, not the other compounds. 


Saponin :=C96 H28 O24. (Named, also, according to the origru, 
Githagin, Monesin, Monninin, Polygalin, Quillajin, Senegin, 
Struthiin.) In plants of various orders, especially in Caryo- 
phylleae, as in the root and herb of Saponaria officinalis, in the 
root of Gypsophila Struthium, in the root and seed of Lychnis 
Githago, in the root-bark of Acacia lophantha, and perhaps 
other species, in the root of Monninia polystachya and Polygala 
Senega, in the Monesia-bark (Lucuma glycyphlsea), in the root of 
Quillaja Saponaria, in the fruit of Sapindus Saponaria and 
Aesculus Hippocastanum ; in the root of Polypodium vulgare, 
and many other ferns. Boil, preferably, the root of Gypsophila 
Struthium, with alcohol of 0*824; let the decoctions stand cold, 
•collect the sediment of Saponin, wash with ether and alcohol, 
and dry at 100^ — White, not crystalline, powder, which produces 
sneezing, of at first sweetish, afterwards burning, pungent and 
Jastingly aorid taste, of neutral reaction, readily soluble in water, 
yielding a dense froth, even in 8oluti(»is containing 1-1 0th 7o> 
dissolves more readily in aqueous than in strong alcohol, in 400 
parts absolute alcohol, yielding solutions devoid of the frothy 
property; insoluble in ether and in volatile oils; is decomposed 
by heat; breaks up on boiling with diluted sulphuric acid into a 
•carbo-hydrate and other products; dissolves little in cold alkalies^ 
more in warm ones; is precipitable by acetate and 8al>«oetate. 


Scillitin. In the fleshy bulb of Urginia Scilla. Bruise the- 
fresh bulbs, digest with water mixed with some sulphuric acid, 
filter, saturate the filtrate with lime, evaporate, allow to stand 
cold, remove the sulphate of lime, bring the liquid to dryness, 
treat with strong alcohol and evaporate the tincture. — Small, 
white, hard prisms, of a bitter, not acrid taste, insoluble in water 
and in oils, soluble in 120 parts alcohol. 

Scoparin=C42 H22 O20. Yellow, crystalline pigment of 
Cytisus scoparius. Boil the herb with water, evaporate the 
decoction to a small bulk, leave to stand cold for a day, collect 
the greenish-brown jelly on a cloth, wash with cold water, treat 
with boiling alcohol, filter and evaporate slowly. — Small, light- 
yellow crytals, inodorous and tasteless, neutral, slowly soluble in 
cold water and in alcohol, readily soluble in both when warm; 
also easily dissoluble in the hydrates and carbonates of alkalies, 
also in limewater and in solution of baryta, in concentrated acids. It 
becomes dark green with solution of chloride of lime, is converted 
into picric acid by nitric acid; is precipitable by acetate and 
subacetate of lead. 

Scrophularin. Bitter ingredient of Scrophularia aquatica, S. 
nodosa, and allied species, obtained as yet only in the impure 

Sebacic Acid=: Stearic Acid. 


Sene^in = Saponin. 

Sericic Acid = Myristic Acid. 

Sericin = Myristin* 

[SiC0pirin=C32 H12 O16. Glucosid, found by Peckolt in the 
root-bark of Bowdichia virgilioides. Exhaust the powdered bark 
with absolute ether, distil and treat the residue with cold alcohol of 
32° B.; dissolve the remaining crystalline mass in boiling alcohol 
with a little animal charcoal, filter and allow to crystallise. — Con- 
glomerated needles of bitter, sUghtly pungent taste, slightly alka- 
line, soluble in eth^r and boiling alcohol, not in water, fusible to* 
a clear liquid, and burning away without residue.] 

Sinapoleic AcidzzCgs Hgs O3 + HO. The liquid fat-acid of 
the oils of black and white mustard and of rape; is prepared like 
oleic acid. 

Slieabnttert Probably from Lucuma Parkii; is greenish- 
white, fuses at 43°, and consists of about 30% olein and of 70% 


Sinapin Siilphoeya]iide=:C32 Hss NOu + C2 NS2 H. Ob- 

served in the seeds of Brassica alba, B. nigra and Arabis perfoliata. 
Free the pidverised seeds completely from the fixed oil by means 
of ether, exhaust with absolute alcohol (which dissolves a little 
sinapin), boil the remnant with alcohol of 90%, press, repeat the 
operation twice, and distil the tinctures, when the Sinapin-Sulpho- 
cyanide will crystallise from the remaining liquid. — It appears in 
white, very voluminous, pearly, tuftily united needles, is inodorous, 
has a bitter and mustard-like taste; is of neutral reaction, fuses at 
130°, decomposes by more heat, dissolves in water and in alcohol 
with yellow colour, more readily when warm, the solutions be- 
coming colourless with even traces of an acid; is insoluble in 
ether, sulphide of carbon and oil of turpentine, reddens the salts 
of oxyd of iron. [According to Will, Sinapin-sulphocyanide, or more 
properly called Sinalbin, has the composition C^o H44 N 2 S 4 O32. 
When placed into contact with water and myrosin, it breaks up 
into Sulphocyanate of Acrinyl, Sulphate of Sinapin and sugar.] 

Sinapisin. According to Simon, a fat occurring in the black 
mustard- seeds, and not saponifiable. Treat the pulverised seeds 
with alcohol of 94%, evaporate the tiucture to honey consistence, 
treat with ether, evaporate the ethereous liquid to honey consist 
ence, remove sugar, oil, and resin by washing with small quanti- 
ties of ether, dissolve the residue in alcohol of 90%, decolourise the 
solution by means of animal charcoal, filter and evaporate. Re- 
crystallise the scaly crystalline mass in ether. — Forms snow-white 
scales, dissolves readily in alcohol, ether and oils, not in acids or 
in alkalies; may be sublimated. 

Sinig^rin = Myronate of Potassium. 

Sipirin. As to occurrence and preparation see Bebirin. Dark- 
red-brown, glossy, resinous mass, dissolves very slightly in water, 
readily in alcohol, not in ether, neutralises the acids, forming olive- 
brown salts. — Is, according to Tilley, impure Bebirin. 

SlIlilacin=C42 Hs4 O14. In the sarsaparilla, in the quina- 
root, and in other species of the genus Smilax. Boil with water, 
precipitate the decoction with hydrochloric acid, wash the deposit 
and dissolve in diluted sulphuric acid, precipitate with ammonia, 
and purify, if necessary, by redissolving in alcohol and treating 
with animal charcoal. Or, draw out with alcohol, precipitate the 
tincture with water, wash the deposit with ether, dissolve in 
alcohol, and decolourise with animal charcoal. — White warty mass 
or loose powder, permanent at the air, inodorous, of a bitter and 
acrid, somewhat astringent and nauseous taste, of neutral reaction, 
fuses by heat^ and decomposes in higher temperatures, dissolves 
scarcely in cold, more copiously in hot water, yielding a froth by 
shaking; little soluble in cold, most readily in boiling alcohol, to 


a frothy liquid, scarcely in ether ; dissolves in volatile, less in fixed 
oils, in caustic alkalies, in cold concentrated sulphuric acid, and re- 
precipitable by water unaltered 3 also in concentrated hydrocMoric 

[Socaloin = C34 H19 O15 + 5 HO. Prepared by Histed from 
Zanzibar or Socotrine aloes by moistening the pulverised drogue 
with alcohol of 0*960 sp. gr., pressing strongly between calico, 
dissolving the crystalline yellow residue in warm, weak alcohol, 
and purifying the crystals by recrystallisation. — Forms tufted 
needle-shaped prisms of a sweetish, afterwards bitter taste j melts 
at 118-120^; dissolves in 30 parts alcohol, 9 parts acetic ether, 
380 parts pure ether, 90 parts water, and abundantly in methyl- 
alcohol. Over concentrated sulphuric acid it loses 12% of its 
weight, and at 100° U%.] 

Soft Resins. Viscid at ordinary temperature; are mostly ob- 
tained from vegetable parts by extracting with alcohol or with 
ether, and are probably in most cases mixtures of resin and of 
volatile or fixed oils, or may be hydrates. They are distinguish- 
able from balsams by the absence of smell. 

Solailin = Cso H70 ^032. Specific alkaloid of the genus 
Solanum, easily obtained from the twigs of S. Dulcamara, the 
berries of S. nigrum, the sprouts of Solanum tuberosum, in S. 
verbascifolium, and to be found in numerous other species of Sola- 
num. Best adapted for its preparation are the sprouts of 
potatoes. Bruise them fresh, draw out with water and acetic acid, 
precipitate the liquid with acetate of lead, add milk of lime to the 
strained liquid, treat the deposit obtained thereby with alcohol, 
evaporate the tincture and purify the remaining Solanin by re- 
peatedly dissolving in alcohol. — ^White, flat, quadrangular prisms 
of mother-of-pearl lustre, or a powder of similar appearance; in- 
odorous, of a disagreeable, somewhat bitter, long lasting, rancid, 
and acrid taste, of very slightly alkaline reaction; fuses, but not 
without decomposition; dissolves little in water, the solution 
yielding a froth on shaking; is almost devoid of alkaline reaction; 
becomes turbid with tannic acid ; dissolves in alcohol slowly, with 
a slightly alkaline reaction; not soluble in ether; dissolves in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid with successively brown and violet hue; 
breaks up when heated with diluted sulphuric acid (also hydro- 
chloric or oxalic acid) into sugar, and another stronger base 
(SolanidinziCso H40 NO 2). 

Sorbill=Oi2 H12 O12. Peculiar kind of sugar of the ripe fruits 
of Pyrus aucuparia. Forms in the juice, when the latter is kept 
for a long time, and is purified by recrystallising with aid of 
animal charcoal. — Forms colourless, rhombic crystals of the taste 
of caneHsugar, fuses on heating, and bums with the odour of burnt 


sugar; dissolves in half part oold water, not in cold, little in 
boiling alooholy yields oxalic add by heating with nitric acid, 
assumes a red-yellow colour with cold concentrated sulphuric acid, 
and turns black when heated ; is not altered on heating with diluted 
sulphuric acid; becomes brown on heating with potash-ley, lime, 
baiyta, and oxyd of lead, while evolving the odour of burnt sugar; 
reduces alkaline tartarate of copper; is not able to ferment with 
yeast; is not precipitable by subacetate of lead, but is so by 
ammoniacal acetate of lead. 

Sparteill=Cao H26 N. Volatile alkaloid of Cytisus scoparius. 
Concentrate the acid mother-ley of the impure scoparin (see this), 
distil with excess of carbonate of soda, saturate the distillate with 
chloride of sodium and distil again, ammonia passing over at 
first, followed by a colourless heavy oil which has to be freed from 
ammonia by washing with cold water. — Colourless, oily, thick 
liquid, heavier than water, of a faint odour, somewhat similar to 
amlin, of a very bitter taste, boils at 288°, dissolves little in 
water, but dissolves a little water when left in contact with it, 
and becomes turbid; has a strongly alkaline reaction; saturates 
the acids completely. 

Spinea YellOW=Ci6 Hs O7. Yellow matter of the flowers of 
Spii-sea TJlmaria. Treat the flowers with ether, distil the ether 
from the tincture, mix the remnant with warm water to throw 
down impure dyeing matter, while a green oil floats on the water; 
remove the latter, dissolve the dyeing matter in hot water, remove 
the fat, which forms on cooling, and evapoi-ate to dryness. — 
Yellow powder, consisting of fine needles, insoluble in water, 
soluble in alcohol and in ether with dark-green, or, when diluted, 
yellow colour; soluble in alkalies, in concentrated sulphuric acid 
with deep-yellow colour and reprecipitable by water unaltered. 

Staphisa^m=C82 H23 NO 4. Alkaloid of the seeds of Del- 
phinium Staphisagria, is obtained by the method indicated under 
Delphinin. — Yellow-brownish resin of acrid taste, fuses at 200°, 
is almost insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol, insoluble 
in ether, dissolves readily in acids, but is not able to neutralise 

Starch =Ci2 Hio Oio. A substance widely distributed in many 
vegetable organisms and especially in roots, in subten-aneous 
stems and in seeds, but is also frequently met with in stems and 
in unmatured fruits, and the presence of which is recognised best 
by its property of acquiring with iodine a violet or dark-blue 
colour. The iodine used for this purpose may be kept ready pre- 
pared by dissolving 3 parts iodine and 4 parts iodide of potassium 
in 93 parts water. — Easy as the recognition of starch is, it fre- 
quently causes much trouble to separate it completely from, the 


vegetable tissues, and with small quantities all efforts are in vain; 
with large quantities the final result depends on the vegetable 
tissues being reduced to a proper state by bruising, cutting, (fee., 
and even then a small percentage of starch is retained tenaciously 
hy the cellular membranes* Dry substances must be pulverised 
as fine as possible, and are converted into a paste with water; 
fleshy or tough parts have to be treated on a grater; the mass, ob- 
tained in either way, is brought on a square or circular piece of 
silk gauze (so-called bolting silk-gauze, Nos. 10-13), the latter is 
made to assume the shape of a bag and tied so as to enclose the 
contents firmly. The whole bag is then put into a basin contain- 
ing pure water, is held by one hand above the knot, and is 
kneaded by the forefinger and thumb of the other hand. After 
the water has become very milky, it is poured into a glass 
jar capable of holding at least four to six times more water. 
Now put the bag into fresh water and knead again for some time, 
pour the liquid into the glass, and repeat these operations as often 
as the water becomes milky. Afterwards allow the liquids, all 
mixed together in the glass jar, to subside, collect the sedi- 
ment on a filter, wash with pure cold water until the filtrate is 
found to leave no residue on evaporating, dry at first at a 
temperature not exceeding 40°, afterwards at 100°, and determine 
the weight. 

Usually, instead of silk-gauze, linen or calico is used for the 
same purpose, but the starch-grains cannot pass through linen 
with equal facility; more kneading is therefore required, causing 
other parts (fibres, membranes) to pervade the pores and to con- 
taminate the product. Even with silk-gauze part of those im- 
purities are liable to pass through, unless another covering of the 
bag of the same material be employed, in which case it is possible 
to obtain the starch as nearly pure as possible. 

After the Starch has been obtained, the I'emnant has to be 
tested on its thorough exhaustion by throwing a small sample, 
while moist, into a porcelain dish containing a solution of iodine 
diluted to a gold-yellow colour. If no violet or blue colouration 
ensues, the remnant is free from Starch ; but if the latter be indi- 
cated by a more or less blue tinge, its quantity is determined in 
another way, suitable also in all cases where the mechanical pro- 
cess would be impracticable. But before this can be done, the 
substance has to be exhausted first successively by ether, alcohol 
and cold water in order to free it from any traces of sugar, gum, 
<fec., which might be present. 

This indirect estimation of Starch is effected by converting it 
into grape-sugar and by submitting the latter to the agency of an 
alkaline solution of sulphate of copper, containing tartaric acid 
(see under ''Reagents," in Part II.). For this purpose the 
substance is dried after having been treated to the above-named 


solvents, and is put into a glass-flask containing an equal 
weight of concentrated sulphuric acid, which is diluted with 50 
times its weight of water; the contents of the flask are then 
heated to boil gently. From time to time a drop of the liquid is 
taken out with a glass-rod and put into a porcelain dish, adding a 
•drop of solution of iodine. When neither a blue nor a violet or 
reddish colour is produced, the flask is left to cool, the acid 
liquid (containing the Starch as grape-sugar) is filtered and washed 
until the acid reaction has disappeared; the liquid is mixed with 
the water used for washing; saturated (cold) with sodarlej, and 
its volume ascertained by cubic-centimeters. 

Now, measure from the blue alkaline solution of sulphate of 
•copper, 10 cubic centimeters, pour them into a flask, holding 
About 100 cubic centimeters, add 40 cubic centimeters water, 
heat the mixture to a gentle boiling heat, and add of the above 
neutralised solution of sugar gradually and in intervals, until every 
trace of blue has disappeared, and in its stead a yellowish tinge 
is observable. To find out the exact moment of the change of 
•colour, place the flask on a piece of white paper. This de- 
colouration of the cupric solution takes place after 0*05 grammes 
of grape-sugar, corresponding to 0*045 grammes of starch, have 
been added. It is easy herefrom to calculate the concentration of 
the liquid in question, and its previous amount of Starch. The 
quantity of Starch foiuid in this way has to be added, if necessary, 
to that obtained before by kneading the substance. 

The sulphuric acid, used for converting the Starch into grape- 
€iugar, being very diluted, neither vegetable fibrin nor pectin 
which might be present, aflect by changes of theirs the calculation. 

Though, under all circumstances, the Starch is characterised with 
<5ertainty and precision by its behaviour to iodine; there ai-e dif- 
ferences of form and size, which to determine demands a micro- 
scope magnifying at least 400 diameters. Should it not be pos- 
sible to isolate the Starch, thin slices of the substance, wherein 
Starch has been indicated by iodine, are submitted to the micro- 
4scopical examination. 

Stearic Acid = Cse Hss 3 + HO. Contained as tristearin 
in fats, especially solid ones. Saponify with soda-ley, decompose 
the soap with hydrochloric acid, dissolve the fat-acids in hot 
alcohol, allow to crystallise, press and recrystallise repeatedly, 
until the product fuses at 69*1° to 69*2°. Shea-butter is of all 
vegetable and animal fats the best adapted for preparing pure 
stearic acid, as it contains only the one solid fat-acid. — Forms 
pearly needles and leaflets, inodorous and tasteless, of perceptibly 
acid reaction, fuses at 69*1° to 69*2°, has at 9^ to 11° a density 
of I'OOO, boils and distils in a vacuum unaltered, is not soluble in 
water, dissolves in 40 parts cold absolute and in every propoition 


in boiling alcohol, in 8*3 parts cold and in every proportion of 
boiling ether, in 3| parts sulphide of carbon, in 4^ parts of benzol^ 
in 10 parts cold concentrated sulphuric acid colourless. The- 
stearates have the consistency of hard soaps and plasters, and are 
insoluble in water^ except the stearates of the alkalies. 

Stearin (Tri-stearin) = Ciu Huo Oi2=C6 H5 O3 + 3 Cge H35. 
O3. Is found principally in solid fats. Press, for instance, the 
shea-butter, which contains as solid fat only Stearin, and re- 
crystallise in hot alcohol. — White, pearly, radiated warty mass, 
fine needles and leaflets, inodorous and tasteless, of 0*986 density 
at 15°, fuses at 62°, dissolves not perceptibly in cold, in 6-7 
parts boiling absolute alcohol, in 15 parts boiling alcohol of 
0*805, in 66 parts boiling alcohol of 0*822 (on cooling the Stearin 
separates ahnost entirely), in 225 parts cold ether, most abundantly 
in boiling, readily in volatile oils. 

Stearoptens. See Essential Oils. 

StlUistearic Acid. In the fat of ExcsBcaria sebifera; coincides 
with palmitic acid. - 

StoraX) liquid. Exudation of the stem of Liquidambar 
orientalis. Dark-brown or greenish-grey, partly ash-grey mass of 
turpentine consistence, has a very pleasant balsamic odour similar 
to solid storax, a pungent aromatic taste, and an acid reaction. — 
Consists of a resin, cinnamic acid, volatile oil (Styrol), and a 
neutral crystalline body (Styracin=:Cinnamate of Cinnamyl. 

Storax, solid. Exudation of the stem of Styrax officinale. 
Appears mostly as a brown, glossy, somewhat glutinous masn, 
readily softening by the warmth of the hand, of an extremely 
pleasant balsamic odour, tastes sweetish-aromatic, stimulating and 
slightly bitter, and dissolves entirely in alcohol. Consists of resin, 
volatile oil and benzoic acid. 

Stranionin. Peculiar, indifferent body of the seeds of Datui-a 
Stramonium, and some other species. Is obtained from the oil 
that forms by treating the alcoholic tincture with hydrate of lime 
and acidifying the filtered liquid, and has to be purified by re- 
crystallising. — White, small, inodorous and tasteless crystals, 
fusible at 150°, sublimating unaltered on careful heating, insoluble 
in water, slowly soluble in alcohol, better in ether, also in fixed 
and in volatile oils and in kreosot; of neutral reaction, concen- 
trated sulphuric acid yields a blood-red solution, diluted acids 
or alkalies have no effect. Metallic salts produce no deposit. 

[Stropliantllin. Poisonous princij^le of the Kombi-arrdw- 
poison of West Africa, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus 
hispidus, or another species of Strophanthus. Eraser obtained 
the Str. from the alcoholic extract of the seeds.] 


StrycIlIlin=:C42 H22 N2 O4 +2 HO. In various species of 
the genus Strychnos, for instance in the seeds and bark of Str. 
Nux vomica, in the seeds of Str. Ignatia, in the wood of Str. colu- 
brina, in the root of Str. Tieute, therefore also in the arrow-poison, 
pi^pared from such like plants, associated with binicin. For its pre- 
jiaration preferably the seeds of Str. Nux vomica are used. Digest 
them in the rasped state with three changes of alcohol of 40% ; distU 
the alcohol from the liquids, purified by straining, pressing and 
subsiding, evapoi'ate the remaining liquid, until its weight be 
equal to that of the seeds employed, precipitate with acetate of 
lead, filter, digest the filtrate cold with burnt magnesia for several 
days, collect the sediment, wash, dry, triturate and digest warm 
with alcohol of 80%. Distil the tincture to a small volume, let 
rest cold, collect the crystals of Strychnin', wash with weak alcohol 
and recrystallise in hot alcohol of 80% (the mother-ley separated 
from the previously formed Strychnin, may be used for the 
preparation of brucin). — The Strychnin crystallises in white, 
quadrangular, acuminated prisms, is inodorous, of an insufierably 
bitter taste, undergoes no alteration in a gentle heat, fuses with 
more heat to a pale-yellow liquid and decomposes afterwards; 
dissolves in about 6000 parts water, in 120 paiifcs cold and in 10 
parts boiling alcohol of 80%, to solutions of a slightly alkaline 
reaction; is not soluble in ether and in alkalies; dissolves incom- 
pletely in chlorine water, producing by addition of ammonia 
voluminous white flocks, which change soon to rose-red; dissolves 
i^eadily in concenti-ated sulphuric acid without colouration, the 
solution assuming a purple-violet hue on addition of a few particles 
of chromate of potash or of ferricyanide of potassium ; nitric acid, 
when cold, dissolves the Str. colourless, the solution turning 
greenish-yellow on heating, and assuming a milky appearance 
with subchloride of tin. 

[Strychnin, when mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid, 
assumes on addition of oxyd of cerium a beautiful blue colour, 
slowly changing to purple, and lasting several days. A very deli- 
cate test.] 

StyracinmCse Hie O4, or Cinnamate of Cinnamyl=Ci8 H9 O 
-f C18 H7 O3. Crystalline substance of liquid storax (from 
Liquidambar orientalis), and probably also of balsam of Peini 
(from Myroxylon Pereirse). Tieat liquid storax with 5 to 6 parts 
diluted soda-ley «it a temperature not above 30°, until the remnant 
has become colourless, wash, dry, dissolve in ether-alcohol, and 
allow to ciystallise. — Crystallises in colourless prisms and needles, 
inodorous, tasteless, fuses at 44°, is not volatile, insoluble in water, 
little soluble in cold alcohol, in 3 parts ether, yields on heating 
with chromate of potash and sulphuric acid, oil of bitter almonds, 
benzoic acid, and a resin. 



StjTOl^Cie Hg. The volatile oil of liquid stoi-ax. Distil the 
latter with water containing some carbonate of soda (to retain 
cinnamic acid), shake the oil floating on the distillate with chloride 
of calcium and rectify. — It is colourless, thin, smells like liquid 
storax, has a burning taste and 0*924 density, boils at 145*75° 
under convei*sion into an isomeric solid body (metastyrol) which 
is devoid of taste and smell, but is reconverted on slowly heating 
into the foimer liquid state. 

Sllberill) a modified woody fibre, main ingi^edient of the outer 
bark of Quercus Suber. E;emains after the treatment of the rasped 
cork with water, alcohol, ether, and hydrochloric acid as a reddish- 
grey, very light, soft, elastic mass of cellular structure. 

SUCCiuic Acid=:C4 H2 O3 -f HO. It undoubtedly occura 
very frequently in the vegetable kingdom, though its presence, 
as recorded in most statements, has not been proved sufficiently. 
It is said to exist in turpentine, in the herbs of Lactuca sativa and 
L. virosa, and in Ai^temisia Absinthium; sometimes it is probably 
a product of decomposition of vegetable extracts, and therefore no 
primary constituent of plants. Its occurrence in turpentine is 
rendered probable by the fact that amber, which contains a large 
amount of the acid, comes from an extinct coniferous tree. The 
Succinic Acid in plants is combined with a base, and is in this 
state readily dissolved by water. Acetate of lead throws it down, 
yielding a compound which becomes anhydrous at 1 30°, and con- 
tains 30*94% acid. From the Succinate of lead the acid can be 
obtained without loss only by means of sulphuret of hydrogen; 
the liquid, after being separated from the sulphide of lead, yields, 
on evaporation, the acid as a hydrate. With larger quantities and 
when a small loss is of no consequence, the Succinate of lead is 
digested warm, with ^ its weight of concentrated sulphuric acid, 
and with the necessary quantity of water; it is then filtered, eva- 
porated to form in crystals, and purified by recrystallisation. — ^The 
pure acid forms klinorhombic prisms, inodorous, of a moderately 
acid taste, fuses at 180°, boils at 235°, and volatilises undeoom- 
posed in white, acrid fumes ; dissolves in 25 parts cold and in two 
parts boiling water, readily in alcohol and in ether. Most of the 
Succinates are soluble in water. 

Susrar. See Fruit, Cane and Grape Sugar. 

Snlpliosinapiu ] 

Sulphosiiiapie Acid > zzSinapin-Sulphocyanide. 
Sulphosiiiapisiu ) 

Sarinaiuin. In the bark of Geoffroya Surinamensis. Treat 
the alcoholic extract of the bark with water, filter, precipitate 
with subacetate of lead, i*emove the lead from the filtrate by means 
of sulphuret of hydrogen, filter and evaporate, whereby a part of 


the Siirinamin is obtained. The rest is got by digesting the liquid 
with magnesia, filtering and evaporating again. "Wash the Surinamin 
with cold water and recrystallise in hot water. — Forms white, 
very fine, voluminous, cotton-like needles of insipid taste ; neutral; 
is partly carbonised and partly sublimates on heating; dissolves 
very little in cold, readily in boiling water, almost insoluble in 
cold, little soluble in boiling alcohol, readily in diluted acids, also 
in potash-ley. 

8yC0Ceryl-AlC0ll0l=C36 H30O2. As acetate of Sycoceryl in 
the resin of Ficus rubiginosa. Withdraw the sycoretin from the 
resin by means of cold alcohol, and boil the remnant with alcohol, 
the solution forming on cooling crystals of acetate of sycoceryl 
and afterwards a small quantity of another flocky substance. By 
cooling the solution to 40^, straining the crystals, recrystallising in 
boiling alcohol and treating at 30° with ether so as to leave a 
little of the substance undissolved, the acetate of Sycoceryl is ob- 
tained pure, while a neutral crystalline substance, insoluble in 
ether, i*emains. Decompose the acetate through boiling with a 
solution of caustic soda in alcohol, precipitate the Sycoceryl-alcohol 
which has formed with water and recrystallise in alcohol. — Forms 
wawellite-like, very thin crystals, similar to cafiein; fuses at 90°, 
and is volatilised partly undecomposed by more heat; is insoluble 
in water and in alkalies, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzol, 
and chloroform. 


Sycoceryl-Acetate=C36 H29 O + C4 H3 O3. Ingredient of 
the resin of Ficus rubiginosa, and doubtless of other species, 
obtained from it according to the foregoing paragraph. — Appears 
in thin, mica-like leaflets or sexangular tabular crystals; neutral; 
fuses at 118° to 120°, distils unaltered, dissolves most readily 
in hot alcohol, in acetic acid, aceton, ether, benzol, oil of tur- 

Sycoretin, In the resin of Ficus rubiginosa. This resin 
separates on treating with cold alcohol into about 73% soluble 
Sycoretin, 14 sycoceryl-acetate, soluble iu hot alcohol, and 13 
residue (caoutchouc, sand and fragments of bark). By mixing 
with water the neutral, light-brown solution in cold alcohol, the 
Sycoretin subsides and may be obtained colourless by repeatedly 
dissolving and pi-ecipitating. — Amorphous, white, neutral, very 
brittle, very electric; fuses in boiling water and floats on it like an 
oil, fuses by itself only at 300°, and decomposes afterwards; is 
insoluble in water, diluted acids and alkalies, readily soluble in 
alcohol, ether, chloroform, oil of turpentine; in concentrated 
sulphuric acid with a beautiful green colour without formation of 

Sylvlc Acid. See Abietic Acid. 



Synaptase* This is the nitrogenised body which possesses 
the faculty of separating amygdalin into hydrocyanic acid and its 
other products, and which, in combination with albumen, consti- 
tutes emulsin. It is obtained by mixing the press-residue of 
sweet almonds with water, pressing after two hours, filtering the 
liquid, precipitating the albumen with acetic acid, filtering again, 
removing the gum by acetate of lead, precipitating excess of lead 
by sulphuret of hydrogen and mixing the filtrate with alcohol, 
which throws down the Synaptase ; the latter has to be washed with 
alcohol and dried in a vacuum. — Yellowish- white, either brittle 
and glossy like gluten, or opaque and spongy like sarcocolla, very 
soluble in cold water, almost insoluble in alcohol; the aqueous 
solution becomes soon decomposed at the air, curdles at 60°, is not 
precipitable by acids or by acetate of lead, but considerably so by 
tannic acid; acts strongly upon amygdalin even at 80°. The 
Synaptase does not behave towards starch similarly to diastase. 

Syrillgm=C88 Has O20 + 2 HO. Tasteless glucosid of the bark 
of Syringa vulgaris, and other species especially developed in early 
spring, found in the leaves and half-matured fruits, and only in 
traces in the leaf buds; it disappears during the progress of vege- 
tation, and in its stead appears syringopicrin; is also contained in 
the bark of Ligustrum vulgare and other Privets. Precipitate 
the decoction of the bark with subacetate of lead, treat the filtrate 
with sulphuret of hydrogen, filter, evaporate to a syrup consistence, 
press the crystalline mass and recrystallise in hot water with aid of 
animal charcoal. — Forms long, colourless needles, tasteless, neutral ; 
loses its water at 115°, fuses at 212°, and becomes decomposed 
with the odour of burnt sugar; dissolves slowly in cold, readily 
in hot water, in alcohol, not in ether; dissolves in concentrated 
sulphuric acid with dark-blue colour, and forms, on addition of 
water, grey-blue flocks; dissolves in concentrated nitric acid with 
deep-red colour; breaks up with diluted acids under formation of 
sugar; is not precipitable by metallic salts. 

Syringopicrin =026 H24 O17. Bitter glucosid of the bark of 
Syringa vulgaris. Kemains after the preparation of syringin in 
the mother-ley and is absorbed by animal charcoal. Wash the coal 
with warm water and boil with alcohol, which dissolves the S. and 
leaves it, after evaporating, in the form of a brown syrup-like 
liquid. Purify by dissolving in alcohol, decolourising with animal 
charcoal, evaporating and treating the remnant with ether, which 
dissolves an aciid substance, leaving theS. undissolved. — ^Yellowish, 
pellucid mass, friable to a permanent white powder, of a very 
bitter taste and of acidulous reaction; fuses below 100° and is de- 
composed by more heat; dissolves readily in water and in alcohol, 
not in ether, is not altered or precipitated by alkalies, by chloride 
of iron or by sub-acetate of lead, seems to yield sugar on treating 


with diluted sulphuric acid, for the liquid, obtained by this treat- 
ment, reduces the alkaline tartarate of copper. 

Tacamahac. Exudation of the stem of Bursera tomentosa and 
of Calophyllum Inophyllum. The resin of the first-named tree is 
light-brown, opaque, of pleasant odour and of lasting bitter taste; 
dissolves almost completely in alcohol. The resin of the other tree 
is yellowish, smells after lavender, has a slightly acidulous taste ; 
dissolves readily in alcohol and in alkalies. 

Tai^niC Acid. The yellow pigment of the Taigu-wood of Para- 
guay, the origin of which is unknown. Obtained from the wood 
by means of cold alcohol, and purified by treating repeatedly with 
alcohol and with ether. — Forms beautiful yellow crystals, turning 
slowly brown at the air, tasteless; fuses at 135°, volatilises at 180° 
undecomposed; contains no nitrogen; dissolves in 1000 parts boil- 
ing water, in 86 parts alcohol of 0.840, in 19 parts ether, in 16 
parts aceton, in 45 parts benzol, also in sulphide of carbon, petro- 
leum, in alkalies with red colour. 

Tallow, Cliinese. The fatty covering of the seeds of Ex- 
caecaria sebifera (the kernels contain a liquid fat). It yields a 
greenish-white tallow-like fat, fusing at 44°, and a white one, fusing 
at 37°; both containing olein and palmitin. 

Tanghillill. The poisonous ingredient of the seeds of Tanghinia 
venenifera. Is obtained by extractiug with ether from the seeds 
which have been freed by pressing from most of the fixed oil, and 
by evaporating the tincture. — Colourless crystals of a very bitter 
and acrid taste, fusible with a gentle heat, not volatile, insoluble 
in water, soluble in alcohol and in ether, little affected by acids or 
by alkalies. 

Tannaspidic Acid=:C26 H14 On. In the rhizome of Aspidium 
Filixmas and some other species. Boil with alcohol of 75 to 80 % 
and mix the decoction with water, hydrochloric acid and pulverised 
sulphate of soda, to produce a precipitate, which contains Tannas- 
pidic and pteritannic acids. Collect this deposit, wash with solu- 
tion of sulphate of soda, press, triturate with water and digest at 
60 to 80° with water containing hydrochloric acid, for half an hour, 
removing thereby ammonia and other bases. Wash the remnant 
with water, dry and exhaust with anhydrous ether, which dissolves 
the pteritannic acid. Filter, warm the residue with strong alcohol, 
add a few drops of solution of acetate of lead, throw down the latter 
with sulphuret of hydrogen (to make the liquid apt for filtering), 
filter and evaporate the filtrate in a current of hydrogen and at 
last in a vacuum over sulphuric acid; the Tannaspidic acid thus 
obtained is pure when it is quite insoluble in water and in ether, 
but completely soluble in alcohol. — Black-brown, amorphous, glossy 
mass, friable to a spaniol-colpured powder, inodorous, of slightly 


adstringent taste and of acidulous reaction; is insoluble in volatile 
and in fixed oils, its alcoholic solution precipitates the glue, not 
the tartarated antimony, greens chloride of iron; throws down a 
red powder when digested hot with diluted acids. 

Tannicorticipinic Acid =028 H13 O12. Known in the bark of 
Pinus sylvestris from 20-25 years old trees. Boil with alcohol of 
40% ; distil the alcohol completely from the tincture, remove a 
viscid resin from the remnant by filtering, precipitate the filtrate 
with acetate of lead, wash the deposit and add subacetate of lead 
to the filtered liquid, obtaining thereby a deposit, which contains,^ 
like the first, Tannicorticipinate of lead. Treat the deposit, pro- 
duced by acetate of lead, three times with acetic acid, but avoid 
to dissolve the whole; free from the undissolved portion containing 
resin, by filtration, precipitate the liquids with subacetate of lead, 
collect the deposit, wash and decompose under water with sulphurei 
of hydrogen. The liquid, freed by filtering from the sulphuret of 
lead and evaporated to half its voliune in a current of carbonic acid 
gas, forms brown-red crusts of the T. acid. B. — Decompose the 
deposit, obtained by subacetate of lead, under water with sulphuret 
of hydrogen, evaporate the filtrate in a current of carbonic acid 
gas, dissolve the remnant in alcohol, precipitate with alcoholic 
acetate of lead, wash and decompose the deposit under water with 
sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate the filtrate in a current of car- 
bonic acid gas, and dry at 100° — Beddish-brown powder of 
astringent taste, colours chloride of iron—at first dark-green, 
afterwards red-brown, and produces at last a black-green deposit; 
yields a red product by heating with diluted acids. 

Tannic Acids, Derive their name from one of their generally 
known properties, viz., of tanning animal membrane, i,e, of con- 
verting it into a durable compound, called leather. T4iey are also 
distinguished by their faculty of forming with glue compounds 
more or less soluble in water; by their acid reaction towards 
litmus-paper ; by their astringent, but not acid, taste ; by their 
amorphous condition ; by their property of forming deep-blue or 
green, sometimes brown, compounds with iron oxyd or with iron 
oxyd-suboxyd, not with pure iron suboxyd ; and by their disposi- 
tion to decompose in aqueous solutions and under access of the air 
and more readily so in the presence of alkalies. 

The number of Tannic acids is very large, but of their chemical 
constitution we know as yet little or nothing. This accounts for 
the confusion which prevails in regard to their classification. 
Provisionally they are generally divided into acids which blue, 
and into those which green the iron-salts ; but the colours of the 
liquids or of the deposits which are produced by the mutual action 
of these bodies and of iron-salts vary for one and the same sub- 
stance, according to the state of oxydation of the iron, and are also 


influenced by the nature of the acid constituent of the iron-salt, by 
the greater or less acidity, and by the concentration of the liquids, 
and all this to such an extent that it is possible to produce all the 
gradations of blue or of green, and sometimes even from blue to 
green with the same substance. Besides, as stated already, there 
are a few Tannic acids which, under the same conditions, produce 
neither of the two colours, but only a dirty-brown deposit. Even 
the property of precipitating glue does not seem to be general, as 
evidenced by a few of the iron-greening acids. 

Another distinguishing feature of Tannins is their behaviour, 
when submitted to dry distillation. Those which produce green 
iron compounds, yield, under these conditions, Pyrocatechin (Pyro- 
catechuic acid), while the Tannic acids of the blue reaction with 
iron-salts yield sometimes Pyrogallic, sometimes Pyrocatechuic 

Tannic acids are widely diffused in plants, especially prerennial 
ones. They occur in all parts of their organism, but predominantly 
in roots, barks, and young woods, less frequently in the teguments 
of fruits and seeds, seldom in the leaves. If not present in too 
small quantity, they are easily detected by the taste and by the 
reaction of their solutions with glue and iron-salts. Some plants 
contain two different Tannic acids, i.e., one of them producing a 
green iron compound, the other a blue one under equal conditions ; 
or the two acids may appear identical in regard to iron-salts, but 
yet differ in other respects. For instance, the Tannic acids of nut- 
galls, and of oak-bark, produce severally blue iron-precipitates, but 
the former substance, by dry distillation, yields Pyrogallic acid, 
while the latter does not. 

To determine quantitatively the amount of a Tannic acid, of 
whatever kind : prepare an aqueous solution or extract of one to 
two grammes of the substance in question, add to the filtered liquid 
solution of acetate of baryta, as long as a precipitate ensues, filter 
and precipitate the filtrate with acetate of lead, collect the deposit 
on a filter, wash dry at 120°, and note down the weight of the dry 
precipitate of Tannate of lead, incinerate the latter in a porcelain 
crucible at a red heat, moisten with nitric acid, and heat again, 
ascertain the weight of the remaining lead-oxyd, and deduct this 
from the weight of the dried Tannate of lead — the rest represents 
the weight of the Tannic acid. 

Tanninj^enic Acid=:CATBCHuic Acid. 

Tannopinlc Acid=:C28 H15 O13. Known to exist in the leaves 
of Pinus sylvestris, and during spring-time, to replace the oxypino- 
tannic acid, oxydises readily in warm, moist air, yields a red 
product on heating with diluted acids. 


Tartaric Acid=C4 H2 O5 + HO. Occurs rather frequently, 
either in the free state or half or completely saturated, especially 
in sour, unmatured, and in sweet berries (for instance, in grapes) ; 
in small quantity in roots, barks, woods, herbage, and abundantly 
in Lycopodium complanatum, and probably to be found in most 
allied plants. From the aqueous extracts of vegetable substances 
it always passes into the deposit produced by acetate of lead, and 
into the liquid that results, after the deposit has been decomposed 
by sulphuret of hydrogen, and from which it may be obtained in 
crystals by slow evaporation. The deposit of lead, should it con- 
tain no other acid, may be used for its quantitative determination by 
drying at 100° and weighing. In 100 parts, are contained 37.08 
parts acid. The pure acid crystallises in colourless, klinorhombic 
prisms and pyramids, is inodoi-ous, of a pure and strongly acid 
taste, fuses at 170° and becomes carbonised with the odour of 
burnt sugar; dissolves in 2 parts cold and in 1 part hot water, 
also readily in alcohol, in 36 parts ether. The aqueous solution 
yields with lime-water a deposit soluble in sal-ammoniac. With 
potash, it forms tartar. The Tartarates of the true alkalies are in 
the neutral state readily soluble in water, the acid ones only 
sparingly ; the neutral Tartarates of most of the other bases are 
sparingly, or not, soluble in water, but soluble in tartaric and in 
hydrochloric or in nitric acids. All Tartarates dissolve in liquor 
of ammonia and in the hydrates of potash and of soda, with the 
exception of Tartarate of silver, which does not dissolve in the 
latter two liquids, and of Tartarate of mercury, which does not 
dissolve in any of the three. 

Taxillt Alkaloid of the leaves of Taxus baccata, prepared ac- 
cording to Stas' method of the forensic investigation of alkaloids. 
— A white, loose, amorphous powder, very bitter, slowly soluble 
in water, readily in alcohol and in ether, fusible to a yellow resin 
by a gentle heat ; also soluble in diluted acids, the solutions of 
which yield no crystals. Precipitable by caustic alkalies, tannic 
acid, tincture of iodine, not by chloride of platinum. Concentrated 
sulphuric acid effects a purple-red solution which becomes decolor- 
ised by water. 

Thallocblor. The green pigment of Cetraria islandica. Exists 
in the ether, containing oil of rosemary, used for washing the 
cetraric acid (see this). Evaporate to dryness the solution, re- 
maining after the cetraric acid has been removed by crystallisation, 
dissolve the remnant' in boiling alcohol, dilute the alcohol with 
water until of a strength of about 42% and filter boiling hot. 
Repeat this several times, in order to remove lichestearic acid, 
and draw out the dried remnant with petroleum. Thallochlor 
and fat are dissolved, while cetraric acid and brown substances 
remain behind. Submit the solution to distillation under addition 


of water, dry the remnant, until the whole of the petroleum is 
driven away, dissolve in alcohol and throw down the Th. either 
by digesting with hydrate of lime or better by alcoholic acetate of 
lead. The green flocks obtained are, after filtering and boiling 
with ether, separated from the lead-oxyd by means of acetic acid. 
— Brittle, green mass, insoluble in water, scarcely soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid, soluble in strong alcohol, ether, and oils. 

Thebain = C38 H21 NOe. In opium, to all appearance in Papaver 
Rhoeas too, associated with rhoeadin. By heating, as indicated 
under morphin, the aqueous extract of opium with milk of lime, 
the morphin remains dissolved, while the Thebain is left in the 
lime-sediment. Wash the latter, dry, boil with alcohol, evaporate 
the extract and treat the remaining brown, granular mass with 
ether, which dissolves the Thebain, and leaves it on evaporating 
as a brown, crystalline mass. Purify by dissolving in acid, precipit- 
ating with ammonia and recrystallising in alcohol or in ether. — 
White, silvery, quadratic leaflets, also needles, grains and cauli- 
flower-shaped masses, very electric on rubbing, of a more acrid and 
styptic than bitter taste, of alkaline reaction; fuses at 150° with- 
out loss of weight, and decomposes in a higher temperature; 
dissolves not, or slightly in water; readily in alcohol, ether, 
•diluted acids, becomes deep-red with concentrated sulphuric acid, 
and dissolves with yellow colour; becomes blood-red with sul- 
phuric acid, containing nitric acid. It-s salts are not crystallisable 
from water, but are so from alcohol and from ether. 

Tliein = Caffein. 

Theobromln = Ci4 Hg N4 O4. Alkaloid of the seeds of Theo- 
broma Cacao. Precipitate the aqueous extract of the prepared 
seeds with acetate of lead, filter, free the filtrate from lead by 
sulphuret of hydrogen, concentrate to honey-consistence, boil with 
alcohol, evapoi-ate the tincture and recrystallise what has formed. 
— White, crystalline powder, inodorous, of a bitter taste, slightly 
mmilar to cacao, sublimates at 290° to 295°, fusing at the same 
time; dissolves in 1600 parts of cold and in 55 parts boiling 
water, in 1460 parts cold and 47 parts boiling alcohol of 80, °/q, 
in 17,000 parts cold and in 600 parts boiling ether; all these 
solutions having a neutral reaction; dissolves readily in alkalies 
and in diluted acids. The very diluted solution in nitric acid, 
yields with nitrate of silver a silvery-white, crystalline deposit; 
the ammoniacal solution yields with nitrate of silver a jelly-like 
deposit soluble in warm liquor of ammonia. On boiling this 
solution ammonia is evolved and a colourless, granular, crystalline 
deposit of Theobromin-silver = C14 H7 Ag N4 O4 is obtained. 

Thujill=C4o H22 O24. Dissolve the deposit, obtained in the 
following paragraph by means of acetate of lead, in diluted acetic 


acid, filter, precipitate the filtrate with'subacetate of lead, decom- 
pose the deposit under water with sulphuret of hydrogen, heat the 
whole mixture, filter hot and evaporate in a current of carbonic 
acid gas and in a vacuum. Dissolve the crystals which have formed 
in boiling water under addition of alcohol, and recrystallise. — 
Forms glossy, citron-yellow, microscopic, tabular crystals of 
astringent taste; is decomposed by heat, insoluble in water, readily 
soluble in alcohol, separates by diluted acids into sugar and thujetin 
,(C28 Hi4 Oie), dissolves in alkalies under decomposition, colours 
chloride of iron dark-gi^een. 

Thnjogeilill = C28 H12 O14. Known to occur in small quantity 
in the green parts of Thuja occidentalis, is also obtained on 
warming thujin with hydrochloric acid. Boil with alcohol, strain, 
let cool, separate from the wax, distil the alcohol from the filtrate, 
and mix the remnant with water, and with a few drops of dissolved 
acetate of lead, in order to facilitate filtering. Precipitate the 
filtrate completely with acetate of lead and reserve the yellow 
deposit, containing thujin and thujetin (C28 H14 Oie) for the pre- 
paration of these substances. The filtered liquid produces with 
subacetate of lead another deposit, containing the Thujogenin;. 
divide in water, decompose with sulphuret of hydrogen, heat the 
liquid with the sulphide of lead, filter hot, and evaporate in a 
current of carbonic acid gas and in a vacuum, when the Th. will 
form in flocks. — Microscopic needles, very sparingly soluble in 
water, readily in alcohol ; the latter solution assuming a splendid 
green-blue colour with ammonia. 

Tliynieil=i:C2o Hie. Forms with cymen the more volatile part 
of the oil of thyme. Rectify repeatedly with caustic the- 
portion of the raw oil which distils between 160° and 165°, and distil 
afterwards by itself, when the Tliymen will pass over at 160° to 165^ 
and the cymen at 175°. — It is colourless, of a pleasant odour of 
thyme, of 868 density. 

Thymol =C2o H14 O 2 . The solid ingredient of oil of thyme, also 
contained in the volatile oil of Monarda punctata and of the seeds^ 
of Carum Ajowan. Distil the oil of thyme by itself, when thymen 
and cymen pass over first and afterwards Thymol ; press the latter, 
after it has solidified, and recrystallise from alcohol. — Thin, rhom- 
boidal, tabular crystals of a pungent, aromatic taste, neutral, fusing 
at 44° to 50°, boiling at 220** to 230°, of a density z= 1 -028 when 
solid, in the liquid state lighter than water. 

Tobao^ocampliorrr NicoTi ANiN. 

Tolen = C20 H16. In the balsam of Tolu. The oil, obtained 
from the latter by distillation with water, is a mixture of cinna- 
mein (according to Flueckiger and Hanbury, it contains na 
cinnamein), cinnamic acid and Tolen ; the latter distils, on heating^ 
the oil for a rather long time, to 160°, and is obtained pure hy 


repeatedly rectifying with hydrated potash and retaining the 
portion which distils first. — Colourless, thin, smells like elemi, has 
a pungent, acrid, pepper-like taste; of 0'858 density; boils at 
154° to 160^ 

Tolubalsaill. Exudation of the stem of Myroxylon toluiferum. 
In the fresh state thickish, yellow, becomes slowly darker and 
solid, has a very pleasant smell. The dry balsam is also named 
Opobalsamum siccum. Consists of resin, volatile oil, and cinnamic 
acid. The resin dissolves readily in alkalies, and has the formula 
Ci8 Hio O 5 . The volatile oil, obtained by distilling the balsam 
with water, contains a hydrocarbon (Tolen = C20 Hie). 

Tnq^antli-substanee = Bassorin. 

Trehalose = C12 Hn On + 2 HO. Peculiar kind of sugar in 
the trehala-manna of Syria, an amylaceous substance, gathered by 
coleopterous insects, and converted by them into a cocoon, con- 
sisting of about 66% starch, 5 gum, and 29 Trehalose. The latter 
forms rectorhombic ciystals, has a less sweet taste than cane-sugar, 
loses at 25° to 30° partly, at 100° completely, 2 equivalents water; 
fuses on rapidly heating to 100°; but is not fused even at 180°, if 
desiccated before. Dissolves readily in water, is almost insoluble 
in cold, soluble in boiling alcohol, not in ether, ferments with yeast 
very slowly and incompletely; is not altered through boiling with 
alkalies, alkaline earths and alkaline tartarate of copper; yields 
with nitric acid, oxalic, but no mucic acid, is carbonised on heating 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, becomes converted into grape- 
sugar by heating with diluted sulphuric acid, is precipitated by 
ammoniacal acetate of lead. 

Triiuetliylamlll = Ce H9 N (isomeric with propylamin and 
formerly confounded with it). Volatile alkaloid of the herb of 
Chenopodium olidum, of the flowei-s of various Pomacese (for 
instance, Crataegus coccinea, C. monogyna, C. Oxyacantha, Pyrus com- 
munis, P. aucuparia), of the seeds of Fagus sylvatica, of the ergot, 
of the rust fungus of wheat. Is obtained by distilling with a fixed 
alkali and water, saturating the distillate with sulphuric acid, 
evaporating, shaking the salty mass with ether-alcohol, removing 
the sulphate of ammonia by filtration, evaporating the filti'ate, 
shaking the residue with potash-ley and afterwards with ether, 
decanting the ether and evaporating the ethereous solution in a 
vacuum. — Colourless liquid of a nauseous, ammoniacal, herring-like 
odour; precipitable by tannic acid, bi-iodide of potassium, chloride 
of mercury and iodide of potassio-mercury, soluble in water, alcohol 
and ether in every proportion. 

rTriticilli=Ci2 Hn On. Contained m the juice of the roots of 
Triticum repens. — A tasteless, amorphous, gummy substance. 


•easily transformed into laevulose (fniit-sugar), if its concentrated 
solution is kept for a short time at 110°. Treated with nitric acid, 
it yields oxalic acid. Deflects in solution polarised light to the 
left. — H. Mueller.] 

Tulaciinin=C2o Hu Og. Bitter ingredient of the bark of 
Carapa guianensis. Boil the bark with water, evaporate the 
decoctions to a thick syrup consistence, treat repeatedly with 
alcohol of 33° Baum6, warm the whole of the alcoholic solutions, 
sdd milk of lime, which precipitates almost completely the 
■colouring matters, let subside, filter, add water to the filtrate, 
distil the alcohol, concentrate the residue to honey-consistence, 
treat with strong alcohol, evaporate the solution to a syrup con- 
sistence, shake the latter with chloroform and allow the chloroform 
solution to evaporate. — Pale-yellow, amorphous substance, of very 
bitter taste and of acidulous reaction, dissolves not in ether, 
readily in alcohol, chloroform, in 150 parts cold, and a little more 
in hot water. With concentrated sulphuric acid it becomes at 
first brown, then slowly blue; by adding immediately after the 
acid a few drops of water a splendid blue colouration is instantly 
produced which lasts more than twenty-four hours. A similar 
blue tinge is obtained with hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, 
also with warm citric, tartaric and oxalic, not with acetic or nitric 

Tarpentine* This name was originally applied to the resinous 
exudation of the terebinth-tree (Pistacia Terebinthus), and which 
is obtained either spontaneously or by incisions made in the stem; 
but afterwards all the similar exudations of coniferous trees in 
general have been termed likewise. The Turpentines are, as a 
rule, yellowish- white, very viscid, transparent or translucid masses 
of honey-consistence and of acid reaction, of a peculiar, strong, 
mostly unpleasant odour, and generally of a burning, aromatic, bitter, 
disagreeable taste; consist chiefly of resin and volatile oil. They 
dissolve in alcohol more or less readily, in ether, in oils, also in 
potash-ley, the latter solution being precipitable by excess of 
potash. According to their origin they have difierent names. 

Turpetllin = Ces H56 O32. (Isomeric with jalapin, but not 
identical with it.) Resinous glucosid of the root of Ipomsea 
Turpethum. Shake with ether (which dissolves about 5%) the 
crude resin obtained by alcohol, &c. dissolve the remnant in alcohol, 
precipitate with ether and dry. — It is not decolourised by animal 
charcoal, is brown-yellow; inodorous, has at first no perceptible, 
afterwards an acrid and bitter taste, fuses at 183°, dissolves 
readily in alcohol, not in ether, separates on boiling with diluted 
acids into sugar and Turpetholic acidzzC32 H32 Og, a white mass 
consisting of microscopic needles and tufts, soluble in alcohol, less 
so in ether. 


Tyrosill = Ci8 Hn NOe. Has as yet been found only in the- 
South American ratanhia extract from Krameria triandra, K. Tvinfl. 
and K. secundiflora. To prepare the Tyrosin, precipitate the aqueous^ 
solution of the extract first with glue, afterwards with subsulphate 
of iron and next with lime, evaporate the liquid, to deposit at first 
sulphate and carbonate of lime, afterwards Tyrosin, which has to 
be recrystallised in hot water. — White, loose, warty mass, com- 
posed of fine needles, or isolated silky needles, without smell or 
taste ; is decomposed by heat; dissolves in 2788 parts cold and in 
138 parts boiling water, not in alcohol and ether, readily in the- 
hydrates and carbonates of alkalies and in alkaline earths, like- 
wise in diluted acids, in concentrated sulphiuic acid, and the latter 
solution, after it has been saturated with carbonate of lime, and 
freed from the sulphate of lime by filtering, assumes a violet hue 
with chloride of iron. 

[lJmbelliferon=Ci8 He Oe, seems, according to Elueckiger 
and Hanbury, to pre-exist to a small extent in galbanum, asafoe- 
tida and ammoniacum, and is also obtained by the dry distillation 
of resins of umbelliferous plants in general and of Daphne Mez- 
ereum. — It forms colourless, acicular crystals, soluble in water, 
ether, and chloroforuL Its solution in water exhibits, especially 
on addition of an alkali, a brilliant blue fluorescence, which ia 
destroyed by an acid. It may be prepared from galbanum, by 
heating the latter for some time to 100° with hydrochloric acid,, 
and treating the cold acid liquid with ether or chloroform, which 
takes up the Umbelliferon.] 

llrson = C40 H34 O 4 . Crystalline substance of the leaves of 
Arctostaphylos (also found by Tonner in the leaves of Epacris spp.). 
Exhaust the leaves with ether, wash with ether the crystalline 
sediment, obtained by evaporation, and recrystallise from alcohol. 
— Forms colourless, silky needles, without taste and smell, fusible 
at 198° to 200°, boils in higher temperatures, and sublimes un- 
altered; is insoluble in water, diluted acids and alkalies, sparingly 
in alcohol and in ether. 

Usnie AcidzrCae His O14. In various kinds of Usnea, Cla- 
donia, Evernia, Lecanora, Parmelia, Ramalina; is best obtained 
from Cladonia rangiferina or from Usnea florida. Boil with thin 
milk of lime, throw down the Usnic acid from the dark yellow 
solution by means of hydrochloric acid, dry the deposit and purify 
by recrystallisation from alcohol with aid of animal charcoal. — 
Appears in sulphur-yellow, pellucid needles and leaflets, friable to 
an electric powder; tasteless; fuses at 203°, is decomposed in 
higher temperatures, and yields a sublimate of Beta-orcin; is not 
moistened by and is insoluble in water, dissolves in alcohol and in 
ether, still more when warm, in concentrat»ed sulphuric acid with 
yellow colour, and precipitable by water unaltered, readily in 


alkalies, but becomes decomposed on boiling. Forms salts with 
bases; those of the alkalies are colourless, crystallisable, become 
slowly coloured at the air; those of the other bases are obtained 
in amorphous flocks by precipitation. 


Valerianic or Valeric Acid=Cio H9 O3 + HO + 2 Ag. In 

the root and herb of Valeriana officinalis, in the root of Archange- 
lica oflficinalis, Peucedanum Oreoselinum, and of other Umbelliferae, 
in the flowera of Anthemis nobilis and other Compositse, in various 
parts of Sambucus nigra and allied species, and probably widely 
distributed besides. To obtain it, distil the respective vegetable 
substances with water, saturate the distillate with carbonate of 
soda, evaporate to dryness, distil the salt with sulphuric acid and 
a little water, when a concenti-ated aqueous solution is obtained, 
on the surface of which most of the acid floats as an oil. This oil 
is the tri-hydrate; by distilling it by itself a milky fluid passes 
over, followed by a clear liquid, which is the mono-hydrate. The 
latter is a colourless, thin, oily liquid, smells peculiarly and more 
disagreeably than valerian, and at the same time like putrid cheese, 
has a burning, acid, afterwards aromatic, sweet, and apple-like 
taste; is of 0.935 density; boils at 132°; dissolves in 30 parts 
water, mixes with alcohol and ether in every proportion. The 
Valerates smell like the free acid, after putrid cheese, those of the 
alkalies and alkaline earths are fatty to the touch, dissolve readily 
in water, and have a sweet taste; those of the other bases are 
partly readily, pai-tly slowly, and partly not soluble. The Vale- 
rate of lead is readily soluble. 

As regards the quantitative estimation of Valerianic Acid, the 
latter, after being separated from the respective vegetable sub- 
stance by distillation, ought to be in such a state of concentration 
as partly to float on the aqueous liquid. Now, add slowly and 
gradually cold water, until the oily liquid has disappeared, and 
ascertain the weight of the whole. One hundred parts of this 
<jold, concentrated, 'aqueous solution of Valerianic Acid contain, 
or are equal to, 2.941 parts anhydrous acid. 

Valeriantannic AcidsziCu H9 Os and C12 Hg O9. In the 

root of Valeriana officinalis. Draw out with absolute alcohol, 
precipitate the tincture with an alcoholic solution of acetate of 
lead ; filter and precipitate again with ammonia. The first deposit 
contains an acidziCi4 H9 Og, which does not produce a green 
colouration with chloride of iron. The other deposit contains 
a, tannic acid = C12 Hg O 9 , which turns iron couibinations green. 

Vanillin = Vanillic Acid. 

Vanillic Acid = C34 H22 O20. In the fruit of Vanilla aromatica. 
Perms the crystals, which effloresce on the fruit by keeping. To 


prepare it, treat the fruit with alcohol, evaporate the tincture to 
an extract, dilute with water to syrup-consistence, shake with ether, 
evaporate the ethereous solution and recrystallise from hot water. 
— Forms colourless, hard, quadrangular needles, has a pure but 
faint vanilla-like odour, and a similar afterwards pungent taste ; 
fuses at 82°, sublimes above 260°, but unaltered only when 
rapidly heated; dissolves in 198 parts cold and in 11 parts 
boiling water, in 6 parts cold alcohol of 93 °/q, and in equal 
parts boiling alcohol, in 6^ parts cold and in equal parts boiling 
ether, also in volatile and fixed oils, the solutions in alcohol and 
ether, having a slightly acid i^eaction; the aqueous solution 
assumes a splendid dark-violet tinge with chloride of iron, and 
yields a pale-yellow deposit with chloride of platinum, and a 
yellowish-white one with acetate of lead, but is not affected by 
the nitrates of the suboxyds of palladium and mercury, and of the 
oxyds of silver. 

[To estimate the amount of V. acid in Vanilla, Tiemann and 
Haarmann exhaust the finely-cut pods with ether, agitate the 
ethereous tincture with a solution of bisulphite of soda, which 
combines with the V. acid, and is decomposed by sulphuric acid.] 

Yariolarill. Known to exist in Pertusaria communis. Ex- 
haust this lichen with boiling alcohol, evaporate to honey-con- 
sistence; remove from it the orcin by means of water, treat with 
ether and allow the latter to evaporate, leaving a crystalline 
remnant, which has to be freed from a soft resin by washing with 
cold alcohol, and is then dissolved in boiling alcohol. On cooling, 
long white needles are formed, which dissolve readily in alcohol 
and in ether, fuse with a gentle heat, decomposing afterwards, and 
are not altered by alkalies or by acids. 

Vateria Tallow, obtained from the fruit of Vateria Indica. 
White or yellow, fatty and waxlike to the touch, of a globularly 
radiated fracture; of a faint, pleasant odour; tasteless; of 0.926 
density; fuses at 36^°. 

Vegetable Mucilage or simply Mucilages C12 Hio Oio. Under 

this, in a chemical sense, undefined name, certain matters are com- 
prised, which differ from gum, and are obtained on treating various 
vegetable substances with cold water, under the form of thickish, 
turbid, ropy liquids. Prominently rich in it are various 
seeds (from the orders of Labiatae, Lineae, Plantagineae, 
Rosaceae, etc.); but also leaves, stalks, barks, roots, for 
instance, Asperifoliae, Malvaceae, Orcliideae, Algae, etc. By 
mixing with alcohol a liquid prepared as above with cold 
water, and freed, if necessary, from albumen by boiling and strain- 
ing, the Mucilage immediately separates, but charged with no 
inconsiderable quantities of lime-salts, which may be abstracted 


for the greatest part from the deposit by alcohol containing 
hydrochloric acid. — ^The Mucilage is, after drying, yellowish, not 
so translucid as gum, more tough than brittle; swells up consi- 
derably in water, and dissolves to turbid, ropy, neutral liquids, 
which in many cases are thrown down by acids and by many salts 
that do not affect the solution of gum, as for instance by alum, 
subchloride of tin, acetate of lead ; but on the other hand they are 
not turbidified by silicate of potash, nor thickened by borax. 
Nitric acid produces oxalic and partly mucic acid. By the agency 
of diluted sulphuric acid, at first gum, then sugar is formed. The 
different behaviour of different Mucilages is probably caused by 
the greater or less amount of salts, though this assumption is con- 
tradicted by Frank (Chem. Jahresb. fiir 1865, 598). 

The presence of Mucilage can be best detected by directly treat- 
ing with cold water. For this purpose the roots, barks, leaves and 
stalks have to be reduced to a proper state by bruising, cutting, 
etc.; seeds are left whole, as they contain the mucus in the epi- 
dermis, and with them, bruising would be either superfluous or 
detrimental to the purity of the product, because the water would 
dissolve, or keep suspended, substances that could not be easily 
removed, as albuminous substances, oils, etc. — The quantitative 
estimation of Mucilage is also effected by direct treatment with 
cold water ; after subsiding and straining, the liquid must be boiled 
a few moments. Now, strain off the flocky deposit of albumen, 
evaporate to a small bulk, precipitate with alcohol, wash the 
deposit with alcohol and dry at 110°. As salts of Hme (generally 
the phosphate) are always present, their weight has to be deter- 
mined by incinerating a weighed quantity of the dried Mucilage 
and weighing the ash. The weight of the latter has to be deducted 
from that of the Mucilage. 

Verailtill=Cu H5 Os. In the root of Bubia tinctorum. 
Liberate the Verantin oxyd of iron (see Rubiacin) from the 
metallic base by boiling with hydrochloric acid, wash and dissolve 
in boiling alcohol, when the Yerantin will separate on cooling as 
a brown powder. — Reddish-brown, amorphous powder similar in 
appearance to snuff or ground roasted coffee; fuses scarcely in 
boiling water and dissolves sparingly in it, dissolves readily in 
boiling alcohol and separates on cooling in a pulverulent form, 
the solution retaining an acid reaction; dissolves in alkalies with 
a brown colour; is decomposed by heat. 

Veratric Acld=Ci8 H9 O7 + HO. In the seeds of Schoeno- 
caulon officinale. Exhaiist the pulverised seeds with alcohol 
acidulated with sulphuric acid, add to the tincture hydrate of 
potash, filter, distil the alcohol, collect the veratrin thus deposited 
and saturate the mother-ley with excess of sulphiuic acid, when 
the Y. acid will crystallise slowly before or after evaporation. 


Wash with cold water and recrystallise in alcohol. — Fonns 
colourless needles; reddens moist litmus paper; loses water on 
heating and becomes opaque, fuses and sublimes completely; 
dissolves slowly in cold, more readily in boiling water, readily in 
alcohol, not in ether. The Veratrates of alkalies are crystallisable 
and soluble in water, those of silver and of lead dissolve sparingly. 

Veratrill=C64 H52 N2O16. Alkaloid of the seeds of Schceno- 
caulon officinale and of some allied plants. Exhaust with alcohol 
of 70% to 80%, add a little water to the tinctures and distil the 
alcohol, evaporate the remaining liquid under addition of pul- 
rerised charcoal to dryness, triturate the mass, treat with water 
mixed with concentrated sidphuric acid, filter, precipitate the 
solution with carbonate of soda, wash the deposit, divide in 
water, and add slowly and gradually diluted sulphuric acid to 
redissolution, digest the solution with animal charcoal, filter, 
precipitate with ammonia and dry the deposit after washing. 
To free the Veratrin from resin, dissolve in alcohol of 60%, filter 
if necessary, and evaporate. A white crystalline powder is formed, 
mixed with a brown resinous matter, which is removable by 
washing with cold water. The crystalline Yeratrin has to be 
recrystallised from strong alcohol. — A tolerably white, light, 
amorphous powder, or, in the purest state, small, colourless 
crystals of an extremely acrid burning taste, inodorous, the dust 
of which produces violent sneezing and irritation, fuses and 
decomposes in higher temperatures, is insoluble in water, dissolves 
in 3 parts alcohol of 80% at the ordinary temperature, much more 
when boiling hot, the solution being of strongly alkaline reaction ; 
dissolves also readily in ether when the product is quite pure, 
but the amorphous V. only in 50 parts. Concentrated sulphuric 
acid colours it passingly yellow, then carmine-red; concentrated 
hydrochloric acid produces, especially on warming, a deep dark- 
violet solution, on the surface of which small drops of oil begin to 

Veratrin Resin ^Helon in. 

Vinetin = Oxyacanthin. 

Violin. Alkaloid of all parts of Viola odorata. Free the alco- 
holic extract of the root from chlorophyll and fat by means of 
ether, boil the residue with diluted sulphuric acid, in order to 
volatilise acetic acid, add hydrated oxyd of lead in excess, dry, 
treat with alcohol and evaporate the solution. — Pale-yellow 
powder, bitter, fusible, inflammable like a resin in higher tempera- 
tures ; dissolves in water more and in alcohol less than emetin, not 
in ether, combines with acids. 

Viridic Acid. See Cafpeic Acid. 



Virola Tallow. From Myristica sebifera, is similar to nutmeg 

Vlscill=:C4o H48 O16 = C40 H32 + 16 HO. Exudes from the 
receptacle and floral envelope of Atractylis gummifera; is found in 
the leaves and branches of Ilex Aquifolum, Viscum album, and 
especially in the berries of the latter, and of various kinds of 
Loranthus ; has also been observed as constituent of other plants. 
[It is very plentiful in the foiits of Pittosporum undulatum.] 
Bruise the berries of Viscum with water, wash with water, treat 
afterwards with alcohol, and lastly with ether, evaporate the 
ethereous solutions, knead the glutinoTis yellowish mass, left after 
evaporation, first with alcohol, then with water, and heat to 120°, 
until all the water is driven off. — Clear mass of honey consistence ; 
may be drawn out into threads ; almost inodorous and tasteless ; of 
an oily appearance at 100°, begins to boil at 210°, a thin yellow 
oil of 0*856 density distilling at 235°; has the density of water, 
and leaves greasy spots on paper. 

Volatile AcidSt Such as pass over in the distillation of vege- 
tables with water, but are quickly decomposed, and have as yet 
not been isolated in the pure form ; have been observed in plants 
of the following genera : Aconitum, Arum, Clematis, Ranunculus, 
Daphne, Pimelea, Polygonum, and many Fungi. 

Vlllpulin or Vnlpic AcidzzCss Hu Oio. In Cetraria vulpina 
and in Parmelia parietina, but in the latter only when it has been 
gathered, not from trees, but, in the undeveloped state, from sand- 
stone rocks. From the Parmelia the Vulpulin can be withdrawn 
nearly pure by sulphide of carbon. The Cetraria has to be soaked 
first in lukewarm water, containing a little lime; strain after a 
few hours, repeat the same treatment, saturate the united solutions 
with excess of hydrochloric acid, wash the flocks which have separated 
with cold water, and recrystallise from hot water or from alcohol. 
— Forms sulphur-yellow, translucid, large, rhombic pyramids or 
needles, crystallized from sulphide of carbon of the colour of bi- 
chromate of potash ; fuses at 110°, and sublimes in small yellow 
laminar scales or needles, with the odour of benzoin ; tasteless by 
itself, dissolved in alcohol, very bitter; is, even in boiling water, 
nearly insoluble, readily soluble in sulphide of carbon, in 376 parts 
cold, and in 200 parts boiling alcohol of 80%, in 588 parts cold, 
and in 88 parts boiling alcohol of 90% ; also sparingly in boiling 
absolute alcohol, more readily in ether, and most readily in chloro- 
form, in concentrated sulphuric acid with brown-red colour, which 
turns pale-yellow on addition of water. 

Walnut Oilt Obtained by pressing the seeds of Juglans regia. 
Originally greenish, becomes soon pale-yellow, inodorous, of imld 
taste and of 0.926 density, congeals at — 18°, butter-like, becomes 


hard at — 27^, dries better at the air than linseed oil, yields like 
this soft soaps. 

Xanthln, according to EQggin. In the root of Rubia tinctorum. 
Precipitate the fresh, filtered infusion of madder with acetate of 
lead, wash the deposit, decompose with sulphuret of hydrogen and 
boil the sulphide of lead with water. The solutions, after they 
have been neutralised with ammonia and digested with a little 
hydrated alumina, which deposit alizarin and rubiacin, yield the 
Xanthin on evaporating the filtrate and on extracting the residue. 
(By this method are obtained, according to Schunck, rubian and 
products of decomposition of the latter). — Dark-brown, deliques- 
cent, gummoiis body, bitter (neither acerb nor sweet), fuses and 
decomposes in higher temperatures, dissolves readily in water with 
a beautiful yellow colour, also readily in alcohol, little in ether, 
in alkalies with purple-red hue. The aqueous solution is precipi- 
table by alum and by subacetate of lead, but not by acetate of 

Xa]lthorhaill]liBi=C4e H28O28 +10 HO, according to Gellatly. 
In the matured grains of Avignon (from Rhamnus infertorius and 
some other congeners), or, according to Kane, a decomposition - 
product of the chrysorhamnin of the unripe berries. After boiling 
the unripe berries with water for a few minutes and drying, no 
chrysorhamnin is obtained, but in its stead Xanthorhamnin. Like- 
wise Xanthorhamnin is obtained from chrysorhamnin by boiling the 
latter with water under access of air. Gellatly boils the unripe pul- 
verised berries with alcohol, frees the not too much concentrated 
tincture from a slowly forming dark-brown resin by repeated decan- 
tations, allows to crystallise and purifies by recrystallising.— Forms 
pale-yellow, shining silky tufts of almost tasteless crystals; loses its 
water at 100°; does not fuse at 130°; dissolves readily in cold and 
in hot water, and in alcohol, not in ether; colours black the 
solutions of iron; decomposes with diluted acids into sugar and 
Rhamnetin = C22 Hio Oio, forms with alkalies brown solutions. 

Xanthotannic Acid=Ci8 His O4. The yellow matter of 
autumnal leaves. Exhaust, for instance, elm-leaves with alcohol, 
evaporate the tinctures, filter off the wax, precipitate the filtrate 
with water, filter again, precipitate with acetate of lead and 
decompose the deposit by sulphuret of hydrogen. The liquid 
separated from the sulphide of lead, has an astringent taste, acid 
reaction and precipitates glue. 

Xailthoxyleii:=C2o Hie. Obtained by distilling the so-called 
Japanese pepper (seeds of Xanthoxylum piperitum) with water, 
desiccating the oil with chloride of calcium and rectifying by means 
of potassium. Colourless, of great light -refracting power, and of a 
pleasant aromatic odour; boils at 162° 

Q 2 


Xailthoxylin=C4o H24 Oie. Forms in the volatile oil (xanth- 
oxylen), obtaiaed by distiLlatioii with water, from Xanthoxylum. 
piperitum, and remains, after the oil has been freed from xanth- 
oxylen by distillation at 1 30°. May also be obtained by evaporating 
the alcoholic tinctm*e, and by freeing the crystals from resin by 
wasMng with liquor of ammonia. — ^Large, colourless, silky, klino- 
rhombic crystals, neutral, smells faintly l£ke stearin; tastes aromatic, 
fuses at 80°, volatilises in higher temperatures undecomposed ; 
dissolves not in water, readily in alcohol and in ether. 

XylOChloric Acid^Cso H26 O24. Green pigment of decaying 
wood, especially that of beech. Treat with diluted liquor of 
ammonia, precipitate the green solution with hydrochloric acid, 
wash and dry the deposit. — Dark-green, friable mass, tasteless, 
not fusible, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, diluted acids, becomes 
carbonised with concentrated sulphuric acid; is readily soluble in 
liquor of ammonia, the solution being of deep olive-green colour, 
and of neutral reaction, after the excess of ammonia has been 
driven off, yielding by spontaneous evaporation a green residue 
soluble completely in water. This aqueous solution is precipi- 
tated by chloride of iron and by acetate of lead dirty green, by 
sulphate of copper, and by subnitrate of mercury olive-green. 

XylOStein. Bitter substance obtained from the berries of 
Lonicera Xylosteum. Boil the berries with water, precipitate the 
decoction with acetate of lead, remove excess of lead from the 
filtrate by sulphuret of hydrogen, evaporate to a syrup consistence, 
shake repeatedly with ether and evaporate the latter. — Crystallises 
in long, colourless needles or prisms, is inodorous, neutral, non- 
nitrogenised, of a slightly bitter taste; fuses at 100°, gives out a 
crystalline sublimate in higher temperatures under carbonisation ; 
dissolves sparingly in cold, readily in boiling water, most readily 
in alcohol and in ether; is precipitable by subacetate of lead, jdelds 
with diluted acids, sugar, and other products. 



[Arldn = C23 n26 N2 O4. Alkaloid, prepared from the Quina 
de ChisGO by O. Hesse. — Beautiful, white prisms, fusing at 188% 
of very feebly alkaline reaction, and very slightly astringent, not 
bitter taste, dissolves very easily in chloroform, rather easily in 
ether (1 : 20), in 236 parts alcohol of 80%. It behaves towards 
nitric and sulphuric acids like cusconin, and is precipitable by the 
same re-agents as cusconin and by iodide of potassium and tannic 
acid. Acetic acid likewise precipitates the solution of A. in hy- 
drochloric acid under the form of small, white granules, very 
difficultly soluble in cold, more readily in boiling water, and 
crystallising therefrom in crystals afber cooling.] 

[Capsaicin. The active principle of the fruits of Capsicum 
annuum, prepared by Tresh. — Colourless prisms of extremely 
pungent taste, fusible and volatile without decomposition by itself 
and by the steam of water, the vapours strongly irritating the 
respiratory organs. The C. dissolves little in cold water, better 
in boiling water, easily in strong alcohol and ether; also in potash 
ley, and reprecipitable from the latter solution by addition of a 
solution of ammonium chloride.] 

[CllSCO]lin=C23 H26 N2 O4 + 2 H O. Prepared by O. Hesse, 
from the Quina de Cusco. — White leaflets, or short prisms of dull 
lustre, fuses at 110% of very slightly alkaline reaction in alcoholic 
solution, dissolves in 35 parts ether, better in alcohol and aceton, very 
easily in chloroform, little in benzol and petroleum-ether; becomes 
green with nitric acid, and dissolves wifli greenish-yellow colour, 
with the same colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, changing to 
dark-brown on warming. Its solution in hydrochloric acid is 
precipitable by ammonia, soda, the sulphocyanide, bi-iodide, ferro- 
and ferricyanide of potassium, the chlorides of gold and of 
platinum, iodide of potassio-mercury, phosphotungstic acid. Its 
salts, when neutral and dissolved in water^ react acid, and taste at 
first rancid, then slightly bitter; the neutral sulphate at last 
cooling, burning similar to inferior peppermint oil.] 

[Erythrophlaein. Alkaloid, discovered by Gallois and Hardy 
in the bark of Erythrophlaeum guinense. — It forms a clear, amber- 
yellow mass, of crystalline structure under the microscope, dissolves 

230 . 

in water, alcohol, amylalcoliol, acetic ether, very little in ether, 
chloroform, benzol; forms salts with acids. Concentrated potash- 
ley, also ammonia, yield crystalline precipitates in the solution of 
the hydrochloride. Precipitates are likewise formed by chloride 
of platinum, picric acid, potassium bi-iodide, the iodides of 
potassio-mercury, potassio-bismuth and potassio-cadmium, bi- 
chromate of potash, the chlorides of mercury and gold, and the 
subchloride of palladium. .With hypermanganate of potash and 
sulphuric acid a similar but feebler violet colour is formed, as with 
strychnin. It acts as a strong poison,] 

[Gardening C23 H15 Oio. Crystalline resin of the Dikamali 
resin from Gardenia lucida. Crystallises from the hot, alcoholic 
solution in yellow needles, which melt at 155°. — Flueckiger.] 

[Glycyphyllin* Glucosid of the leaves of Smilax glycyphylla. — 
Brownish-yellow, amorphous mass, or, by slow evaporation of the 
ethereous solution, concentrically united tufts of crystals of 
aromatic odour and bitter-sweet taste ; dissolves better in hot than 
in cold water, easily in alcohol and in ether; breaks up on boiling 
with dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid into sugar and another 
product. — Baron F. voN Mueller and L. Rummel.] 

[Jnrabcblll, Alkaloid of the fruits of Solanum paniculatum. — 
Amorphous mass of bitter taste and slightly aromatic odour, little 
soluble in water, easily in liquor of ammonia, alcohol and chloro- 
form. The hydrochloride of J. is crystalline and yields in solution 
precipitates with most alkaloid-reagents except chloride of plati- 
num, picric and chromic acids. — F. V. Greene.] 

[Huscarill= C 6 H13 NO 2 . Poisonous alkaloid of the Fly-agaric 
(Agaricus miiscarius), isolated from the extract by dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, evaporating the liquid to crystals and pressing the 
latter between blotting paper, which absorbs the deliquescent 
Muscarin salt, while the chloride of a non-poisonous alkaloid, 
Amanitin=:C5 H13 NO remains behind. — S^oppe and Schmiede- 


[]Vllcit=Ci2 H12 O12 4- 4 HO. Peculiar kind of sugar, con- 
tained in the leaves of the walnut tree (Juglans regia.) It crystal- 
lises in klinorhombic prisms of 1*54 sp. gr., has a sweet taste, 
dissolves easily in water, alcohol, ether and chloroform, is non- 
rotating, does not reduce copper salts, is unable to ferment even 
after boiling with dilute sulphuric acid. Treated with nitric acid 
it forms neither mucic nor oxalic acids. — Tannet and Vil- 


[Ostruthin=Ci4 H17 O2. Discovered by v. Gorup-Besanez in 
the root of Peucedanum Ostruthium. — ^Odourless and almost taste- 
less, klinorhombic crystals, fusing at 115°, resolidifying at 91**; 
sublimable under decomposition, burning at the air with a bright, 


smoky flame. The O. yields on trituration an electric powder, is 
of neutral reaction, is insoluble in cold water, whereas boiling 
water dissolves only traces, little soluble in benzol and petroleum- 
ether, easily in alcohol and ether. The alcoholic solution exhibits, 
especially after addition of a little water, a blue fluorescence. It 
dissolves also in caustic potash, soda and ammonia, and is there- 
from reprecipitated by carbonic acid. It is not precipitable by 
metallic salts, and forms with hydrochloric acid gas in alcoholic 
solution crystals of hydrochloride of Ostruthin.] 

[Oxyiiarcotin=C22 H23 NOg. Alkaloid prepared by Beckelt 
and Wright, from the mother-liquor remaining in the preparation 
and purification of narcein from opium. It forms small, mica-like, 
sandy crystals, little soluble in water and alcohol, even on boiling, 
similar in appearance to narcotin, but differing from it by its 
sparing solubility in hot water and alcohol, and its insolubility in 
benzol, ether and chloroform. Fixed alkalies and their carbonates 
precipitate the O. from its concentrated solutions, not or only 
jmrtially after some time from diluted ones. Analogous to the 
hydrochlorides of narcotin and narcein, the hydrochloride of O. by 
hot water breaks up into free acid and a basic salt.] 

[Picroroccellin, Nitrogenised, neutral substance, found by 
Stenliouse and Groves, in Roccella fuciformis. — It crystallises in 
long, colourless prisms, of considerable lustre, and of very bitter 
taste, insoluble in water, petroleum and sulphide of carbon, little 
soluble in ether and benzol, moderately soluble in boiling alcohol. 
It fuses at 192° to 194°, and decomposes afterwards. Dissolves in 
concentrated sulphuric acid, with yellow colour on warming, re- 
precipi table as yellow powder on addition of water. The same 
takes place with nitric acid. On heating P. for ten minutes at 
220°, or on boiling with dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, it is 
converted into Xanthoroccellin, a nitrogenised body, crystallising in 1 
long, slender, yellow needles.] 

[TlieYetosin. Poisonous glucosid, discovered by Herrera in 
the seeds of Thevetia yccotli. — White, quadrangular prisms, in- 
odorous, of intensely acrid taste, not soluble in water, very little 
soluble in ether, sulphide of carbon, fixed and volatile oils, easily 
soluble in alcohol. Yields, with dilute sulphuric acid, sugar and a 
resin. The alcoholic solution is not changed by nitrate of silver, 
the chlorides of platinum, gold and iron, iodide and iodate of 
potassium, tannic acid, the hydrates and carbonates of alkalies, 
ferro- and ferricyanide of potassium.] 



Those formulas marked with an asterisk, as they differ from the text, are the results 

of more recent investigations. 

Abietic acid = C44 Hoi O5 
Absinthin = C20 H28 O4 
Acetic acid = C2 H4 O2 
Aconitic acid = Ce Hg O0 
Aconitin = C30 H47 NO7 
A^dansonin = C48 H72 O33 
Aesculin = C21 H24 O13 
Aesculetin == C9 Hg O4 
♦Alizarin =Ci4 Hg O4 (Graeb. et 

*Aloin=Ci7H2o07 (FLetHanb.) 
Amygdalin = C20 H27 NOn (an- 
Anacahuit tannic acid = Cg H12 

Anacardic acid = C44 H64 O7 
Anchusin = Cig H20 O4 
Anemonic acid = Cis Hu O7 
Anemonin = C15 H12 Oe 
Anethol = Cio H12 O 
Angelic acid = C5 Hg O2 
Annatto red = Cg His O 
Antiarin = C14 H20 Os + 2 H2 O 
Apiin = C24 H28 Oi3 
Arachidic acid = C20 H40 O2 
Arbutin = C24 H32 O14 + H2 O 

Hydrokinon = Ce He O2 
Aribin = C23 H20 N4 + 8 H2 O 
*Aricin = Cinchonidin (Hesse) 
Aniicin = C20 H30 O4 
Asaron = C20 H23 Os 
Asclepion = C20 H34 O3 
A8paragin=C4 Hg 1^2 O3 +H2 O 
Aspartic acid = C4 H7 NO4 

Asperula tannic acid = C7 Hg O4 
Athamantin = C24 H30 O7 
Atherospermin = C30 H40 N2 O 
Atberosperma tannic acid = Cio 

Hi4 O2 
Atropin = C17 H23 NO3 
Azulen = Cie H28 O 
Basilicum stearopten = Cio H22 

Bassorin = Ce Hjo Os 
Bay oil hydrocarbons = Cio Hi 

and Ci5 H24 
Bebirin = C19 H21 NO3 
Benic acid = C22 H44 O2 
Benzoic acid = C7 He O2 
Berberin = C20 H17 NO4 (anhy- 
Betulin = C25 H40 O2 
Betuloretic acid = Csq Hqq O 
Boheic acid = C7 Hi© Oe 
Bomeen = Cjo Hie 
Borneol = Ci© Hig O 
Brasilin = C22 H20 O7 
Brucin = C28H2eN2 O4 +4 H2 O 
Bryonin = C4g Hg© O19 
Butyric acid = C4 Hg O2 
Caffeic acid = C14 Hie O7 

Viridic acid = C14 H12 O7 
Caffein = Cg Hio N4 O2 + H2 O 
Calluna tannic acid = C14 H14 Og 
Camphor = Cio Hie O 
Camphor oil = C20 H32 O 
Cane-sugar = C12 H22 On 
Caoutchouc = C20 H32 


Oapric acid Cio H^o O2 
Caproic acid = Ce H12 O2 
Caprylic acid = Cg Hie O2 
Capsulaescic acid = C13 H12 Og 
Cardol = C21 H30 O2 
Oarminic acid = C14 Hu Og 
Carotin = Cig H24 O 
Oarthamin = C14 Hie ^7 
Carven = Cio Hie 
Carvol = Cio Hu O 
Caryophyllic acid = Cio H12 O2 
Caryophyllin = Cio Hie O 
*Catechuic acid = Cis H12 O5 
Ceradia resin = C20 H28 O2 
Ceropinic acid = Cse Hes O5 
Cerosin = C24 H50 O 
Ceroxylin = C20 H82 O 
Cetraric acid = Cis Hie Og 
Chelerythrin = C19 H17 NO4 
*Chelidonic acid = C7 H4 0$ 
Chelidonin = C19 H17 Ng O3 + 

Chenopodin = Ce H13 NO4 

Metagommic acid ^ C12 H22 
Chica red = Cg Hg Og 
Chiratin = C28 H4g Ois 
Chiratogenin = C13 H24 O3 
*Cholestearin = C2e H44 O 
Chrysophanic acid = Cio Hg O3 
Chrysorhammin = C23 H22 On 
Cicuten = Cio Hie 
Cinchona alkaloid, Howard's = 

C20 H24 N2 O2 
*Cinchonidin «= C20 H24 N2 O 
Cinchonin = C20 H24 N2 O 
Cinnamic acid r= C9 Hg O2 
Cissotannic acid = Cio H12 Og 
Citric acid = Ce Hg O7 
Cnicin = C42 Hse Ois 
Cocain = Cie H19 NO4 
Codein = Cig H21 NO3 + H2 O 
Colchicin = C17 H19 NO5 
Colocynthin = Cse Hg4 O28 
Colombic acid = C42 H4e Oig 
* „ » = C22 H24 O7 (Boe- 


Colombin » C42 H44 O14 
Conessin == C25 H44 N2 O 
Conhydrin = Cg H17 NO 
Coniferin=Cie H22 Og + 2 H2 O 
Coniin =1 Cg H15 N 
Convallamarin = C28 H44 O12 
Convallarin = C34 He2 On 
Convolvulin « C^i Hso Oie 
Copaivic acid = C20 Hgo O2 
Coriamyrtin = C40 H4g O14 
Corticipino tannic acid = Cie H14 


Corydalin = C4e Hsg N2 O7 

Crocin = C2» H42 O15 

* » = 04g Heo Oig, H2 O 

Crotonol = C9 H14 O 2 
♦Cubebin = C33 H34 Oio 
Cumarin » C9 He O2 
Cuminol = Cio H12 O 
Curarin » Cio H15 N 
*Curcumin = Cio Hio O13 
Cyclamin = C2g H82 O12 
Cymen (cymol) = Cio H14 
Dambonit = C4 Hg O3 

Dambose = Cg He O3 
Danunaryl s= C20 H32 
Dammaiyl-hydrate = 4 C20 H82 

+ H2O 
Dammarylic acid = C45 H72 O3 
*Daplmin = C31 H84 O19 
Daphnetin = C19 H14 O9 
Datiscin = C21 H22 O12 

Datiscetin == Cis Hio Oe 
Delphinin = C24 Hss NO2 
Dextrin = Ce Hio Os 
Digitaletin » C22 Hsg O9 
Digitalic acid, volatile = C5 Hio 

Digitalin = C2g H4g O14 

„ crystallised = C26 H40 Ois 
Dragon's blood = C20 H21 O4 
Dulcamarin = Ces Hioo N2 O29 
„ (Geissler) = C22 H84 Oio 
Dnlcamaritin = Cie H2e O 
Dulcit = Ce Hi4 Oe 
Elaterin = C20 H28 Os 


Elemi resin = C20 H32 O2 

Elemin = C40 Hee 

EUagic acid == Cu He Og -h 3 

Emetin = C20 H30 N2 O5 

„ = C30 H44 N2 Og (Leforfc) 
Emodin = C40 H30 O13 
Equisetic acid = Aconitic acid 
Ericinol = Cio H16 O 
Ericolin = C34 Hge O21 
Erucic acid = C22 H42 O2 
Erytliric acid = C20 H22 Oio 
Eugenin = Cio H12 O2 
Euphorbin = C20 H32 O 
Euphrasia tannic acid = C32 H40 


Evemic acid = C17 Hie O7 
Fiber (Cellulose) = Ce Hio O5 
*Filicic acid = C14 Hig O5 
Formic acid = CH2 O2 
*Fraxin = Cie Hig Oio 
*Fraxetin = Cio Hg Os 
Fruit-sugar = Ce H12 Oe 
Fumaiic acid = C4 H4 O4 
Galbanum resin = C2e H38 O5 
Galium tannic acid = C7 Hg O5 
Gallic acid = C7 He O5 
Gallotannic acid == C27 H22 O17 
Gambogic acid = C20 H24 O4 
Gardenia tannic acid No. 1 = C24 

H2g Oi3 

„ „ „ No. 2 = C23 

H2g Ol3 

Gaultierylen = Cio Hie 
Gentianin = C14 Hio Os 
Gentiopicrin = C20 H30 O12 + 

H2 O 
Ginkgoic acid = C24 H4g O2 
Globularia resin = C20 H3e Og 
Globularia tannic acid = Cg H12 


Globularin = C30 H44 O14 
Glycerin = C3 Hg O3 
Glycyrrhizin = C24 Hse O9 
Gratiolin = C20 H34 O7 
Gratiosolin = C4e Hg4 O26 
Guaiacic acid = C12 Hie Oe 

Guaiaconic acid = Csg H40 Oio 
Guaiacum Beta resin = C20 H20. 

*Guaiaretic acid = C20 H2e O4 
Gum = C12 H22 Oil 
Gurjunic acid = C44 He^ Og 
Gutta = C20 H32 
Haematoxylin = Cie H14 Oe + ^ 

Harmalin = Cis H14 N2 O 
Harmin = C13 H12 N2 O 
Hederic acid = C15 H2e O4 
Helenin = Cie H2g Oio 

„ = Ce Hg O (Kallen) 
Helianthic acid = C7 H9 O4 
Helleborein = C2e H44 O15 
Helleborin = Cse H42 Oe 
Helonin = C14 Hig N2 O3 
Huanokin = C20 H24 N2 O 
Hydrastin = C22 H23 NOe 
Hydrocarotin = Cig H30 O 
Hydrocyanic acid = C N H 
*Hyoscyamin = C15 H23 NO3 
Hypogaeic acid = Cie H30 O2 
Ilixanthin = C17 H22 On 
Indican = C2e H31 NO17 
Indigo blue = Cg H5 NO 
Inosit = Ce H12 Oe + 2 H2 O 
Inulin = Ce Hio Os 
Ipecacuanhic acid = C14 Hig O7 
Iris stearopten = Myristic Acid 
Isocetic acid = C15 H30 O2 
Jalapin = Convolvulin 
* Jervin = C30 H4e N2 O3 
*Koussin = C31 H3g Oio 
Lactic acid = C3 He O3 
Lactucerin = Cie H26 O 
*LactuciQ = Cii H12 O3 ■+• H2 O 
Lariciu = C7 H12 O2 
Laserpitin = C24 H3e O7 
Laurie acid = C12 H24 O2 
Laurostearin = C27 H50 O4 
Lecanoric acid = Cie H14 O7 
Ledum tannic acid = C7 He O3 
Lichenin == Ce Hio O5 
lichenostearic acid = C14 H24 Os 
Limonin == C44 H62 O14 


Linoleic acid = Cie H28 O2 
Lupulic acid = C32 H50 O7 
Luteolin = C12 Hg O5 
Lyoopodium resin = Cis H32 O2 
Lycopodium stearon = Cis H30 

Malic acid = C4 He O5 
Mangostan resin = Cis H22 0$ 
Mangostin = C20 H22 O5 
Mannit = Ce H14 Oe 
Masopin = C22 Hse O 
Maynas resin = C14 His O4 
Meconic acid=C7 H4 O7 -h3H20 
Meconin = Cio Hio O4 
Melezitose = C12 H22 On 
Melitose = C12 H22 On 
Menispermin = Cis H24 NO2 
Menyanthin = C30 H46 O14 
Morin = Cg Hs O5 
Monndia = C28 H30 O15 
Moms tannic acid = C9 Hg Os 
Morpliin = C17 H19 NO3 + H2 O 
Mycose = C12 H22 On + 2 H2 
Myristic acid = C14 H28 O2 
Myristin = C45 Hge 0^ 
*Myronate of Potash = Cio His 

KlSrSa Oio 
Myroxocarpin = C24 Has O3 
Narcein = C23 H29 NO9 
*Narcotin = C22 H23 NO7 
Nataloin = €25 H28 On 
Nicotianin = C20 H32 N2 O3 
Nicotin = C5 H7 N 
Oenolin = Cio Hio O5 
Oil of AlliTim sativum = C3 H5 S 
Artemisia Absinthiimi = 
Cio H16 O 
„ A. Cina = C12 H20 O 
„ Balsam of Copaiva=Cio Hie 
„ Peru=CieHi4 O2 
„ Brassica nigra=C4 H5 NS 
„ Bursera gummifera = Cio 


„ CarumPetroselinum=Gio 

„ Cinnamomum = C9 Hg O 

yj Citrus medica == Cio Hie 


Oil of Citrus Limetta = Cio Hie. 
„ Coriandrum sativum = Cio 

„ Memi = Cio Hie 
„ Humulus Lupulus = Cio 

Hie ©t Cio His 
„ Juniperus commimis = Cio 

„ „ Sabina = Cio Hie 

„ Myrrh = Cio Hi4 O 
„ Origanum vulgare = C^q. 

, , Osmitopsis ast. = Cio His O 
„ PiQus = Cio Hie 
„ Piper nigrum = Cio Hie 
„ Sassafrass offic. = 09 HioO 
„ Spiraea Uhnaria = Cio His 

„ Zingiber officinale = 2 Cio. 

Hie + H2 O 
Oleic acid = Cis H34 O2 
Olein = C64 H104 Oe 
Olivil = Ci4 His Og + H2 O 
Onocerin = C12 H20 O 
Ononid = Cis H22 Os 
Ononin == C30 H34 O13 
Ophelic acid = C13 H20 Oio 
Opianin = Cee H72 N4 O21 
Orcin = C7 Hg O2 + H2 O 
Oxalic acid = C2 H2 O4 
Oxyacanthin = C32 H4e N2 On 
Oxypinotannic acid = C14 Hie. 

Palmitic acid = Cie H32 O2 
Palmitin = C51 Hgs Oe 
Panaquilon = C12 H25 O9 
Papaverin «= C20 H21 NO4 
Parellin=C9 He O4 (anhydrous) 
Paricin = C23 H25 ^2 O3 
Paridin = Cie H2S O7 + 2 H2 O 
Parsley stearopten = C12 H14 

Paytin = C21 H24 N2 O + Hg O 
Pelargonic acid = C9 His O2 
Pelosin = Bebirin 
Peppermint stearopten == Cio H20 



Peucedanin = C12 H12 O3 
Phillyrin = C27 H34 On (anhy- 
Phlobaphen = Cio Hg O4 
Phlorrhizin = C21 H24 Oio + 2 

Physalin = Cu Hie Os 
Physodin = C12 H12 Os 
Physostigmin = C15 H21 N3 O2 
Picrolichenin = C12 H20 Oe 
Picrotoxin = Cio H12 O4 
Pinocorretin = C24 H38 0$ 
Pinocortannic acid = C32 H38 

Pinopicrin = C22 H36 On 
Pinotannic acid = C7 Hg O4 
Piperin = C17 H19 NO3 
Pipitzahoic acid = Cis II20 O3 
Pityxylonic acid = C26 H40 Og 
Populin = C20 H22 Os + 2H2 O 
Primidin = Cyclamin 
Propionic acid = C3 He O2 
Pseudomorphin == C17 H19 NO4 

+ H2O 
Pteritannic acid = C12 H15 O4 
Purpnrin = C9 He O3 
Pyrocatechin = Ce He O2 
Quassiin = Cio H12 O3 
Quercetin = C23 Hie Oio 
Quercit = Ce H12 O5 
Qnercitrin = C36 Hse O20 
Quina red = C12 H14 O7 
Quinic acid = C7 H12 Oe 
*Quinidin = C20 H24 N2 O2 
Quinin = C20 H24 N2 O2 
Quinotannic acid = C14 Hie O9 
Quinova red = C12 H12 Os 
Quinova tannic acid = C7 H9 O4 
Quinovic acid = C24 H38 O5 
Pacemic acid == C4 He Oe 
Patanhia tannic acid = Cig Hie 

Patanhin = Cio H13 NO3 
Phamnoxanthin = C20 H20 Oio 
Phinanthin = C29 H52 O20 + 4 

Pliodotannic acid = C14 H12 O7 

Rhoeadin =« C21 H21 NOe 
Phoitannic acid = Cis H28 O13 
Picinoleic acid = Cis H34 O3 
Robinin = C50 Heo O32 + 11 

Roccellic acid == C17 H32 O4 
Poccellinin = Cig Hie O7 
Pottlerin = Cn Hio 63' 
Ruberythric add = C3e H40 O20 
Rubiacin = Cie Hn O5 
Rubian = C28 H34 O15 
Rubichloric acid = C14 Hie O9 
Rubiretin = C7 He O2 
Rubitannic acid = C]4 Hie O9 
Rutin = C26 H28 O16 + 2 H2 O 
Sabadillin = C20 H2e N2 O5 
Sabadillin hydrate = C20 H28 N2 

Salacin = C13 Hig O7 
Salicylate of Methyl = Cg Hg O3 
Salicylic acid == C7 He O3 
*Salicylous acid = C7 He O2 
Santal = Cg He Os 
Santalin = Cis H14 O5 
Santonin == C15 Hig O3 
Saponin = Cig H2g O12 
Scoparin = C21 H22 Oio 
Sicopirin = Cie H12 O5 
Sinapoleic acid = C19 H3e O2 
* Sinapin sulphocyanide (or Sin- 

albin) = C30 H44 N2 S2 Oi 

Smilacin = C21 H34 O7 
Solanin == C40 H70 NOie 
Sorbin = Ce H12 Oe 
Spartein = Cis H2e N 
Spiraea yellow = C15 Hie O7 
Staphisagrin = Cie H23 NO2 
♦Starch =:Cig H30 O15 (Musculus) 
Stearic acid = Cig Hse O2 
Stearin = 057 Hno Oe 
Strychnin = C21 H22 N2 O2 4- 

Styracin = Cig Hie O2 
Styrol = Cg Hg 
Succinic acid = C4 He O4 
Sycoceryl alcohol = Cig H30 O 


Syccx«ryl acetate » C20 H32 O2 
Syringin == C19 H28 Oio + H2 O 
Syringopicrin = C26 H48 O17 
Tannaspidic acid = C26 H28 On 
Taimicorticipinic acid == Ci4 His 

Tannopinic acid = C28 H30 O13 
Tartaric acid = C4 He Oq 
Thebain ^ C19 H21 NO3 
Theobromin = C7 Hs N4 O2 
Thujin =s C20 H22 O12 
Thujogenin = Cu H12 O7 
Thymen = Cio Hie 
Thymol = Cio Hu O 
Tolen == Cio Hie 
Trehalose = C12 H22 On + H2 O 
Trimethylamin = C3 H9 N 
Tulucunin C20 H28 Og 
Tiirpethin C34 H56 Oie 

Tyrodn = C9 Hn NO3 
Urson = C20 H34 O2 
XJsnic acid = Cig Hi? O7 
Valerianic acid = Cs Hio O2 
Valerian tannic acid = C7 H9 O4 

and C12 Hie O9 
♦Vanillin = CieH8 Oe (P.Carles> 
Vegetable mucilage =Ce Hio O5 
Verantin = C14 Hio O5 
Veratric acid = C9 Hio O4 
Veratrin = Gs2 H52 N2 Og 
Viscin = C20 H48 Og 
Vulpulin = C19 Hi4 O5 
Xanthorhamnin = C23 H28 O14 -h 

Xanthotannic acid r= C9 His O2 
Xanthoxylen = Cio Hie 
Xanthoxylin =C2o H24 Og 
Xylochloric acid C15 H2e O12. 





Ahrus precatoriiiSj L. Leguminosse. Leaf: Glycyrrhizin or allied 

Acacia AraMca, W. A, Seyal, Del.; A Vereky G. et P.; A, 

stenoca/rpa, 'Kochst.] A, Iwrrida^WUld; A.\decurren8, WUld,; A, 

pycnantha, Benth. ; A, ha/rpophylla, F. v. M. ; A, luymalophyllay 

Cunn.; A. microbotrya^ Benth. and several others. Leguminosae. 

Exudation of stem and branches : gum. 
Acacia Catechu, W.; A. Swnui, Kurz; A, decwrrensy W. and 

various other species. Wood and bark: Catechu-tannic and 

Catechuic acids; gum. 
Aca^cia hphantha, W. Root-bark : Saponin. 
Achillea MUlefoliwrrij L. Compositse. Whole plant: Achillein; 

Achilleic acid; volatile oil. 
Achillea moschata, Jacq. Whole plant: Ivain; Achillein; Mos- 

chatin; volatile oil. 
Achillea nobUis, L. Whole plant : volatile oil. 
Achraa Sapotajli, Sapotaceae. Exudation of stem : Masopin. 
Aconitwmferox, Wall. Ranunculaceae. Root: Aconitin. 
Aconitwm LycocUmwniy L. Root: Acolyctin; Lycoctonin. 
Acomtvmi NapeUuSj L. Root: Aconitin; Acolyctin; Mannit; 

AcothiVwrvhy several species. Whole plant : Aconitic acid. 
AcmvA Calamus, L. Aroidese. Root: volatile oil. 
Adansonia digitata, L. ; .4. Gregorii, F. v. M. Malvaceae. Bark : 

Aeranthus fragrans, Ldl. Orchidese. Whole plant: Cumarin. 
Aesculua Hippocaatam/wm, L. Sapindacese. Fruit: Saponin; 

Aesculic acid; Aesculin and Fraxin in the bark. 
Ae8culu8 Pavia, L. Bark : Fraxin. 
Aethvsa Cynapium, L. Umbelliferae. Whole plant: Cynapin. 


Agaricus campestris, L. Fungi Agaricin. 
„ croceuSf Pers. Inosit. 

„ muscarvuSy L. Amanitin; Liclieno-stearic acid; Muscariii. 
„ piperitus, L. Inosit. 
AiUmtua exceha, E.oxb. Simarubese. Bark : Ailantic acid. 
Alchomea latifolia^ Sw. Euphorbiacese. Bark: Alchomin. 
Aleurites triloba^ Forst. Euphorbiaceae. Seed: fat-oil. 
Alisma PlantagOf L. Alismacese. Boot : Alismin. 
ji/^aw7M» ^tTictoria, Tausch. Asperifolise. Root: Alkanna-red. 
AUium sativmn, L. Liliaceae. Bulb : volatile oil. 
-4^, several species. Liliaceae. Leaf: Aloin zz Barbaloin ; Nata- 

loin; Socaloin. 
Alpinia Gcdanga, Sw.; A. officinarvmi^ Hance. Scitaminese. Root: 

Kaempferid; volatile oil. 
Alaidium Helmintochorton, Kuetz. Algae. Lichenin. 
Ahtonia constricta, F. v. M. Apocyneae. Bark: bitter resin; vo- 
latile oil; tannic acid. 
Alstonia scholaris, 1^. Br. Bark: Ditamin; Echicerin; Echitin; 

Echitein; Echiretin; Echicoutcbin. 
Althaea ojicinalisy h. Malvaceae. Root: Asparagin; mucilage. 
Alyoda steUata, R. et S. Apocyneae. Bark: Alyxia-steai'opten. 
Amekmchier vulgaris, Moench. Rosaceae. Flower: Amygdalin. 
Aw/mi Copticwniy L. XJmbelliferae. Fruit: Thymol; Cymol. 
Amomtmi Melegueta, Roscoe. Scitamineae. Seeds : volatile oil. 
Amyris Plvnrnieri, D. C. Burseraceae. Exudation of stem : Elemi. 
Anacardiv/m ocddentaley Rottb. Anacardiaceae. Pericarp: Ana- 

cardic acid ; Cardol. 
AnagaMis a/rvensis, L. Primulaceae. Root; Cyclamin. 
Anamirta paniculatay Colebr. Menispermeae. Pericarp: Menis- 

permin; Paramenispermin. Seed: Pikrotoxin; Stearin. 
Andira anthelminthicay Benth. Leguminosse. Wood : Andirin. 
Andropogon Ivarancusa, Roxb. ; A, Calamius, Royle; A, citratuSy 

D. C; A, Martiniy Roxb.; A, Scfuxnanthus, Ij,; A, muricatuSy 

Retz. Graminese. Whole plant: volatile oil. 
Anemone nemoroaay L. ; A, pratensis, L.; ^. PuhatUla, L. Ranun- 

culacese. Whole plant : Anemonic acid ; Anemonin. 
Anthemis nohilis, L. Compositae. Flower: volatile oil; Angelic 

and Valerianic acids; Butyl and Amyl. 
Anthoocanthum odoraturriy L. Graminese. Whole plant : Cumarin. 
Antiaris toxicariay Lesch. XJrticaceae. Juice of stem : Antiarin. 
Apiwrn graveolensy L. Umbelliferse. Leaf: volatile oil; Apiin. 

Fruit : volatile oil. 
Arabia perfoliatay Lam. Cruciferae. Seed: Sinapin. 
Ara^his hypogaeay L. Leguminosse. Seed: fat-oiJ, containing 

Arabic and Hypogaeic acids. 
Aralia quinquefoliay Dec. et PL Araliaceee, Root (Ginseng): 



Archangdica officinalis, Hoffm. Umbelliferae. Root : volatile oil ; 

Hydrocjarotin; Angelic and Valerianic acids. 
Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi, Spr. Ericaceae. Leaf: Arbutin; Eri- 

colin; Ericinol; XJrson. 
Areca Cateohu, L. Palmaceee. Fruit: Catechu tannic and Gate- 

chuic acids. 
Argemone MexLccma, L. Papaveracese. Seed : fat-oil. 
Aristolochia SerpentaHa, L. Aristolochiese. Koot : volatile oil. 
Arnica Tnontana, L. Compositae. Whole plant: Amicin. — Flower 

and root : volatile oil. — Root : Caproic and Caprylic acids. 
Artemisia Ahsinthiumy L. Compositse. Whole plant : Absipthiin. 

— Leaf and flower ; volatile oil. — Herb : Succinic acid. 
Artemisia Cina, Berg. A, Sieberi, Besser. Flower: volatile oil; 


„ Bracnincfulus, L. Herb : volatile oil with Anethol. 
„ vulgaris, L. Root: volatile oil. 
Arwrn, several species. Aroidese. Whole plant : volatile acrid 

Asarwm Ewropa&um, L. Aristolochiese. Root: volatile oil with 

Asdepias Sj/ruica, L. Asclepiadeae. Milky juice : Asclepion. 
Aspa/ragtcs officinalis, L. Liliacese. Herb and green ffuit : Inosit. 

— ^Young shoots : Asparagin. 
Asperula odorata, L. Rubiacese. Whole plant : Asperula-tannic 

and Rubichloric acids; Cumann. 
Aspidium FUix Mas,, Sw. Filices. Root: fat-oil; Filixoleic, 

Filicic, Pteritannic and Tannaspidic acids. 
Astragalus, several species. Leguminosse. Exudation of stem : 

Atherosperma moschatum. Lab. Monimiese. Bark : Atherosper- 

min ; Atherosperma-tannic acid ; volatile oil. 
Atractylis gummifera, L. Compositse. Exudation of flower : Yiscin. 
Atropa Belladonna, Jj, Solanese. Whole plant: Atropin ; Bella- 

donnin. — Seed: fat-oil. 
Attalea funifera, Mart. Palmacese. Seed: A pyrin. 
Avena sativa, L. Graminese. Fruit : Avenin. 
Balsa/nwdendron Africam/u/m, Am. et B. B. Roocburghii, Amott. 

Burseracese. Exudation of stem : Gum resin (Bdellium). 
Balsamfiodendron Opohalsa/mwm, Knth. Exudation of stem: 

Balsam of Mecca with volatile oil. 
Balsamfhodendron Myrrha, Ehrenb. Exudation of stem, Myrrh, 

consisting of gum, resin and volatile oil. 
Bariksia species. Proteacese. Bark: Catechu-tannic acid. 
Barosma serraMfolia, Willd.; B, crenulata, Hk.; B, betulina, Brt. 

Rutacese. Leaf: Dipsmin; volatile oil;, mucilage. 
Bassia butyracea, Rxb.; B, latifolia, Rxb.; B. longifolia, L. 

Sapotaceae. Seed : Galam-butter with Myristin. 


Bassia sericea, Blume. Yields part of the Java gutta-percha. 
Berberis vulga/ris, L. and other species. BerberidesB. Flower 

and root-bark: Berberin. — Root-bark: Oxjacanthin. 
Beta vulgaris, L. Salsolaceae. Koot: Cane-sugar; Asparagin. 
BettUa alba, L. Amentaceae. Leaf: volatile oil. — Leaf and 

shoots: Betuloretic acid. — Bark: Betulin. — Bark and its 

spongy excrescences : Phlobaphen. 
Bignonia Ghica, Humb. et B. Bignoniaceae. Leaf: Chica-red. 
Bixa OrellaTM, L. Bixaceae. Fruit pulp: Annatto-red. 
Blwmea halsamifera, DC. Compositae. Whole herb: Ngai-cam- 

Bostvellia Carterii, Brdw. Burseracese. Exudation of stem: 

Olibanum, consisting of gum resin and volatile oil. 
Bowdichia virgilioides, H. B. K. Leguminosse. Root-bark: 

Bra^ssica alba. Vis. CrucifersB. Seed: fat-oil with Erucic and 

Sinapoleic acids; Erucin; Sinapin; Myrosin. 
Braadca nigra, Koch. Seed : fat-oil with Erucic and Sinapoleic 

acids; Sinapin; Sinapisin; MyronicAcid; Myrosin. 
Brasdca olera,cea, L. Seed: fat- oil with Erucic and Sinapoleic 

acids. — Leaf: Inosit. 
Bryonia alba, L. Cucurbitacese. Root : Bryonin. 
Buphthalm/wm salid/olium, L. Compositae. Flower: Buphthal- 

mum stearopten. 
Bursera gummifera, Jacq. Burseracese. Exudation of stem: 

Caranna-resin with volatile oil; Central American Anime. 
Bursei'a Idcariba, Benth. Exudation of stem : Elemi-resin with 

volatile oil. 
Butea frondosa, Roxb. Leguminosse. Furnishes part of the East 

Indian Kino; also, some Catechu. 
Buxus sempervireTiSy L. Euphorbiacese. Bark : Bebirin. 
Ccesalpinia Crista, L. ; C, Sappan, L. Leguminosae. Wood: 

Calamus Rotang, L. Palmaceae. Inflorescence : Dragon's blood. 
Calendula officinalis, L. Compositse. Leaf and flower: Calen- 

CaMitris qu^rivcdvis, Yent. Coniferse. Exudation of stem: 

CaUuna vulgaris, Sal. Ericaceae. Whole plant: Eriqolin; Eri- 

cinol; Calluna-tannic acid. 
Calophyllum Calaba, Jacq. ; C, longifoliuin, Willd. Guttiferse. 

Exudation of stem : Maynas-resin. 
Calophyllum Inophyllum, L. Exudation of stem : Tacamahac. 
Caloi/ropis gigantea, R. Br.; C. procera, R. Br. Asclepiadese. 

Root: Mudarin. 
Camdina sativa, Crantz. Cruciferae. Seed : fat-oil. 


Ca/mellia Tliea^ Link. Temstrcemiacese. Leaf: Caffein; Boheic 

Cana/rivm cmwraune^ L. and allied species. Burseraceae. Exu- 
dation of stem : Arbolabrea-resin. 
Candla aiha, Murr. Canellaceee. Bark : volatile oil with Caryo- 

phyllic acid; Mannit. 
Comnahis sativa, L. XJrticaceae. Herb : volatile oil. — ^Seed : fat- 
Ca/pparis spinosa, L. Capparideae. Flower buds : Rutin. 
Capsicv/ifrb annuvmi, L. ; C. hdccatvmiy L. ; C. fastigiatum, Bl. Sola- 

nacese. Fruit: Capsicin. 
Ca/ra/pa Guianensis, Aubl. Meliaceas. Bark: Carapin; Tulu- 

cunin; volatile oil. 
Ca/rbenia henedicta, Benth. Compositae. Herb : Cnicin. 
Carthomma tinctoriusy L. Compositse. Flower: Carthamin and 

Carthamus yellow. 
Canmi Ajowcm, Benth. Umbelliferse. Fruit: volatile oil with 

Cymol and Thymol. 
Carwm Caruij L. Fruit: volatile oil with Carven and Carvol. 
Ca/rmn Pei/roselimmiy BentL Fruit and herb: volatile oil with 

OascariUa hexamdra, Wedd. Rubiaceae. Bark : Paricin. 
Cascarilla magnifolia, Wedd. Bark : Quina-red ; Quinic and 

Quinova-tannic acids. 
Cassia a^cutifoliaf Del.; C. angitstifolia, Vahl. Leguminosse. Leaf: 

Cathartic acid. 
CastiUoa elastica, Cerv.; C. Markhamia/nay Col\ms, Urticaceae. 

XJ16-Caoutchouc, nearly as good as that of Hevea Guianensis. 
Centaurea Oaldtrapa, L. Compositae. Herb : Cnicin. 
Cephaelis Ipeca>cu(inha, Rich. Rubiacese. Root : Emetin ; Ipe- 

cacuanhic acid. 
Ceratonia SUiqua, L. Leguminosae. Fruit : Butyric acid. 
Ceratophorus Leerii, Hassk. Sapotacese. Yields part of the 

Sumatra guttarpercha. 
Ceroxyhn amdicolay H. et B. Falmaceae. Exudation of stem: 

Cet/raHa. Several species. Lichenes: Lichenin. 
Cetraria Islandica, Achar. Thallochlor; Cetraric, Fumaric and 

Lichenostearic acids. 
Chelidonium Tnajus, L. Papaveracese. Whole plant: Chelery- 

thrin; Chelidonin; Chelidoxanthin ; Chelidonic acid. 
Chenopodiwm dUbwm, L. Salsolaceae. Whole plant : Chenopodin. 
Chenopodium a/mhrosioideSy L. Herb : volatile oil. 
Chenopodiura olidwrriy Curtis. Whole plant : Trimethylamin. 
Chiococca racemosa, Jacq. Rubiaceae. Root : Caffe-tannic acid. 
Chlorea mdpina, Nyl. Lichenes. Vulpulin. 


Clwndodeiidron toitieiiii;sum, R. et P. Menispermese. Koot: 

Chondrvs crispvs, Stackh. Algae. Gcemin. 
Chrysanthemum Partheniumy Pres. Compositse. Whole plant : 

volatile oil. 
CiciUa virosa, Ij, Umbelliferse. Whole plant: Oicutin. — Seed: 

volatile oil with Cuminol, Cymen and Cicuten. 
CinchoTia species. Rubiacese. Bark contains alkaloids as below : 
Cinchona CaZisayay Wedd. Quinin ; Cinchonidin. 
„ cordifolia, R. et P. Quinin; Cinchonin. 
„ glandulifera, R. et P. Quinin. 
„ lancifolia, Mutis. Quinin; Cinchonidin. 
„ micrantlia, R. et P. Cinchonin; Quinidin; Huanokin. 
„ nitidaf R. et P. Cinchonin; Quinidin. 
„ officinalisy L. Quinin; Cinchonidin. 
„ Fahvdiana, How. Cinchonin. 
„ Peruviana, How. Cinchonin; Quinidin. 
„ pvbescens^ Vahl. Aricinzz Cinchonidin (Hesse). 
„ scrobiculatay H. et B. Quinin; Cinchonin. 
„ sucdruhra, Pav. Quinin; Cinchonidin; Quinidin; 
Paricin; Quinamin; Howard's Cinchona alkaloid. 
Ginckcmay several species. Bark: Quina-red; Phlobaphen; 

Quinic and Quino-tannic acids. 
Cinnamomwm Burmanni, Blume. Lauraceae. Bark : volatile oil. 
„ Camfiplwray F. Nees. Wood : camphor and volatile 

Cinna/momv/m Cojssia, Blume. Bark: volatile oil. 

„ Zeyh/nicumy C. G. Nees. Leaf, flower and bark: 

volatile oil. 
Cinna/nuym/wm CulikLban, Blume. Bark : volatile oil. 
Cissampelos Pareira, L. Menispermeae. Root; Bebirin. 
Cistus Creticua, L. C. ladaniferusy L.; C Ledon, Lam.; C, lauri- 
folius, L.; C. Monspeliensisy L. Cistacese. Exudation of 
branches : Labdanum. 
Citrus Aiurantium, L. Rutacese. Flower : volatile oil. — Unripe 
fruit and rind : Hesperidin. — Rind of ripe fruit : volatile oil. — 
Seed: Limonin. 
Citrus Awramiivmhy var. Bergamfiia, Riss. Rind of fruit : volatile 

Citrus Au/rantiwrriy var. dvlds, Volk. Rind of fruit: volatile oil. 
medica,lj. Rind of fruit: volatile oil. — Seed: Limonin. 
„ var. Limetta, Risso. Rind of fruit: volatile oil. 
Cladonia rangiferina, Hoflm. Lichenes. TJsnic acid. 

„ several species. Lichenin. 
Clematisy several species. Ranunculacese. Whole plant : volatile 

acrid substance. 
Coccoloba twifera, Jacq. Polygoneae. West Indian Kino. 



Cochlearia Armoraciay L. Cruciferae. Root: volatile oil. 

„ officinalis f L.; G. Anglica, L.; C. Danica, L. Herb: 

volatile oil. 
G0CO8 nudferay L. Palmacese. Seed : Cocos-fat with Laurostearin, 

Myristin, Caproic, Caprylic and Capric acids. 
Coffea Arabica, L. RubiacesB. Leaf and seed : Caffein ; Caffe- 

tannic and Quinic acids. 
Colchicum autumncde, L. Liliacese. Whole plant : Colchicin. — 

Seed : Sabadillic acid. 
Ccmiwrn rnacvlatimi, L. Umbelliferae. Whole plant : Coniin. — 

Flower and fruit : Coniin and Conhydrin. 
CcmvcUlaria majalis, L. Liliacese. Whole plant : Convallarin. — 

Root: Convallamarin. 
Gcmvohmlus Scanvmonia, L. ConvolvulacesB. Root : Jalapin. 

,, scopariuSy L. fil.; C» Jloridv^, L. fil. Stem and root: 

volatile oil. 
Copaifera, several species. Leguminosae. Exudation of stem : 

Copaivic and Metacopaivic acids; volatile oil. 
Copernicia cerifera, Mart. Palmacese. Covering of leaf : Canauba 

Coptis Teeta, Wall. Ranunculacese. Root: Berberin. 
Cordia Boissieri, A. DC. Asperifoliae. Wood : Anacahuit-tannic 

Cordyceps purpwrea, Fr. Fungi. Mycelium (ergot) : Ecbolin, 

Ergotin; Trimethylamin; Ergotinin; Ergoticacid; Mycose. 
Coriandrv/m sativum, L. Umbelliferge. Fruit: volatile oil. 
Coriaria myrtifolia, L. Phytolaccese. Leaf and fruit: Coriaria- 

Cornusjlorida, L. Comaceae. Root-bark: Comin. 
Corydalis fahaceay Pers.; C. tvherosa, Cand. Fumariacese. Root: 

Corylus Avellana, L. AmentacesB. Seed : fat-oil. 
Cosciniurrh fenesl/ratum, Colebr. Menispermese. Wood : Berberin. 
OoUmeaster vulgaris, Lindl. Rosacese. Flower : Amygdalin. 
Cratcegus cocdnea, L. Rosaceae. Flower: Trimethylamin. 
GratoBgus OxyoAxmtha, L. Flower: Trimethylamin: Amygdalin. 

— Bark of branches : Crataegin. 
Crepis fxtida, L. Compositae. Flower : Salicylous acid. 
Crocus sativus, L. Irideae. Pistil : volatile oil ; Crocin. 
CroUm Eleutlieria, Benn.; C. Sloanei, Benn. Euphorbiaceae. 

Bark: Cascarillin; volatile oil. 
OroUm erythrinwm, Mart. Furnishes Brazilian Kino. 

„ niveum, Jacq. Bark: Copalchin. 

„ Tiglium, L. Seed : fat-oil with Crotonol and Laurosteann. 
Gucwmis Colocynthis, L. Cucurbitaceae. Fruit: Colocynthin. 
„ Melo, L. Root: Melonemetin; cane-sugar. 
„ Pr&pheta/irvmy L. Fniit: Prophetin. * 


Cucurhita Pepo, L. Cucurbitace«. Seed : drying fat-oil. 

Guminwm Cyminurriy L. Umbelliferae. Fruit : volatile oil. 

Curcuma longa, L. Scitamineae. Root : Curcumin, volatile oil. 
„ Zedoaria, Roxb. Root : volatile oil. 

Cyclamen EuropcBum, L. Primulacese. Root: Cyclamin. 

Cyclopia latifolia, Cand. Leguminosse. Leaf: Quinic acid. 

CynoTiietra Sprucea7m,'B^iLth, Leguminosae. Exudation of stem: 
Brazilian Copal. 

Cyperus esculentus, L. Cyperacese. Root : fat-oil. 

Cytisus Laburnum f L. Leguminosse. Ripe seed: Cytisin. — Un- 
ripe seed: Laburnin. 

Cytisus scoparius, Link. Whole plant: Spartein; Scoparin. 

Dcemmwrops DracOy Mart. PalmacesB. Exudation of stem : 
Dragon's blood. 

Daldia purpurea, Poir. Compositae. Root : volatile oil. 

Daumthara australis, Lamb. Coniferse. Exudation of stem : Dam- 
mar resin with Dammaryl and Dammarylic acid. 

Darmnara orientaliSf Lamb. Exudation of stem: Dammar-resin. 

Daphne alpina, L. Thymeleoe. Bark : Daphnin. 
„ Gnidium, L. Seed: Coccognic acid. 
„ Mezereum, L. Bark : Daphnin. — Fruit : Coccognin and 
drying fat-oil. 

Datisca cannahina, L. DatiscacesB. Root: Datiscin. 

Datwra Stramxmiumy L. Solanacese. Whole plant : Daturin, 

Daucus C a/rota, L. CTmbelliferse. Root : volatile oil, Carotin, 

JDelesseria, several species. Algae. Lichenin. 

Delphinium Consolida, L. Ranunculacese. Herb : Aconitic=: 
Equisetic acid. 

Delphinium Staphisagria, L. Seed: Delphinin; Staphisagrin. 

Dicypelliwm coryophyllatwmy Nees. Lauraceae. Bark: volatile-oil. 

Digitalis lutea, L. Scrophularinae. Leaf: Digitaletin; Digitalin. 
„ purpurea, L. Leaf : Digitaletin ; Digitalin ; Digitoleic, 
volatile and non-volatile Digitalic acids; Inosit. 

Dipteroca/rpu8 turbinatus, Gaertn. ; D, incanus, Roxb. ; D, alatus, 
Roxb.; D, Zeylanicus, Thw. ; D, hiapidus, Thw..; D. trinervis, 
BL; D. gra^cUis, BL; D, littoralis, BL; D. retusus, Bl. Diptero- 
carpeae. Exudation of stem: Gurjunic acid; volatile oil. 

Dipteryx odorata, Schreb. Leguminosae. Seed : Cumarin. 

DoreTna amimoniacfwm, D. Don. TJmbelliferae. Exudation of stalk 
and root : Ammoniacum. 

Draccena Draco, L. Liliaceae. Exudation of stem : Dragon's blood. 

Drosera, many species. Droseraceee. Root and herb: Alizarin, 
or an allied substance. 

Dryobalanops Camphora, Colehr, Dipterocarpeae. Wood: Bomeol; 


Ecballion Elaterium, A. Rich. Cucurbitaceae. Fruit: Elaterid, 

Elaterin; Hydroelaterin ; Pectin. 
Elais Guineensis, Jacq. Palmacese. Pericarp: Palm-oil. 
Elettaria Cardamomwnty White. Scitaminese. Seed: volatile oil. 
Epacris species. Epacrideae. Leaf: Urson. 
EquiaHum JlAwiatile, L. Equisetacese. Whole plant: Flave- 

Equisetv/m, several species. Whole plant : Aconitic ( = Equisetic) 

Erica camea,Ti, Ericaceae. Whole plant: Ericinol; Ericolin. 
Erythrophlaeum Guinense, G. Don. Leguminosae. Bark: Ery- 

Erythroxylon Coca^ Lam. Linese. Leaf: Cocain: Hygrin; Coca- 

tannic acid. 
Eschacholtzia Califomica, Cham. Papaveracese. Whole plant: 

Chelerythrin; an acrid and a bitter alkaloid. 
Eucalyptus, many species. Myrtaceae. Leaf: volatile oil; Eu- 

calyptin; Eucalyptic acid. — Bark: Kino-tannic acid; Pyi'ocate- 

chin; Catechin. 
Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith. Botany Bay Kino. 
Eucalyptus rostrata, Schl. Port Phillip Kino. 

„ viminalis, Labill. Eucalyptus -manna with Melitose. 

Eugenia ca/ryophyllata, Thunb. Myrtaceae. Flower: volatile oil 

with Caryophyllic acid; Caryophyllin; Eugenin. 
Euonymus Europo/cus, L. Celastrineae. Seed : fat-oil. 
Eupatorium ca/nnahinum^ L. Compositse. Leaf and flower: 

Euphcyrhia resinifera. Berg. Euphorbiacese. Exudation of stalk : 

Euphrasia officirudisy L. Scrophularinae. Whole plant : Euphra- 

sia-tannic acid. 
Ewryangium Sumbul, KaufFm. Umbelliferae. Angelic acid. 
Evemia pruruistri, Ach. Lichenes. Evernic acid. 
Evemia, several species. Lichenin; Lecanoric and TJsnic acids. 
Exccecaria sehif&ra, J. M. Euphorbiaceae. Pericarp: vegetable 

tallow with Palmitin. 
FaMa/n/a imhricata, B. et P. Solanaceae. Flower : Crocin. 
Fagopyrwrn cymosum, Meissn.; F, ema/rgmat/wm, Meissn.; F, escu- 

lentu/m, Moench; F, Ta/rtaricwm, Gaertn. Polygoneae. Whole 

plant: variety of Indigo. 
Fojgus sUvatica, L. Amentaceae. Seed : fat-oil ; Trimethylamin. 
Ferula Asorfcetida, L.; F, alliacea, Boiss; F. Nartkex, Boiss. Um- 
belliferae. Exudation of stalk and root: Asafoetida; volatile oil. 
Ferula erubescens, Boiss. Exudation of stalk and root : Gal- 

banum; volatile oil. 
Ferula Persica, W. F, Szovitsia/iia, DC. Exudation of stalk and 

root* Sagapenum; volatile oil. 


Ficus eldstica, Roxb. Urticacese. Exudation of stem : Assam- 
Ficua rvbiginosa, Jy^i. Exudation of stem : Sycoretin; Sycoceryl 

Ficus avhracemosa, Blume; F, variegata, Blume; Exudation of 

stem: Getah-Lahoe. 
Fceniculum officinale, All. Umbelliferae. Fruit : volatile oil with 

Fragaria vesca, L. Rosacese. Fruit : Cisso-tannic acid. 
Fraodmis excelsior, L. Oleacese. Leaf: Quinic acid. — Bark: 

Fraodrms Omus, L. Exudation of stem : Mannit; Fraxin. 
Fumaria offi^nalis, L. Fumariacese. Whole plant : Fumarin. 
Galipea Cusparia, St. HiL Kutacese. Bark: Angusturin; vola- 
tile oil. 
Galiv/m Aparine, L. Rubiacese. Whole plant: Galium-tannic 

and Rubichloric acids. 
Galium MoUugo, L. Whole plant: Asperula-tannic, Quimc and 

Rubichloric acids. 
GaUwnh verum, L. Whole plant: Galium-tannic and Rubichloric 

Ga/rdnia Indica, Chois. Guttiferse. Seed: Brindonia-tallow. 
„ Mangostana, L. Exudation of stem: Mangostan-resin. 

— Pericarp: Mangostin. 
Gardnia pictoria, Roxb.; G, Morella, Desr.; G. Cochinchinensis, 

Chois. Exudation of stem : Gamboge. 
Gardenia grandiflora, Lour.; G, ludda, Roxb. Rubiacese. Pods: 

Gavltiera procumbens, L. Ericaceae. Whole plant : volatile oil 

with Methyl-salicylate. 
Gelsemiwm nitidum, Michaux. Loganiacese. Whole plant : Gel- 

semin, -^sculin. 
Gentianfia lutea,Jj, Gentianese. Root; Gentiano-picrin (zzGen- 

tiamarin); (xentianin. 
Geoffiroya iTiermis, Wright. Leguminosae. Bark; Berberin. 

„ Surinamensis, Bondt. Bark: Surinamin. 
Geranium, many species. Geraniacese. Root : Geraniin. 
Geum urhanum, L. Rosaceae. Root : volatile oil. 
Ginkgo hiloha, Salisb. Coniferse. Fruit : Butyric and Ginkgoic acids. 
Glau^num luteum, Bco]). Papaveracese. Herb: Glaucin; Fumaric 

acid. — Root: Chelerythrin; Glaucopicrin. 
Glohularia Alypum, Jj, Scrophularinse. Leaf: Globularin; Glo- 

bularisB resin; Globularia-tannic acid. 
Glycyrrhiza echinata, L.; G. glabra, L. Leguminosae. Root: 

Glycyrrhizin; Asparagin. 
Gratiola officinalis, L.; G. Peruviana, L. Scrophularinae. Whole 

plant: Gratiolin; Gratiosolin, 


Cruaiacum officinale , L.; G, sanctum, L. Zygophyllese. Exuda- 
tion of stem: Guaiacum-resin with Guaiacum beta-resin; Guaia- 

cum yellow; Guaiacic, Guaiaconic and Guaiaretic acids. 
GypsophUa Struthimfrif L. Caryophylleae. Root: Saponin. 
Hcematoxylon Campechianwmy L. Leguminosse. Wood: Hsema- 

ffcigenia Ahysdnuxb, JjajDOBXck, Rosacese. Flower: Koussin; Ha- 

genic acid. 
Hancomia spedosaf Gomes. Apocyneae. Pemambuco Caoutchouc. 
Hedera Helix, L. Araliacese. Leaf: Quinic acid. — Seed : Hedera- 

tannic and Hederic acids. 
Hedwigia haha/mifera, Sw. Burseraceae. Balsam and volatile oil. 
Helianthua ammius, L. Compositse, Seed : diying fat oil ; Helian- 

thic acid. 
HeUeborus niger, L. ; H, viridis, L. Kanunculacese. Root : Helle- 

borin; Helleborein. 
Heracl&wm SpJwndyliwniy L. TJmbellifersB. Fruit : Capryl-alcohol ; 

Hera^leimi vUlosimi, Fischer. Fruit: Capryl-acetate; Capryl-buty- 

Hemiaria glabra^ L. Paronychiese. Whole plant : Cumarin. 
Hesperis matronalisj L. Cruciferae. Seed : drying fat-oil. 
Hevea Guianensis, Aubl. and other species. Euphorbiacese. Ex- 
udation of stem : best Para-Caoutchouc. 
ffierocIUoa borealisy Roem. et Sch. Graminese. Whole plant: 

ffiUia spectahUis, Fr. Vand. Rubiaceae. Exudation of stem : 

Hippophae rluiminoides, L. Elseagneae. Fruit : Quercetin. 
Hordeum vidgare, L. Gramineae. Fruit : Hordein. — Germinated 

fruit (malt): Asparagin; Aspartic acid ; Diastase; Cholestearin. 
HumuLus , Lupvlus, L. XJrticacese. Leaf and flower : Lupulin ; 

Trimeihylamin ; volatile oil. 
Hura crepitans, L. Euphorbiaceae. Exudation of stem : Hurin. 
Hyhanihus Ipeca^cuanha, F. v. M. Yiolacese. Root: Emetin. 
Hydrastis Canadensis, L. Ranunculacese. Root: Berberin; Hy- 

Hym&ncea Candolleana, H. et B. ; H. confertijlora. Mart. ; H. ccmr 
fertifolia, Hayne; H. Courbaril, L. ; H. latifolia, Hayne; H, 

Martiana, Hayne; H, Olfersiana, Hayne; H, rotundata, Hayne; 

H. stilbocar]^, Hayne; //. Sellowiana, Hayne; H. venosa, Vahl. 

Leguminosse. Exudation of stem : Copal. 
Hyoscyamus niger, L. Solanaceae. Whole plant : Hyoscyamin. 

— Seed: fat-oil. 
Hyssojms offidncdis, L. LabiatsB. Whole plant : volatile oil. 
latefyrrMza palmata, Miers. Menispermese. Root : Berberin ; 

Colombui; Colombic acid. 


latropha Curcas, L. Euphorbiace». Seed : &tK)il (Glyoerids of 

Bicinoleic and Isooetic acids). 
Idea heptaphyUa, Aubl. Burseracese. Anime-Tacamahao (Batka). 
Ilex Aquifoliium, L. Aquifoliacese. Leaf: Ilicin; Ilixanthin; 

Uicic and Quinic acids; Yiscin. 
Ilex Cassine, L. Leaf: Coffein. 

„ Pa/ragiiensis, St. HiL Leaf : Coffein ; Coffeic and Quinic 
lUiciwn cmieatwm, L. Magnoliacese. Fruit : volatile oil; with 

Imbricaria coriacea, A. DC. Sapotace®. Yields part of the 

Madagascar gutta-percha. 
Indigqfera Anil, L.; /. argerUea, L.; /. tinctoria, L. Leguminosse. 

"Wliole plant: Indigo. 
Initial HdeniwnhyJj, CompositsB. Root: Helenin; Inulin. 
Icnidium IpeccbCfuanha, Vent. Violacese. Root : Emetin. 
Ipomasa Orizahensis, Steud. Convolvulacese. Root: Convolvulin. 
„ Furga, Wender. Root: Convolvulin. 
„ Turpethvm, R. Br. Root: Turpethin. 
Iris FlorerUina, L. Lidese. Root: Mjristic acid. 
Irvingia Barteri, J. Hook. Simarubese. Seed (Dica-bread) : 

Dica-fat, with Laurostearin and Myristin. 
Isatis indigqfera, Fort.; /. tinctoria, L.; and other species. 

Crudfene. Whole plant: Indican. 
Isanandra GvMa, Hook. Sapotaceae. Exudation of stem : gutta- 
J^ersonia diphylUiy Bart Berberidese. Root : Berberin. 
Jugh/na regiajJj. Juglandese. Green pericarp : Nucin; Nucitannin; 

Regianin. — ^Seed: fat-oil. 
Jvmpervs oomnvwrm, L. Coniferse. Fruit: Juniperin; volatile oil. 
„ Sabina, L. Branches : volatile oil. 
„ Virginianay L. "Wood : volatile oil with Cedren and 

Khaya Senegalensiay A. Juss. Meliacese. Bark : Cailcedrin. 
Krwmeria tfriamd/ra, R. et P. ; K, iodna, L. ; K, secundi/lora, DC. 

Poljgaleae. Root : Ratanhia-tannic acid ; Tyrosin. 
lAicttica sativa, L.; L, virosa, L. Compositse. Exudation of 

stalk (Lactucarium) : Lactucin; Lactucerin; Succinic acid. 
Ladenhergia, several species. Rubiacese. Bark: Paytin. 
Lgietia apetala, Jacq. Bixacese. Exudation of stem: Laetia- 

Laserpitivm latifoliv/m, L. TJmbelliferae. Root : Laserpitin. 
La/wruB ruMlM, L. Lauracese. Fruit : fat-oil, with Laurostearin 

and Laurie acid; volatile oiL 
La/oa/nduUi a/ngustifolia, Ehrh. ; L, latifoliaf Yill. ; L. StoediaSy L. 

Labiatae. Flower: volatile oil. — ^Whole plant: volatile oil. 

' s 


Lecanoray several species. Lichenes. Lecanoric and ITsmc acids ; 

Lecanora PareUa, Achar. Parellin. 

„ Tarta/reaf Achar. Erythric and Roccellic acids. 
Ledwrn pcUvstre, L. Ericaceae. Whole plant : volatile oil with 

Ericinol; Ericolin; Ledum-tannic acid. 
Leontice tficUictraicles, L. BerberidesB. Root : Berberin. 
Lepidiwm, several species. Cruciferse. Whole plant : Lepidin ; 

volatile oil. — Seed : Drying oil. 
Liatris odoratiasimay Wild. Compositae. Whole plant : Cumarin. 
Liguatn'wm wlga/re, L. Oleaceae. Leaf : Quinic acid. — Bark : 

LimoseUa aquatica, L. Scrophularinse. Boot : Cyclamin. 
Linwm usitatissimum, L. Lineae. Seed : drying oil with Linoleic 

acid; mucilage. 
lAquidamha/r orientalis, Mill. Saxifragese. Exudation of stem: 

Styrol; Styracin; Cinnamic acid. 
Liriodendron tidipifera, L. Magnoliaceae. Boot-bark : Lirioden- 

Lobelia inflatay L. Campanulacese. Whole plant : Lobeliin ; 

Lonicera xyhsteuniy L. Caprifoliaceae. Fruit : Xylosteiu. 
Lucuma glycyphlaeay Mart, et Eichl. Sapotaceae. Bark : Glycyr- 

rhizin; Saponin. 
LuGwma Fa/rkiiy B. Br. Seeds : Shea^butter. 
Ltmanea Biddy DC. Sterculiaceae. Fruit : Coffein. 
Lupinns cdbusy L.j L, luteusy L. and other species. Legiimino;:;ae. 

Seed: Lupinin. 
Lychnis Gitliagoy Lam. Caryophylleae. Seed: Agrostemmin; 

Lycopodium Cliamcecypcmssusy Al. Br. Lycopodiaceee. Whole 

plant: Lycopodiamarin j Lycopodium-stearon; Lycopodium- 

Lycopodiwni complcmatwniy L. Whole plant : Tartaric acid. 
Lycopvs EuropceuSy L. Labiatse. Herb : volatile oil. 
Madura tinctoria, D. Don. Urticaceae. Wood: Morin; Morus- 

tannic acid. 
Madia sativa, Mol. Compositse. Seed : drying oil. 
MaginxMa umbrdlay Lam. Magnoliaceae. Fruit : MagnoHn. 
MaUottia PhilippinensiSy J. M. Euphorbiacese. Fruit hairs and 

glands (Kamala): Bottlerin. 
Ma/rrvbium viUgare, L. Labiatae. Whole plant : Marrubiin. 
Matricaria ChmwmiUa, L. Compositae. Flower: volatile 

Mdaleuca Leucadendrony L. and many other species. Myrtaceas. 

Foliage : volatile oil. 


Melampyrum v/emorosum, L. Scrophularmse. Whole plant: 

Mdilotua officmaliB, Desr. Legaminosae. Whole plant: Cumarin. 
Mdissa offidnalia, L. Labiatse. Whole plant : volatilei oil. 
Mentha austraUs^ R. Br.; M, gracilis , R. Br.; M, laoeijloraf Bth.; 

M, piperita, L.; M, Pvlegium, L.; M, viridis, L. ; and other 

species. LabiatsB. Whole plant: volatile oil. 
Menyanthea trifdiata^ L. Grentianese. Whole plant : Menyanthin. 
Mercwrialia annua, L. Euphorbiacese. Whole plant: volatile 

oil; Mercnrialin. 
Mika/nia Gvxico, H. et B. Compositse. Leaf : Guacin. 
Mimusopa Elengi, L. Sapotacese. Yields part of the Indian 

Mimusopa ManiXkara, G. Don. Yields part of the China and 

Manilla gutta-percha. 
Monarda didyma, L. Labiatse. Flower: Oarmic acid, or an 

allied one. 
Mamarrda pimctoitaj L. Whole plant : volatile oil with Thymol. 
Monnina polystachyaj R. et P. Polygaleae. Root : Saponin. 
ManoPropa Hypopitya, L. Ericaceae. Whole plant: volatile oil 

with Methyl-salicylate. 
Morinda citrifolia, L. Rubiacse. Root : Morindin. 
Moringa oleijfera, Lam.; M. aptera, Gsertn. Moringacese. Seed: 

fat-oil, with Benic and Moringic acids. 
Myrica ceri/era, L.; M, cordijblia, L.; M, querd/olia, L.; M. aerrata, 

Lam. Amentaceae. Fruit : Myrica-wax with Palmitin and 

Myrica Gale, L. Leaf: volatile oil. 
Myriatica Bicahyba, Schott. Myristicese. Seed: Bicahyba-fat 

with volatile oil. 
Myriatica fragrana, Houtt. Pericarp (mace): fat; volatile oil. — 

Seed (nutmeg) : fat with Mjristin and volatile oil. 
Myriatica Otaba, H. et B. Seed : Otaba-fat with volatile oil. 
„ aehifera, Sw. Seed : Virola-tallow with volatile oil. 
Myroxylon Fereirce, Kl. Leguminosae. Exudation of stem (black 

balsam of Peru): Resin; Styracin; Benzyl-cinnamate; Cinnamic 

acid. — Fruit-juice (white balsam of Peru) : Myroxocarpin. 
MyroQcylon toLuifeffwm, L. fil. Fruit : Cumarin. — Exudation of 

stem (balsam of Tolu): Resin; Tolen; Cinnamic acid. 
Myrtua covmrnjima, L. Myrtacese. Foliage, flower and fruit: 

volatile oil. 
Nanrdaaua JcmquiUa, Jj. Amaryllidese. Flower: volatile oil. 
Nanihedwm oaaifragvmi, Huds. Liliaceae. Herb : Narthecin ; 

Nai'thecic acid. 
Naatwrtiwm officinale^ L. Cruciferae. Herb : volatile oil. 
Nectandra Rodid, ^(^Gw}^, Lauracese. Bark: Bebirin; Sipirin; 

Bebiric acid, 


Nerium Oleamdm\ L. Apocjmeae. Flower: Salicylous acid. — 

Foliage and branches : Oleandrin; Pseudocurarin. 
Nicotiana, many species. Solanaceae. Whole plant: Niootin; 

Nicotiana Tabacwniy L. Seed : fat-oil. 

NigeUa sativa, L. Kanunculac^se. Seed : Nigellin ; volatile oil. 
Nigritdla cmgvsti/olia, Rich. Orchideae. Whole plant : Cumarin. 
Odmvjm BaaUicuin, L. Labiatse. Whole plant : Basilicum- 

Ocotea Fichurim, Kunth. Lauracea). Fruit: fat-oil with Lauro- 

stearin and Laurie acid. 
Oenanthe FheHandriu/m, Lam. TJmbelliferae. Seed : volatile oU. 
Olea Europcea, L. Oleaceae. Whole plant: Olivamarin. — Fruit; 

fat-oil. — Exudation of stem: Olivil. 
Ononis spinoaayJj, LeguminossB. Boot: Ononid; Onocerin. 
Ophdia Chirata, Griseb. Gentianeae. Whole plant: Chiratin; 

Ophelic acid. 
Opopanaac Chironiwmj Koch. XJmbelliferae. Exudation of stalk 

and root : Opopanax. 
Orchis^ many species. Orchideae. Tuber: Mucilage. 

„ hirdnaf Sw. Flower: Caproic acid. 

„ pit/rpn/rea, Huds. Whole plant: Cumarin. 
Origanimi Majorcmay L. Labiatae. Whole plant : volatile oil. 

„ vudga/re, L. Whole plant: volatile oil. 
Oamitopsis ast&i'iacoideSy Cass. Cpmpositse. Flower: volatile oil. 
Othonna furcata^ Benth. Compositse. Exudation of stem: 

Fa/paver Ehceas, L. Papaveracese. Whole plant: Morphin; 

Hhoeadin and probably also Thebain. 
Fa/paver somniferimhy L. Seed: drying oil. — Exudation of peri- 
carp: Codein; Metamorphin; Morphin; Narcein; Narcotin; 

Opianin; Papaverin; Porphyroxin; Pseudo-morphin; Thebain; 

Lanthopin; Meconidin; Codamin; Laudanin; Meconin; 

Meconic acid. 
Fa/ria qvadrifoliaj L. Liliacese. Whole plant : Paridin. 
Fa/nnelia parietina, Ach. Lichenes. Chrysophanic acid. 
„ many species. Lichenin; Usnic acid. 
„ phyaodes, Ach. Physodin; Ceratophyllin. 
Fastinaca sativa, L. Umbelfiferse. Fruit: Capryl-butyrate. 
FauMinia aorbUis, Mart. Sapindacese. Fruit : Coffein. 
Fayena macrophyUa, Benth. Sapotaceae. Yields part of the 

Java gutta-percha. 
Fega/mim Harmala, Jm Rutaceae. Seed: Harmalin; Harmin. 
Fela/rgonium odorcUissirmmif Ait.; F. RaduUiy Ait.; P. capitaMumy 

Ait. Geraniaceae. Leaf and flower : Pelargonic acid ; volatile 

Feltophorum lArmcei, Bth, Leguminosse. Wood: Brasilin. 


Perezia Humbcldtij A. Gr. Compositse. Eoot : Pipitzahoic acid. 
Fertu8(vria comrmmisy Frie& Lichenes. Picrolichenin; Yario- 

Peucedcmum galbcmiferwiny BentL Umbelliferse. Exudation of 

stalk and root : Galbanum with volatile oil. 
Feucedanwm officinale^ L. Root : Peucedanin. 

„ Oreoadinumy Cuss. Foliage: volatile oil. — Boot: 

Athamantin; Valerianic acid. 
Peucedanum Ostruthium^ Koch. Root: volatile oil; Ostruthin; 

Pha/rhitis NUy Choisj. Convolvulaceae. Seed : Convolvulin. 
PhaseoLus wlgarisy L. Leguminosse. Unripe fruit : Inosit. — Seed : 

PhUaddphv^ cor(ma/nu8^ L. SaxifragesB. Flower: volatile oil. 
PhiUyrea latifoliay L.; Ph, anguatifoliuy L. Oleacese. Bark: 

Physalia Alkekengi, L. Solanacese. Leaf : Physalin. 
Phyaostigma veTherwamifiy Balf. Leguminosae. Seed: Physo- 

Picrcena excelaa, LindL Simarubese. Wood and bark : Quassiin. 
Picramnia cUiata, Mart. Simarubese. Bark: Pereirin. 
Pimenta offidncdia, lAiidl. Myrtaceae. Fruit : volatile oil. 
Pimpinella Aniaum, L. Umbelliferse. Fruit: volatile oil, with 

Pimpinella nigra, L. Root : volatile oil. 

„ Saodfraga, L. Root : volatile oil. 

Pinckneya puJ)ena, Rich. Rubiacese. Bark: Aribin. 
Pinua Abiea, Du Roi ConifersB. Wood and bark : Formic acid. — 

Seed: fat-oil. 
Pimua halaamfieay L.3 P. Fraaeriy Pursch. Canada-balsam. 
La/mbertiana, Dougl. Exudation of stem : Pinit. 
LoArix, L. Exudation of stem: Melezitose; Venetian 

Pinua, many species. Whole plant and exudation of stem: 

Abietic acid; volatile oil; Coniferin. 
Pimca Picea, Du Roi. Seed : drying oil. 

„ SaMniana, Dougl. Exudation of stem: Abieten; resin. 

„ ailveainia, L, Wood : Pityxylonic acid. — Foliage ; Pinopicrin ; 

Quinovic acid; Oxypino-tannic, Pino-tannic and Tanno-pinic 

acids. — Bark: Pino-picrin; Pino-corretin; Phlobaphen; Cor- 

ticipino-tannic, Pinocortic-tannic and Tannocortici-pinic acids. — 

Seed : drying oil. 
Piper offiguatifclium, R. et P. PiperaceaB. Leaf: volatile oil. 

„ CiMba, L, fil.; Fruit: volatile oil; Cubelin; stearopten. 

„ longuniy L.; P. officxnarwm, C. DC. Fruit: Piperin. 

y, meihyaticy/nh, Forst. Root: Methysticin. 

„ nigrum, L. Fruit: Piperin; volatile oil. 



Piatada LerUiscuSf L. Anacaixiiacese. Exudation of stem: 

Piatada Terebinthus, L. Exudation of stem : turpentine of Chios. 
Pisum sathrumi, L. Leguminosae: Unripe fruit: Inosit; 

Pittosporwm v/ndvlcUwrriy Vent. Pittosporese. Flower: volatile 

oil. — ^Bark: Pittosporin; Viscin. 
Plantago decumhens, Forsk. Plantaginse. Seed : mucilage. 
Platan/U8 orientcUiSy L. Platanese. Bark : Phlobaphen. 
Plumbago Europceay L. Plumbaginse. Root: Plumbagin. 
Podophylkmi peltxjbtwm,, L. Berberideae. Root: Berberin; Saponin. 
Pdygaia Senega, L. Polygaleae. Root: Saponin. 
Pdygonum avicularey L.; P, harba^wniy L. ; P. Ghinenae, L.; 

P, tinctoriitm, Lour. Polygonese. Whole plant : Indigo. 
Pdygonum Hydropiper, L. Whole plant : Polygonic acid ; volatile 

acrid principle. 
Polylophiwm GaXbanumy F. v. M. UmbellifersB. Exudation of 

stem and root : Galbanum with volatile oil. 
Pdypodiwm vulga/re, L. Filices. Root : Glycyrrhizin and Saponin 

or allied substances. 
PdypoTvs offidrudisy Fries. Fungi. Laricin; Agaric acid. 
Papulusy several species. Amentacese. Whole plant : Populin ; 

Salicin. — Leaf buds : volatile oil. 
PotentiMa TormentiUay Sibth. Rosaceae. Root : Ellagic acid. 
Primula auriculay L. Primulaceae. Root : Auricula stearopten. 

„ verisy L Root : PrimulinzzCyclamin. 
Proatanthera ladantlu>8y Labill.; P. rotundi/oliay R. Br. La- 

biatae. Leaf : volatile oil. 
Prwmia AmygdalvSy J. Hk. RosacesB. Seed : Amygdalin ; 

Emulsin; Synaptase; fat-oil. 
Prunua Ceraauay L. Seed: Amygdalin. — Exudation of stem : gum. 
domeaticay\k. Seed: Amygdalin. — Exudation of stem: gum. 
Lawroceraauay L. Leaf and seed : Amygdalin. 
Mahaleby L Bark: Cumarin. 
Padua, L. Leaf, flower, bark, seed: Amygdalin. 
Peraica, J. Hook. Leaf and seed : Amygdalin. Exudation 

of stem: gum. 
Prwrma api/noaay L. Flower, seed : Amygdalin. 

„ Virginia/nay L. Bark: Amygdalin. 
Paychotria emstica, Mutis. Rubiaceae. Root: Emetin. 
Pteroca/rpua DracOy L. Leguminosae. Exudation of stem : Dragon's 

Pterocarpua eriruiceuSy Poiret. Exudation of stem : West African 

Pteroca/rpua Ma/raupium, Rxb. Exudation of stem (Malabar and 

Amboina-Eino) : Catechuic and Kino-tannic acids. 
Pteroca/rpua aa/atalirmay L. fll. Wood: Santalin; Santal. 


Punica GrancUwnij L. Lythraceae. Fruit and root: Tannic 

acid; Mannit. 
Fyrda vmbeUata, L. Ericaceae. Whole plant : Ghimaphilin. 
Pyras Aria, Elirh.; P. torminalisy EhrL Rosacese. Flower: 

Pyrus auGwpania,, Graertn. Flower: Amygdalin; Trimethylamin. 

— Fruit: Sorbin, 
Pyrus communis J L. Flower : Trimethylamin. 

„ Cydonia^ L. Seeds: mucilage. 

„ Malus, L. Boot-bark: Phlon*hizin. 
Quassia a/moura, L. Simarubese. Wood and bark : Quassiin. 
Quercus cocdnea, Wang. Amentacese. Bark: Quercitrin. 
„ Ilex, L. Leaf: Quinic acid or an allied acid. 
„ infectoria, Oliv. Galls of branches: Ellagic and Gallo- 

tannic acids. 
Quercus Pobitry Ij, Fruit: Quercit; volatile oil. — Bark: Quercin; 

Tannic acid. 
Qvsrcus Suber, L. Bark : Cork substance. 
QuUIc^a Saponaria, Mol. Bosacese. Boot : Saponin. 
RcmiaMnay several species. Lichenes. Licheninj Usnic acid. 
Ranunculus hufhosus, L.; R. Fla/m/mvla, L.; R, scderaUis, L. 

Banunculacese. Whole plant: Anemonic acid; Anemonin. 
Ranunculus, many species. Whole plant: volatile acrid matter. 
Reseda Lutecla, 1m Besedacese. WTiole plant: Luteolin. — Seed: 

Reseda odorata, L. Flower : volatile oil. 
Rhcminus catha/rticu8,Ij, Bhamnacese. Fruit: Bhamno-cathartin; 

Bhamnin; Bhamno-xanthin; Bhamno-tannic acid. — Bark of 

stem and root: Bhamno-xanthin. 
Rha/mnus FrangtUa, L. Fruit, bark of stem and root : Bhamno- 
Rhamnus pnmifolius, Sbth.j R. infectorius, L.; R, saotxUilis, L.; R, 

amiygdalinus, Desf.; R, oleoides, L.; R Grcecus, Beut. Fruit: 

Chryso-rhamnin; Quercetin; Xanthorhamnin. 
Rheum ausi/raXe, D. Don. Polygonese. Boot : Emodin. 
Rheum officinale, Baill., and several other species. Boot : 

Chrysophanic acid; Aporetin; Erythroretin; Phseoretin. 
RhmaMhus major, Ehrh. Scrophularinse. Seed : Bhinanthin. 
Rhododemdrwh ferrugineum, L. Ericaceae. Leaf : Ericinol ; Eri- 

colin; Bhodotannic acid. 
Rhus coriaria, L. Anacardiacese. Bark : Gallotannic acid. 

„ semialata, Marr. Galls of branches : Tannic acid. 

„ sticceda/nea, L. Fruit, leaf and branches: Japanese wax 

with Falmitin. 
Rhus toxicodendron, L. Leaf : Bhoitannic ajcdd. 
Tribes T7Jihrwm,XL Saxifrageae. Boot-bark : Phlorrhizin. 
Richa/rdsonia scahra, St. Hil. Bubiacese. Boot : Emetin. 


RicinuB (xmyrmmisy L. Euphorbiacese. Seed: Ricmin; fat-oil 

witli Isocetic and Bicinoleic acidis. 
Eobinia Pseudacadaj L. Leguminosse. Flower : Eobinin. — Un- 
ripe fruit : Inosit. 
Boccdlafuciformisy Acli. Lichenes. Roccellic and Erythric acids. 

„ tinctoria, Cand. Roccellinin. 
RoccelUiy several species. Lecanoric acid; Orcin. 
Rosa centifolia, L. ; R. Damascena, Mill. ; R, moscluita, Mill. ; R. 

Indica, L.; R, sempervirens, L. Rosacese. Flower: volatile oil. 
Roama/rinus offidncdia, L. Labiatse. Leaf and flower: volatile oil. 
RvMa tinctonmi, L. Bubiacese. Herb : Rubichloric and Rubi- 

tannic acids. — Root: Chlorogenin; Xanthin; Alizarin; Por- 

purin; Ruberythric acid; Rubiacin; Rubian; Rubiretin; 

Verantin ; Erythrozym ; Riibichloric acid. 
Rvhus Idceusy L, Rosacese. Fruit : Raspberry-stearopten. 
RvmneXy many species. Polygoneae. Root : Chrysophanic add. 
Ruta graveolenSy L. Rutacese. Whole plant: volatile oil; Rutin. 
SawJmrum offidna/rum, L. Gramineae. Stalk : Cane-sugar ; 

Salix, many species. Amentacese. Whole plant: Salicin. 
Salvia officinalis, L. Labiatse. Whole plant : volatile oil. 
Samiadera Indica, Gserhi. Simarubese. Bark : Samaderin. 
Sambucibs nigra, L. Caprifoliacese. Flower : volatile oil. 
Sanguina/ria Oanadensis, L. Papaveraceae. Whole plant: 

Chelerythrin. — Root: Porphyroxin; Puccin. 
Sapindus Saporuvria, L. Sapindaceae. Fruit: Saponin; Formic 

and Butyric acids. 
Soipona/ria officinalis, L. Caryophylleae. Herb and root: 

Sassctfras officinale, "HAjne. Lauracese. Root: volatile oil. 
Scahiosa sucdsa, L. Dipsacese. Root : green acid. 
Schoenocavlon cfficinale, A. Gray. Liliacese. Seed: Sabadillin; 

Veratrin; Sabadillic and Yeratric acids. 
Scrophndaria aquatica, L.; S, nodosa, L. ScrophularinesB. Whole 

plant: Scrophularin. 
Sedum acre, L. Saxifragese. Whole plant : Rutin. 
Semecarpus Anaca/rdiwm, L. fll. and other species. Anacar- 

diacese. Pericarp: Cardol. 
Sempervivwm. tectorwm, L. Saxifragese. Leaf: Formic acid. 
Sesa/rawm Indicv/m, L. Pedalinese. Seed : fat-oil. 
Sideroxyhn attefrmatvmi, A. DC. Sapotacese, Yields part of the 

Lidian and also Philippine gutta-percha. 
Sideroocylon Muelleri, J. Hook. Exudation of stem: Batata. 
Simaba Cedron, Planch. Simarubese. Fruit: Cedrin. 
Sima/ryha a/mara, Aubl. SimarubeeB. Wood, bark : Quassiin. 
Sindora, several species. Leguminosse. Balsam of Sindor (also 

obtained from species of Dipterocarpus). 


Sisi/mbrium AUiaria, Scop. Crucifer». Herb: volatile oil. — 

Boot: volatile oil. 
Smilax China, L.; S. cordato-ovcUa, Rich.; S. medica, Cham. et. 

Schl.; S. officinalis, Humb.; S. papi/iracea, Duh.; S, Farhampuiy 

Ruiz. Liliacese. Boot: Smilacin. 
Smilax glycyphyUa, Smith. Leaves : Glycyphyllin. 
Solanwm Dxdcamuvra, L. Solanaceae. Stalk: Dulcamarin; 

Sdanwni nigrum, L. Fruit: Solanin. 

„ panicuUUumy Jj, Fruit: Jurubebin. 

„ tyherosvm, L. Fruit: Solanin. — Germs: Solanin; 

Inosit. — ^Tuber: Starch. 
Solanv/m, verbasdfolivmfi, L. Fruit : Solanin. 
Sophora Japonica, L. LeguminosaB. Flower buds : Butin. 
Spirasa AruncuSy L.; S, Japonica, L. fil.; S, sorbifolia, L. Bosacese. 

Leaf: Amygdalin. 
Spircea Ulmaria, L. Flower: volatile oil; Spiwea-yellow; Sali- 

cylous and Salicylic acids. 
Squamiaria degans, Hoffm. Lichenes. Chrysophanic acid. 
Sticta, many species. Lichenes. Lichenin. 
Strophanthua hispidus, DC. Apocynese.* Seed : Strophanthine 
Strychnoa colvhrina, L Loganiacese. "Wood: Brucin; Strychnin. 
„ Guianensis, Mart. Curare : Curarin. 
„ Ignatia, Berg. Seed: Brucin; Strychnin. 
„ Nux vomica,!!, Bark^seed: Brucin; Strychnin; Malic 
Si/rychno8 Tieute, Lesch. Root: Brucin; Strychnin. 
Styrax Benzoin, Dryand. Styraceae. Exudation of stem: Ben- 
zoin with Benzoic acid. 
Styrax officinalis, L. Exudation of stem : Storax. 
S'itringa wlqaris, L. Oleacese. Flower: volatile oil. — Leaf and 

fruit: Syringi^.-Bark: Syrmgin; Syringo-picrin. 
Tagetes glandvliferay SchraiU^. Compositse. Herb and flower: 

volatile oil. 
Taniarindus Indica, L. Leguminosse. Fruit: Tartaric, Citric, 

Acetic acids; sugar; Pectin. 
Tcmacetum wlgare, L. Compositse. Herb and flower: volatile 

Tcmghinia venenifera, Poir. Apocynese. Seed : Tanghinin. 
Ta/raacacumi officinale, "Web. Compositse. Leaf: Inosit. 
Taxus baccata, L. Coniferse. Leaf: Taxin. 
Tetrcmtliera calophylla, Miq. Lauracese. Fruit : Fat with Lauro- 

Teucrium Marum, L. Labiates. Whole plant: Marum-stearopten. 
Theobroma Cacao, L. Sterculiacese. Seed: Theobromin; Cacao- 
TJievetia Ycotli, A. de Cand. Apocynese. Seeds : Thevetosin. 



Thlaspi a/rvense, L. CrucifersB. Herb and seed : volatile oil. 
Thuya ocddentcdis, L. ConifersB. Green parts : volatile oil. 
Thymus SerpUlwm, L. Labiatse. Whole plant : volatile oil. 
„ mUgariSf L. Wbole plant: volatile oil with Cymen^ 

TbjmBn, Thymol. 
Tilia .Ev/ropcea, L. TiUaceae. Flower : volatile oil. 
Trachylobium Gcertnenanvmi, Hayne; T. Homemanni, Hayne. 

Leguminosse. Exudation of stem : Copal. 
Triticimb repens, L. Graminese. Root : Triticin. 

„ vtdgare, Yill, Fruit ; Starch ; Gluten with Glutin, 

Mucin, &c. 
Trapmolwm majus, L. GeraniacesB. Whole plant : Tropseolic 

acid. — Seed : volatile oil. 
Ulmus camfipeatris, L. TJrticacese. Leaf: Quinic acid or one allied* 

„ fvlva, Mich. Bark: mucilage. 
Uricaria Gambir^ Roxb.; U, adda, Roxb. Rubiaceae. Leaf: 

Catechu-tannic and Catechuic acids ; Quercetin. 
Urceola elastica, Roxb. Apocynese. Borneo and Sumatra caout- 
Urginia Scilla, Bteinh. Liliacese. Tuber: Scillitin; mucilage. 
Urtica urens, Jj.' TJrticacese. Leaf : Formic acid. 
Usneajlorida, Hoffm. Lichenes. Usnic acid. 
Umea, several species. Lichenin. 

Vacdnium MyrtiUuSy L. Ericaceae. Whole plant : Quinic acid. 
VaJiea gvAmniferay Lam.; F. Madagascariensis, Bojer. Apocynese. 

Exudation of stem : Madagascar caoutchouc. 
Vahea Comorensis, Bojer. Anjonan caoutchouc. 

„ Jlorida (Landolphia florida, Benth.) Niger caoutchouc, 
with other Yaheas of the section Landolphia. 

„ Heudelotii (Landolphia Heudelotii, A. DC). Cazamanca 

„ Owariensis (Landolphia Owariensis, Beauv). West- African 
caoutchouc ; Dambonit. 

„ SenegalensiSy A. DC. Senegambia caoutchouc. 
Valeria/na offidnodis, L. Valerianese. Herb: Valerianic acid. — 

Root : volatile oil with Bomeen and Bomeol ; Valerianic and 

Valeriana-tannic acids. 
Vanilla aromatica, Sw. ; F. Guianensis, Splitg.j F. plani/olia, 

Andr.; F. saliva, Lindl. Orchidese. Fruit: Vanillic acid. 
Variolaria, many species. Lichenes. Lecanoric acid; Orcin. 
Vateria Indica, L. Dipterocarpese. Fruit : Vateria tallow. — 

Veratrum album, Jj,; V, viride, Alton, Liliacese. Root: Jervin; 

Sabadillic acid. 
Vincetoxicum officinale, Moench. Asclepiadeae. Root: Asclepiadin. 
Viola odorata, L. Violacese. Whole plant : Violin. 
Viicum album, L, Loranthaceae. Fruit, foliage and branches: Viscin. 


Vitex Affrnia castus, L. Verbenacese. Seed : Castin. 

Vitis quinq%iefolia, Lam. Viniferse. Red autumnal leaf: Cisso- 

tannic acid and Pyrocatechin. 
Vitis vinifei'a, L. Fniit: Oenolin; Tartaric and Racemic acids. — 

Seed: fat-oil. 
Vouapa phaseolocarpa, Hayne. Leguminosse. Exudation of 

stem: Copal. 
WiUcmghbya edvUs, Roxb. Apocyneae. Chittagong caoutchouc. 
„ Martabanicay Wall. And other species. Martaban 

Wrightia antidygentericay R. Br. Apocynese. Bai*k : Conessin. 
Xamithorrhiza apiifolia, L*Herit. Ranimculacese. Root: Ber- 

Xanthorrhosa australia, Br.; X, arhorea, Br.; X, Freissii, Endl.; 

X, qaadrangvlata, F. v. M.; X. semiplana, F. v. M. Liliacese. 

Exudation of stem : Botany Bay resin with Benzoic acid ; vola- 
tile oil; Bassorin. 
Xanthoocylon Carihceum^ Lam.; X.fraxineum, Willd. Rutacese. 

Bark: Berberin. 
Xcmthoxylon piperiturriy Cand. Fruit: volatile oil with Xanthoxy- 

len and Xanthoxylin. 
Xyhpia polycarpaj J. Hook, et Th. Anonacese. Bark : Berberin. 
Zieria Smithii, Andr. Rubiacese. Leaf: volatile oil. 
Zingiber offidruile, L. Scitaminese. Root : volatile oil. 

T 2 








Aconitum ferox, Wall. 

Lycoctonum, L. 
Napellus, L. 
other species. 
Anemone nemorosa, L. 
pratensis, L. 
Pulsatilla, L. 
Clematis, several species. 
Coptis Teeta, Wall. 
Delphinium Consolida, L. 

„ Staphisagria, L. 

Helleborus niger, L. 
viridis, L. 
Hydrastis Canadensis, L. 
Nigella sativa, L. 
Ranunculus bulbosus, L. 
Elammula, L. 
sceleratus, L. 
many other species. 
Xanthorrhiza apufolia, L'Herit. 


Illicium anisatum, L. 
Liriodendron tulipifera, L. 
Magnolia umbrella, Lamarck. 

Xylopia polycarpa, J.Hook.etTh. 


Myristica Bicahyba, Schott. 
fragrans, Houtt. 
Otaba, H. et B. 
sebifera, Sw. 





Cinnamomum Burmanni, Blume. 

Camphora,F. Nees. 
Cassia, Blume. 
Culilaban, Blume. 
Zeylanicum, C. G. 




Dicypellium caryophyllatum, C. 

G. Nees. 
Laurus nobilis, L. 
Nectandra Kodiei, Schomb. 
Ocotea Pichurim, Kunth. 
Sassafras officinalis, Hajne. 
Tetranthera calophylla, Miq. 

Atherosperma moschatum, Lab. 


Anamirta paniculata, Colebr. 
Chondodendron tomentosum, R. 

Cissampelos Pariera, L. 
Coscinium fenestratum, Golebr. 
Jateorrhiza palmata, Miers. 


Berberis vulgaris, L. 
Jeffersonia diphylla, Bart. 
Leontice thalictroides, L. 
Podophyllum peltatum, L. 


Argemone Mexicana, L. 
Chelidonium majus, L. 
Eschscholtzia Califomica, Cham. 
Glaucium luteum, Scop. 
Papaver Rhoeas, L. 

yy somniferum, L. 
Sanguinaria Canadensis, L. 


Corydalis fabacea, Pers. 

„ tuberosa, Cand. 
Fumaria officinalis, L. 


Arabis perfoliata, Lam. 
Brassica alba, Yis. 

nigra, Koch. 

oleracea, L. 
Camelina sativa^ Ciuntz. 



Cochlearia Armoracia, L. 

„ Anglica, L. 

„ Danica, L. 

„ officinalis, L. 
Hesperis matronalis, L. 
Isatis indigofera. Fort. 

„ tinctoria, L. 
Lepidium, several species. 
Nasturtium officinale, L. 
Sisymbrium Alliaria, Scop. 
Thlaspi arvense, L. 

Capparis spinosa, L. 

Drosera, many species. 


Hybanthus (lonidium) Ipecacu- 
anha, F. V. M. 
Viola odorata, L. 


Moringa oleifera. Lam. 
„ aptera^ Gaertn. 


Bixa OreUana, L. 
Laetia apetala, Jacq. 


Cistus Creticus, L. 
„ ladanifeinis, L. 
„ Ledon, Lam. 
„ laurifolius, L. 
„ Monspeliensis, L. 


Reseda luteola, L. 
„ odorata, L. 

Datisca cannabina, L. 


Canella alba, Murr. 

Pittosporum undulatum, Vent. 


Krameria Ixina, L. 

„ secundiflora, DC. 

„ triandra, R. et P. 
Monnina polystachya, R. et P. 
Polygala Senega, L. 


Oalophyllum Calaba, Jacq. 

longifolium, Willd. 
Inophyllum, L. 
Garcinia Indica, Chois. 
„ Mangostana, L. 
„ pictoria, Roxb. 
„ Morella, Desr. 
„ Cochinchinensis, Chois. 

Camellia Thea, Link. 


Dipterocarpus alatus, Roxb. 

gracilis, £1. 

hispidus, Thw. 

incanus, Roxb. 

littoralis, £1. 

retusus, Bl. 

trinervis, BL 

tui'binatus G sertn. 

Dryobalanops Camphora, Colebr. 
Vateria Indica, L. 


Erythroxylon Coca, Lam. 
TfiTinTn usitatissimum, L. 





Geranium, many species. 
Pelargonium capitatum, Ait. 

odoratissimum. Ait. 

Radula, Ait. 
Tropaeolum majus, L. 




Adansonia digitata, L. 

„ Gregorii, F. v. M. 

Althaea officinalis, L. 


Lunanea Bichi, DC. 
Theobroma Cacao, L. 

Tilia Europsea, L. 


Barosma betulina, Bartl. 
„ crenulata, Hk. 
„ seiTatifolia, Willd. 
Citrus Aurantium, L. 

„ „ var. Bergamia, Riss. 

„ v 99 dulcis, Volk. 

„ medica, L. 
„ „ var. Limetta, Riss. 
Giilipea Cusparia, St. HiL 
Pegamim Harmala, L. 
Ruta graveolens, L. 
Xanthoxylon Caribaeum, Lam. 

fraxineum, Willd. 
piperitum, Cand. 



Guaiacum officinale, L. 
„ sanctum, L. 


Ailantus excelsa, Roxb. 
Irvingia Barteri, J. Hook. 
Picrsena excelsa, Lindl. 
Picramnia ciiiata. Mart. 




Quassia amara, L. 
Samadera Indica, Gsertn. 
Simaba Cedron, Planch. 
Simaruba amara, Aubl. 


Amyris Plumieri, DC. 
Balsamodendron Africanum, 
Am. et B. 

Myrrha, Ehrenb. 

Opobalsamum, KuntlL 
Boswellia Carterii, Brdw. 
Bursera gummifera, Jacq. 
y, Icicariba, Benth. 
Oanariom oommune, L. 
Hedwigia balsamifera^ Sw. 
Icica heptaphjlla, Aubl. 


Anacardium- occidentale, Bottb. 
Pistacia Lentiscus^ L. 

„ Terebinthus, L. 
Bhus coriaria, L. 

semialata^ Murr. 

succedanea, L. 

Toxicodendron, L, 
Semecarpus Anacardium, L. fil. 


Carapa Guianensis, Aubl. 
Khaya Senegalensis, A. Juss. 


Aesculus Hippocastanum, L. 

„ Pavia, L. 
PauUinia sorbilis, Mart. 
Sapindus Saponaria, L. 


Vitis quinquefolia, Lam. 
„ vinifera, L. 

Euonymus Europseus, L. 





Bhamnus catharticus, L. 
Frangula, L. 
prunifolius^ Sibth. 
infectorius, L. 
saxatilis, L. 
amygdalinus, Desf. 
oleoides, L. 
Graecus, Beut. 









Bex aquifolium, L. 
„ Cassine, L. 
„ Paraguensis, St. Hil. 

Plumbago Europsea, L. 


Gypsophila Struthium, L. 
Lychnis Githago, Lam. 
Saponaria officinalis, L. 


Beta vulgaris, L. 
Chenopodium album, L. 

„ ambrosioides, L. 

olidum, Aubl. 




Hemiaria glabra, L. 


Coccoloba uvifera, Jacq. 
Fagopyrum cymosum, Meissn. 
emarginatum, Meissn . 
esculentum, Moench. 
„ Tartaricum, Gaertn. 
Polygonum aviculare, L. 
barbatum, L. 
Chinense, L. 
tinctorium, Lour. 
Hydropiper, L. 
Bheum australe, D. Don. 

„ officinale, Baill. 
Bumex, many species. 



Coriana myrtifolia, L. 


Aristolochia Serpentaria, L. 
Asarum Europaeiim, L. 


liquidambar orientalis, MilL 
Pbiladelphus coronarius, Ix 
Bibes rubrum, L. 
Sedum acre, L. 
Sempervivum tectorum, L. 


Amelanchier vulgaris, Moench. 
Cotoneaster vulgaris, Lindl. 
Crataegus coccinea, L. 

„ Oxyacantha, L. 
Fragaria vesca, L. 
€kum urbanum, L. 
Hagenia Abyssinica, Lam. 
Pot^itilla Tormeutilla, Sibth. 
Prunus Amygdalus, J. Hook. 
,, Ceraaus, L. 
,, domestica, L. 
y, Laurocerasus, L. 
„ Mahaleb, L. 
„ Fadus, li. 
„ Persica, J. Hook« 
spinosa, L. 
Virginiana, L. 
Pyrus Aria, Ehrh. 
,, torminalis, Ehrh. 
„ aucuparia, Gsertn. 
,^ communis, L. 
„ Oydonia, L. 
„ Malus, L. 
Qiiillaja Saponaria^ Mol. 
Bosa centifolia, L. 
,y Damascena, Mill. 
„ Indica, L. 
yy moschata, Mill. 
,, sempervirens, L. 
BubuB IdsBus, L. 



Spiraea Aruncus, L. 
„ Japonica, L. fil. 
sorbifolia, L. 
Ulmaria, L. 


Abrus precatorius, L. 
Acacia Arabica, W. 
„ Seyal, Del. 
„ Verek, G. et P. 
„ stenocarpa, Hochst. 
„ horrida, W. 
„ Catechu, W. 
„ Suma, Kurz. 
„ decurrens, W. 
„ lopbantha, W. 
Andira anthelminthica, Benth. 
Arachis hypogsea, L. 
Astragalus, several species. 
Bowdichia virgilioides, H. B. K. 
Butea frondosa, Boxb. 
Csesalpinia Crista, L. 

„ Sappan, L. 

Cassia acutifolia, Del. 

„ angustifolia, Valil. 
Ceratonia Siliqua, L.' 
Copaifera, several species. 
Cyclopia latifolia, Cand. 
Oynometra Spruceaaa, Benth. 
Cytisus Laburnum, L. 

„ scoparius, Link. 
Dipteryx odorata, Schreb. 
Erythrophlaeum guinense,G. Don 
Geoflfroya inermis, Wright. 

„ ^ Surinamensis, Bondt. 
Glycyrrhiza echinata, L. 

„ glabra, L. 

Hymensea CandoUeana, H. et B. 
confertiflora. Mart, 
confertifolia, Hayne. 
Courbaril, L. 
latifolia, Hayne. 
Martiana, Hayne. 
Olfemamt, Hayne. 
rotundata, Hayne. 
stilbocai'pa, Hayne. 






Hymensea Sellowiana, Hay&e. 

„ venosa, Vahl. 
Indigofera Anil, L. 
,, argentea^ L. 
y, tinctoria, L. 
Lupinus albus^ L. 

„ luteus, L. 
Melilotus officinalis, Desr. 
Myroxylon Pereirse, Kl. 

„ toluiferum, L. fiL 
Ononis spinosa, L. 
Peltophonim Linnsei, Benth. 
Phaseolus Yulgaris, L. 
Physostigma venenosum, Balf. 
Pisum satiyum, L. 
Pterocarpns Draco, L. 

erinaceus, Poiret. 
Marsupium, Boxb. 
santalmus, L. fil. 
Bobinia Pseudacacia, L. 
Sindora Sumatrama, Miq. 
Sopbora Japonica, L. 
Tamarindus Indica, L. 
Tracbylobium Gsertnerianum, 

Tracbylobium Homemanni, 

Youapa pbaseolocarpa, Hayne. 


Eucalyptus resinifera, Smitb. 
rostrata, Scbl. 
viminalis, Labill. 
yy many otber species. 

Eugenia caryopbyllata, Tbunb. 
Melaleuca Leucadendron, L. 

jy many species. 
Myrtus communis, L. 
Pimenta officinalis, Lindl. 

Punica Granatum, L. 


Piper angustifolium, B. et P. 
„ Cubeba, L. fil. 

Piper longum, L. 

„ officinarum, C. DC. 
„ methysticum, Forst. 
„ nigrum, L. 


Alcbomea latifolia, Sw. 
Aleurites triloba, Forst. 
Buxus sempervirens, L. 
Croton Eleutberia, Benn. 

„ Sloanei, Benn. 

„ erythrinum, Mart. 

„ niveum, Jacq. 

„ Tiglium, L. 
Eupborbia resinifera, Berg. 
Excaecaria sebifera, J. M. 
Hevea Guianensis, Aubl. 
Hura crepitans, L. 
latropba Curcas, L. 
Mallotus Pbilippinensis, J. M. 
Mercurialis annua, L. 
Bicinus communis, L. 


Antiaris toxicaria, Lescb. 
Cannabis sativa, L. 
Castilloa elastica, Cerv. 

„ Markbamiana, Collins. 
Ficus elastica, Boxb. 

„ rubiginosa, Desf. 

„ subracemosa, Blum. 

„ variegata, Blum. 
Humulus Lupulus, L. 
Maclura tinctoria, D. Don. 
Ulmus campestris, L. 

„ fulva, Micb. 
XJrtica urens, L. 

Juglans regia, L. 


Betula alba, L. 
Corylus Ayellana, L. 
Fagus silvatica, L. 
Myrica cerifera, L. 


Myrica cordifolia, L. 

y, quercifolia, L. 

„ serrata, Lam. 

„ Gale, L. 
PlataQus orientalis, L. 
Fopulus, several species. 
-Quercus coccinea, Wang. 

„ Ilex, L. 

„ infectoria, Oliv. 

„ , Robur, L. 

„ Suber, L. 
Salix, many species. 


Bryonia alba, L. 
CSucumis Colocynthis, L. 

„ Melo, L. 

„ Prophetarum, L. 
Oucurbita Pepo, L. 
Ecballion Elaterimn, A. Kich. 

Yiscum album, L. 

Banksia, several species. 


Daphne alpina, L. 
„ Gnidium, L. 
„ Mezereum, L. 

Hippopba^ rhamnoides, L. 

Oomns florida, L. 


Aralia qiiinquefolia, Dec. et 

Hedera Helix, L. 


-^thusa Cynapium, L. 
Ammi Copticum, L. 
Apium graveolens, L. 
Archangelica officinalis, Hoffm. 
Carum Ajowan, Benth. 
„ Carui, L. 
„ Petroselinum, Benth. 
Cicuta virosa, L. 
Conium maculatum, L. 
Coriandrum sativum, L. 
Cuminum Cyminum, L. 
Daucus Carota, L. 
Dorema Ammoniacum, D. Don. 
Euryangium Sumbul, Kauffm. 
Ferula Asa-foetida, L. 
alliacea, Boiss. 
Narthex, Boiss. 
erubescens, Boiss. 
„ Persica, W. 
Foenicuhim officinale, All. 
Heracleum villosum, Fischer. 

„ Sphondylium, L. 

Laserpitium latifolium, L. 
(Enanthe Phellandrium, Lam. 
Opopanax Chironium, Koch. 
Pastinaca sativa, L. 
Peucedanum galbaniferum, 

officinale, L. 
Oreoseliniim, Cuss. 
„ Ostruthium, Koch. 

Pimpinella Anisum, L. 
nigra, L. 
Saxifraga, L. 
Polylophium Galbanum, F. v.M. 





2. Gamopetalje. 

Asperula odorata, L. 
Cascarilla hexandra, Wedd. 

„ , magnifolia, Wedd. 
Cepha^lis Ipecacuanha^ Rich. 
Chiococca racemosa, Jacq. 
Cinchona Calisaya, Wedd. 

„ cordifolia, R. et P. 








Cinchona glandulifera, B. et P. 

lancifolia, Mutis. 

micrantha, B. et P. 

nitida^ E.. et P. 

officinalis^ Hook. 

Pahudiana, How. 

Peruviana, How. 

pubescens, Vahl. 

scrobiculata, H. et B. 
„ succirubra, Pav. 
Coffea Arabica, L. 
Galium Aparine, L. 
yy MoUugo, L. 
„ verum, L. 
Gardenia grandiflora, Lour. 

„ lucida, Koxb. 
Hillia spectabilis, Fr. Vaud. 
Ladenbergia, several species. 
Morinda dtrifolia, L. 
Pinckneya pubens, Kich. 
Psjchotria emetica^ Mutis. 
E/ichardsonia scabra, St, HiL 
Kubia tinctorum, L. 
Uncana acida, Koxb. 

„ Gambir, Koxb. 
Ziena Smithii^ Andr. 


Lonicera xylosteum, L. 
Sambucus nigra, L. 

Valeriana officinalis^ L. 

Scabiosa succisa, L. 


Achillea Millefolium, L. 

„ moschata, Jacq. 

„ nobilis, L. 
Anthemis nobilis, L. 
Arnica montana, L. 
Artemisia Absinthium^ L. 
Cina, Berg. 

„ Sieberi, Besser. 

Artemisia Dracunculus, L. 

„ vulgaris, L. 
Atractylis gummifera, L. 
Blimiea balsamifera, DC. 
Buphthalmum salicifolium, L. 
Calendula officinalis, L. 
Carbenia benedicta, Benth. 
Carthamus tinctorius, L. 
Centaurea Calcitrapa, L. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium, 

Crepis foetida, L. 
Dahlia purpurea, Poir. 
Eupatorium cannabinum, L. 
Helianthus annuus, L. 
Inula Helenium, L. 
Lactuca sativa, L. 
„ virosa, L. 
Liatris odoratissima, Willd. 
Madia sativa, Mol. 
Matricaria Chamomilla, L. 
Mikania Guaco, H. et B. 
Osmitopsis ^steriscoides, Cass. 
Othonna furcata, Benth. 
Perezia Humboldti, A. Gr. 
Tagetes glandulifera, Schrank. 
Tanacetum vulgare, L. 
Taraxacum officinale. Web. 

LobeHa inflata, L. 


Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi, Spr. 
Calluna vulgaris, Sal. 

Erica camea, L. 
Gaultiera procumbens, L. 
Ledum palustre, L. 
Monotropa Hypopitys, L. 
Pyrola umbellata, L. 
Khododendron ferrugineum, L. 
Vaccinium Myrtillus, L. 

Epacris, several species. 



Styrax Benzoin, Dryand. 
officinale, L. 



Achras Sapota, L. 
Bassia butyracea, Roxb. 
„ latifolia, Roxb. 
yy longifolia, L. 
„ sericea, Blume. 
Ceratophorus Leerii, Hassk. 
Imbricaria coiiacea, A. DC. 
Isonandra Gutta, Hook. 
Lucuma glycyphlaea, Mart, et 
„ Parkii, R. Br. 
Mimusops Elengi, L. 

yy Manilkara, G. Don. 
Payena macrophylla, Benth. 
Sideroxylon attenuatum, A. DC. 
„ Muelleri, J. Hook. 


Fraxinus excelsior, L. 

„ Omus, L. 
ligustram vulgare, L. 
Olea Europaea, L. 
Phillyrea latifolia, L. 

„ angustifolia, L. 
Syringa vnlgaiis, L. 


Asclepias Syriaca, L. 
Calotropis gigantea, R. Br. 

„ procera, R. Br. 
Vincetoxicum officinale, Moench. 


Alstonia constricta, F. v. M. 

„ scholaris, R. Br. 
Alyxia stellata, R. et S. 
Hancomia speciosa, Gomes. 
Nerimn Oleander, L. 
Strophanthus hispidus, DC. 
Tanghinia "^enenifera, Poir. 

Thevetia Ycotli, A de Cand. 
Uroeola elastica, Roxb. 
Yahea Comorensis, Bojer. 

„ gummifera. Lam. 

„ Madagascariensis, Bojer. 

„ SenegaJensis, A. DC. 

„ florida, F. v. M. 

„ Heudelotii, F. v. M. 

„ Owariensis, F. v. M. 
Willoughbya edulis, Roxb. 

„ Martabanica^WalL 

Wrightia antidysenterica, R. Br. 


G«ntiana lutea, L. 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. 
Ophelia Chirata, Griseb. 


Gelsemium nitidum, Michaux. 
Strychnos colubrina, L. 

Guianensis, Mart. 

Ignatia, Berg. 

Nux vomica, L. 

Tieute, Lesch. 





Plantago decumbens, Forsk. 


Anagallis arvensis, L. 
Cyclamen E,urop«um, L. 
Primida Auricula, L. 
„ veiis, L. 


Convolvulus floridus, L. fil. 
„ Scammonia, L. 

„ scoparius, L. fil. 

Ipomaea Nil, Roth. 

„ Orizabensis, Steud. 
„ Purga, Wender. 
„ Turpethum, R. Br. 



Atropa Belladonna, L. 
Oapsicum annimm, L. 
Datnra Stramonium, L. 
Fabiana imbricata, R. et P. 
Hyoscyamus niger, L. 
Nicotiana Tabacum, L. 
„ many species. 
Physalis Alkekengi, L. 
Solanum Dulcamara, L. 
Solanum nigrum, L. 

paniculatum, L. 

tuberosum, L. 

verbascifolium, L. 




Digitalis lutea, L. 

„ purpurea, L. 
Euphrasia officinalis, L. 
Olobularia Alypum, L. 
Oratiola officinalis, L. 
limoseUa aquatica, L. 
Melampyi*um nemorosum, L. 
Rhinanthus major, Ehrh. 
Scropbularia aquatica, L. 
„ nodosa, L. 

Bignonia Cbica, H. et B. 

Sesamum Indicum, L. 


Alkanna tinctoria, Tausch. 
Cordia Boissieri, A. DC. 


Hyssopus officinalis, L. 
Lavandula angustifolia, Ehrh. 

latifolia, Vill. 

Stcechas, L. 





Lycopus Europieas, L. 
Marrubium yulgai*e, L. 
Melissa officinalis, L. 
Mentha australis, R. Br. 

gracilis, R. Br. 

laxiflora, Benth. 

piperita, L. 

Pulegium, L. 
„ viridis, L. 
Monarda didyma, L. 
„ punctata, L. 
Ocimum Basilicum, L. 
Origanum Majorana, L. 

„ vulgare, L. 
Prostanthera lasianthos, Labill. 
„ rotundifolia, R Br. 

Rosmarinus officinalis, L. 
Salvia officinalis, L. 
Teucrium Marum, L. 
Thymus Serpillum, L. 

vulgaris, L. 



Vitex Agnus castus, L. 


Callitris quadrivalvis, Vent. 
Dammara australis, Lamb. 
„ orientalis, Lamb. 
Ginkgo biloba, Salisb. 
Juniperus communis, L. 
Sabina, L. 
Virginiana, L. 
Pinus Abies, Du RoL 

balsamea, L. 

Fraseri, Pursch. 

Lambertiana, Dougl. 

Larix, L. 

Picea, Du RoL 

silvestris, L. 

Sabiniana, Dougl. 
Taxus baccata, L. 
Thuya occidentalis, L. 











Aeranthus fragi^ans, Lindl. 
Nigritella angustifolia, Rich. 
Orchis hircina, Sw. 

piu'purea, Huds. 
many species. 
Vanilla aromatica, Sw. 
„ Guianensis, Splitg. 
„ planifolia, Andr. 
„ sativa, Lindl. 


Alpinia Galanga, Sw. 

yy officinarum, Hance. 
Amomum Melegueta, Koscoe. 
Curcuma longa, L. 

„ Zedoaria, Roxb. 
Elettaria Cardamomum, White. 
Zingiber officinale, L. 


Crocus sativus, L. 
Iris Florentina, L. 

Narcissus Jonquilla, L. 


Allium sativum, L. 
Aloe, several species. 
Asparagus officinalis, L. 
Colchicum autumnale, L. 
Convallaria majalis, L. 
Dracaena Draco, L. 
Narthecium ossifragum^ Huds. 
Paris quadrifolia, L. 
Schoenocaulon officinale, A. 

Smilax China, L. 

cordato-ovata. Rich. 

glycyphylla, Smith. 

medica, Cham, et Schl. 

officinalis, Humb. 

papyracea, Duh. 



Smilax Parhampui, Ruiz. 
Urginia Scilla, Steinh. 
Veratrum album, L. 

„ viride, Alton. 
Xantorrhoea australis, Br. 

arborea, Br. 

Preissii, Endl. 

F. V. M. 

semiplana, F. v. M. 




Acorus Calamus, L. 
Arum, several species. 

Alisma Plantago, L. 


Areca Catechu, L. 
Attalea funifera, Mart. 
Calamus Rotang, L. 
Ceroxylon andicola, H. et B. 
Cocos nucifera, L. 
Daemonorops Draco, Mart. 
Elais Guineensis, Jacq. 

Cyperus esculentus, L. 


Andropogon Calamus, Royle. 
citratus, DC. 
Ivarancusa, Roxb. 
Schoenanthus, L. 
„ muricatus, Retz. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum, L. 
Avena sativa, L. 
Hierochloa borealis, Roem. et 

Hordeum vulgare, L. 
Saccharum officinarum, L. 
Triticum repens, L. 
„ vulgare, Vill. 







Eqtdsetum fluviatile, L. 
„ several species. 


liycopodium Chamsecyparissus, 
Al. Br. 
„ complanatum, L. 


Aspidium Filix mas, Sw. 
Polypodium vulgare, L. 


Oetraria Islandica, Achar. 

„ several species. 
Chlorea vulpina, Nyl. 
Cladonia rangiferina, Hoffm. 

„ several species. 
Evemia prunastri, Achar. 

„ several species. 
Lecanora Parella, Achar. 
Tartarea, Achar. 
several species. 
Parmelia parietina, Achar. 





Parmelia physodes, Achar. 

„ many other species. 
Pertusaria communis, Fries. 
Kamalina, several species. 
Koccella fuciformis, Achar. 

tinctoria, Cand. 

several species. 
Squamaria elegans, Hoffm. 
Sticta, many species. 
XJsnea florida, Hoffm. 
„ several species. 
Variolaria, many species. 


Alsidium Helmintochorton,. 

Cliondrus crispus, Stackh. 
Delesseria, several species. 


Agaricus campestris, L. 
croceus, Pers. 
muscarius, L. 


„ piperitus, L. 
Cordyceps purpurea, Fries. 
Polyporus officinalis. Fries. 





These will be described under the following heads : — 

A. Weighing appai^atus. 

B. Drying apparatus. 

C. Comminuting apparatus.- 

D. Extracting apparatus. 

E. Straining apparatus. 

F. Evaporating apparatus. 

G. Miscellaneous apparatus. 

A. — Weighing Apparatus. 

Three different balances are required for use: — A so-called 
weiglirbridge to carry 50 kilograms, and to turn with 10 grams or 
less, when so loaded; a common balance, which indicates cSstinctly 
1 decigram when carrying 1 kilogram in each pan; and a chemical 
hahfiice to carry 50 grams, and to turn, thus loaded, with 1 
milligram. For better security of dust, fumes, <fec., the last- 
named balance is always to be kept in a glass case. 

The weights, now in common use amongst analytical chemists, 
are made according to the French or metrical system, and consist 
of brass or German silver. Only the smaller weights, from 1 
decigram downwards, are made of aluminium. To use platinum 
for this purpose is inconvenient, on account of the smallness 
of the pieces, and the risk of losing them. The weights, and 
especially those under 5 grams, are never touched with the bara 
fingers, but with pincers made of metal. 


B. — Drying Apparatus. 

Freshly-gathered plants or parts of plants are freed from 
adhei*ing impurities, as earth, sand, or dust, by beating, dusting, or 
quickly washing with water. Thick roots, stems, branches, or 
fleshy fruits, are first split or cut into pieces of a proper size, and 
afterwards spread on wooden sieves, previously covered with 
printing paper, and thus exposed on warm days to the action 
of the air and the diflused sunlight, or, if the temperature should 
be below 10°, they are dried by artificial heat not exceeding 40°, 
but carefully screened from steam and smoke. The drying is 
finished, and the so treated substance called air-dried^ when it does 
no longer incur loss of weight. 

With the exception of certain succulent fruits, which on drying 
undergo a partial decomposition, all vegetable substances are 
submitted to analysis air-dried. 

To estimate the water still retained by the air-dried material, a 
small sample of the latter is properly comminuted as described 
under C, and intimately mixed. Two to five grams of the 
substance thus treated are then put into a platinum crucible, 
and the latter placed into an air-hath made of coppery and 
provided with a thermometer. The whole apparatus is now 
heated to a temperature of 110° to 120° by means of a small 
spirit (or gas) lamp. (For particulars see Div. III., 1.) 

Vegetable substances in the natural state less than those educts, 
obtained in the course of the analysis, and which, on account of 
their liability to decompose under the influence of heat, atmo- 
spheric air, or moisture, cannot be dried in the air-bath, must have 
the last traces of water removed under the jar of the air-pwrnp 
with the simultaneous application of water-absorbing substances, 
such as quicklime, fused chloride of calcium or concentrated sul- 
phuric acid, any of which are placed close to the substance in 
question, under the receiver of the air-pump. 

C. — Comminuting Apparatus. 

Thick or woody roots, steins or large branches, are at first thinly 
split with an aax; the single pieces are then cut up transversely 
on the cutting-board and separated by means of a sietje of wire 
gauze, with apertures not larger than one-sixth of an inch; the 
coarser parts are further comminuted in the stamping-box by 
means of cross-knives provided with a long handle, and again 
passed through the sieve. To reduce vegetable parts of this kind 
to a still finer or powdery state, will generally require much time 
and labour, but this is essential for a satisfactory final result. 
Often the operation is greatly facilitated by successively exposing 
the substance to a gentle heat and then pounding it in a m£tal m>ortar. 


Tough hard woods^ after being fastened in a screuiyvice, may be 
advantageously rasped by means of a coarse JUe. This is a good 
but rather tedious process. 

Flexible or thin roots are placed at once on the cutting-board ; 
still thinner ones only into the stamping-box, and afterwards, if 
necessary, into the mortar. 

Fresh and succulent roots are split with a knife of horn or of a 
metal unaffected by the acid juices, first lengthwise^ and then 

Woody stems and thick branches are treated like roots; thinner 
woody stalks are first cut on the board, afterwards stamped in the 
box; very thin ones go at once into ttie stamping-box. 

Barks may be reduced to powder in the iron mortar, but those 
with a tough fibrous bast are first treated on the cutting-board. 

Fresh herbaceous stalks are bruised in a stone mortar. The 
material of the latter must be possibly pure sandstone; marble 
would be affected by the always acid juice. 

Fresh leaves or flowers are bruised in the stone mortar; dry 
ones are stamped in the box. 

Succulent fruits or coverings of seeds are bruised in the stone 
mortar, but if large they are previously cut into pieces with the 
horn knife. 

Ordinary dry fruits are pounded in the iron mortax, but require, 
when tough, to be dried at a very gentle heat. 

Seeds are treated like dry fruite; those rich in oil, to prevent 
the latter from separation, are first broken in the iron mortar and 
then submitted to a moderate trituration. Should it be possible 
to separate the pericarps from the seeds, this may be conveniently 
•effected either with a homvmer or in the iron mortar, and each part 
is then examined by itself. 

D. — Extracting Apparatus. 

Glass and porcelain vessels would answer this purpose best, but 
very large vessels of those materials are easily broken, and conse- 
quently costly. As a substitute the chemist generally employs tin 
or copper vessels, especially when working with large quantities. 

Glass flasks are required, of various sizes from the smallest up 
to those of two litres capacity. The glass of these flasks must be 
of a uniform thinness, and the edges of their necks must be bent 
outwards, to allow the insertion of a cork stopper without risk of 

InfusioTi-pots with lidsy both made of porcelain, may be used for 
the extraction of substances containing no volatile matters, with 
either water, diluted acids, or diluted alkalies. 

A tin still is further required, capable of holding at least 10 
litres of water, with head and vxyrm of the same metal. A still of 

V 2 


this kind should never be exposed to the direct fire, but only to 
the he^^t of the water-bath, to prevent the metal from fusing and 
the contents from getting charred. The wcUer-^th consists of a 
copper boiler f in which the still is fitted so as to reach nearly to 
the bottom, while resting rather lightly on the prominent edges of 
the contracted mouth of the boiler. 

The tin still serves for extractions and distillations {see F.) on a 
larger scale. 

E. — Straining Apparatus. 

For larger quantities dishes or deep vessels of porcelain or stone- 
ware are used with a tena^ctdv/m (square framework, constructed of 
four narrow pieces of wood) of proper size to be placed on the 
dishes, and carrying on its four prominent points a linen cloth or 
a linen baggier, through which to strain the substance under 
investigation. The latter operation is accelerated by occasionally 
stirring or pressing the contents with a strong glass rod or with & 
porcelain spatula, or instead of these a spatula, made of pine or 
beech and previously cleaned by boiling with water, suffices for 
most purposes. 

Thick, slimy masses let the liquid pass so slowly that it is 
necessary to strain through a cloth, the meshes of which do not 
contract by moisture. This is miller's gauxe, or bolting doth of 
sUk, which is sold in numerous gradations as to the width of the 
meshes, and may be therefore selected according to circumstances. 

After the dripping has ceased, the contents of the cloth or of the 
bag-filter are submitted to the action of a screw-press or of an 
hydraidic press. Those parts of the press, which are in direct 
contact with the cloth or with the liquid passing from it, m\ist be 
made of tin. — For pressing smaller quantities, a small self-acting 
presSf similar in construction to a bookbinder's press, is to be 
employed, but modified that it may be fastened to a table, and its 
sides must be covered with thick plates of glass. 

Still smaller quantities are poured into paper-filters, spread out 
in funnels of glass or porcelain, the latter resting on the edges of 
glass-ja/rs, and, if necessary, supported by means of JUter-plates or 
other appliances. If the filtering process is slow, the funnel must 
be covered with a glass-plate in order to screen off air and dust. 
This is not less necessary with very volatile liquids, for instance,, 
alcohol, ether, &c., in order to prevent losses. 

More economically, larger quantities or slowly filtering alcoholic 
liquids are filtered in a displacement appa/ratus of glass, the top of 
which can be shut nearly air-tight. 

For the filtration of liquids, which require warming either 

because they are then only of sufficient fluidity, or because in lower 

temperatures the solved parts would become solid, a water^a/thr- 

funnel is employed, ix. a water-bath of funnel-shape and exactly 


fitting to the fiinnel containing the filter, and the water of which 
is kept boiling by means of a tube inserted at the side, and heated 
by the flame of a lamp beneath. 

F. — Evaporating Apparatus. 

Under this head have to be mentioned dishes of glass and of 
porcelain, also of tin (see below), waichrglasses, glass beakers of 
various sizes. 

For accelerating the evaporation at higher temperatures, coals, 
alcohol or gas, are employed as fuel to act upon the evaporating 
vessel either directly or divided from it by an iron plate or a dish 
of the same metal, either empty or filled with sand (samd-hath), 
or with water (water-bath). 

Should it be necessary to accelerate the evaporation without the 
application of heat, or under the exclusion of the atmosphere, the 
air-pwmp is made use of, and additionally the fluid to be evapo- 
rated under the receiver is brought in proximity with either 
concentrated sulphuric acid or anhydrous chloride of calcium or 

Some liquids leave, when concentrated to a certain degree, a 
stifi*, viscid mass, to dry which entirely in the evaporating vessel 
is very difficult; but this may be effected with comparative ease by 
spreading those substances as thinly as possible on glass plates or 
on jxyrcelain dishes. Plates of this kind are, among other instances, 
indispensable for any contents of filters, which may be expected on 
<irying to stick to the paper, and thus prevent the separation 
without loss. 

A kind of evaporation is the process of distillation. For this 
purpose on a larger scale, the tin-still mentioned already under D. 
is employed. Distillations of ether or of alcohol may be effected 
•directiy from it, but not those of water. For the latter purpose the 
still has to be furnished with a special contrivance. For instance, in 
order to obtain the volatile oil from a vegetable (including at the 
same time the extraction of the substance), a sieve-like perforated 
disc of tin and furnished, besides, with a larger aperture of about 
one inch diameter, is inserted into the still, within one to two 
inches from the bottom of the vessel. On this disc the vegetable 
substance, moistened previously with water, but not so as to form 
a pulp, is spread out, and is subiected to the steam of water 
coming from the copper boUer, and conducted by means of a tin 
tube, terminating under the false bottom, into the substance to be 
distilled. A mechanism of this kind, besides other implements 
intended for digesting, evaporating, drying, &c., purposes (dishes 
of tin, &c.), also a refrigerator, together with the tubes required 
for supplying the cold, and for removing the hot water, form the 
well known Beindorf^s appa/ratus. 


Distillations on a smaller scale are carried on in retorts of glaasy^ 
the vapours produced are condensed in a GoeheTs refrigerator, and 
collected in glass receivers. 

G. — Miscellaneous Apparatus. 

Under this category I shall comprise the rest of the utensils, 
required for a phyto-chemical laboratory, but without any further 

ArcBometera for light and for heavy liquids. 




OaoutcJuyuc in tubes and in thin plates. 

Caoutchouc cement, from heated indiarubber and kaolin. 

Ooal pincers. 

Coal prepared for cutting glass. 

Crucibles of porcelain and of platinum. 

Florentine glass bottle, 


Glass bottles with or without glass stoppers. 

Glass ja/rs, graduated. 

Glass ja/rs, to be fitted air-tight on glass plates. 

Gktss rods. 

Glass tubes (including capillary tubes for. determining the fusing 

Glazed paper. 

La/mps of glass and of brass. 




Plated iron dixA platinum foil, 


Pings with iron arms. 

Scissors of various sizes. 


Stands of wood (for test tubes, retorts, thermometers, &c.)^ 

Stoppers of glass, caoutchouc, cork. 

Stoves of clay and of iron. 

Test-paper of litmus and of turmeric. 



Thread of various thickness. 

Tongues of iron and of brass. 

Washing botUe for washing precipitates. 

Wires of iron and of platinum. 





These chemicals may be divided into — 

A. Absorbents. 

B. Solvents. 

C. Reagents. 

A. — Absorbents. 

These are principally: concentrated sulphuric acid, anhydrous 
chloride of calcium and quicklime. 

They are used for drying a solid or ^liquid substance at 
ordinary temperature and under exclusion of the air, by placing 
them in a glass beaker close to the substance under the receiver 
of an air-pump, and by working the latter occasionally after 
intervals of two to three hours. 

Every one of the three substances named has its special value. 
For quickness of action anhydrous lime is unsurpassed, and 
especially so, when it has been reduced to about the size of peas; 
but its power is soon exhausted, as it absorbs only 1 eq. water, 
equal to J its own weight. Next in quickness acts concentrated 
stdphuric acid, which absorbs up to 3 eq. water, increasing its 
weight by one half. The slowest action is exercised by anhydrous 
chloride of calcium, but though the least powerftd yet it absorbs 6 
eq. water or nearly its own weight, and besides it takes up another 
quantity of water required to convert the compound Ca CI + 6 
HO into the liquid state. 

By taking into account these different qualities, the choice of 
the absorbent cannot be difficult. Should it be required to con- 
duct the drying process as quickly as possible, quicklime is resorted 
to; if less pressed for time, sulphuric add; and if time is of no 
consequence, chloride of calcium. [There may be other considera- 
tions to guide in the choice of these absorbents.] 


Besides these there are many other hygroscopic substances, but 
none exceeds in activity and cheapness ihe above three. 

After they have done their service as desiccating agents, the 
chloride of calcium solution may be evaporated and fused again. 
The aqueous sulphuric acid may be utilised as such; and the 
hydrate of lime, as left, would be of no further value. 

B. — Solvents. 


These are principally ether, cdcoJiol and water; also diluted acids 
(especially hydro-chloric and sulphuric), diluted olkaMes (potash or 
soda-ley and liquor of ammonia) ; less frequently used are henzdy 
chloroform, wood-spirit, sulphide of ca/rhon, petroleum, oil of turpen- 
tine, &c. 

Ether withdraws from the plants, almost without exception, 
easily and completely chlorophyll, wax, fixed and volatile oils, 
free acids; also certain alkaloids, pigments, indifferent bitter in- 
gredients, resins; sparingly or not at all saccharine substances. 
But even such compounds as are insoluble in pure ether, as humus 
substances, salts of anorganic acids, proteins, &c., dissolve, though 
in exceedingly small quantities, in ether containing traces of water 
or alcohol, and retard thereby the isolation of the first-named sub- 
stances in their pure state. 

This inconvenience might be avoided entirely or for the greatest 
part by using ether of 0*720 sp. gr. (at 15°), which is entirely free 
from water and alcohol. 

Of greater consequence still than with ether is the strength of 
the alcohol (spirit of wine, ethylaloohol) employed as a solving 
agent. Absolute or anhydrous alcohol of 0*792 sp. gr. (at 15°) 
dissolves like ether readily chlorophyll, volatile oUs, free acids, 
alkaloids, indifferent bitter substances, resins and pigments ; less 
easily wax, fats and saccharine matters; sparingly humus sub- 
stances, salts of anorganic acids and proteins. 

Yet as it is troublesome to prepare and to keep alcohol in its 
anhydrous state, it is reserved for special cases, and in its stead an 
alcohol of 0*815 sp. gr. is generally in use, the solving power of 
which is nearly the same in regard to wax and fats, and is some- 
times even greater towards the other substances mentioned. Un- 
fortunately it also dissolves to some extent gum and similar 
matters, which have afterwards to be removed by special processes. 

It is not advisable to use weaker alcohol as a solvent, as this 
would prevent complete isolation of various constituents. 

Dilute alcohol is employed in some cases for withdrawing resins 
from fats, or for separating different resins from each other. 

For extracting purposes, spring or any other ordiiiary water 
should not be used but always distilled water, or, in exceptional 



cases, fresh rain-water, but then only such as has been caught 
directly from the sky, and not by means of spouts. 

Water is also employed to irithdraw from the ethereous, alco- 
holic, &c., extracts, gam, protein substances in their soluble form, 
acids, most of the alkalies and alkaline earths ia combiaation with 
oi^nic acids, most of the salts of the alkaloids, some alkaloids in 
the free state, many bitter substances, some other indifferent 
matters, pigments; while chlorophyll, wax, fats, resins, certain pig- 
laents are not dissolved by water; ethereal oils, certain alkaloids, 
bitter principles, other indifferent substances, some pigments dis- 
solve in it only sparingly. 

Acids are not used as solvents in the concentrated state, but as 
addition to water, chiefly in order to dissolve pectin and oxalate 
of lime. As a rule the diluted adds (hydrocldoric, svlphuric) are 
only applied after the vegetable substance has been exhausted 
successively by ether, alcohol and water. 

Id cases where the search for alkoloids and their isolation with- 
out loss is to be instituted, water mixed with only 2 to 3 per cent, 
of the concentrated acids is employed, but even in this diluted 
state the acid acts not only as a solvent but also altering and 
decomposing, for instance, on glucosids, and eveo on some 

Acetic acid of about 20 per cent, is employed for separating 
oxalate, phosphate, and sulphate of lead, which are insoluble in 
the reagent, from the compounds of lead with other organic acids, 
which are then re-precipitated from their solutions on addition of 
a base. 

The fixed caustic alkalies likewise are only used in a very diluted 
state, and are always preceded by ether, alcohol, water, and acids. 
Their usefulness is very limited, because in most cases and by their 
agency only those protein substances are dissolved which are in- 
soluble in water, while again the partial decomposition of these is 
very difficult to avoid. 

Another inconvenience connected with these alkalies consists 
in the conversion of so-called extractive substances, and of such as 
have not been dissolved by the other extracting agents into partly 
humus-like dark-coloured products, which greatly impede the 
further process of the analysis. The only important use of diluted 
alkalies is to soften the vegetable fibre to such an extent as to 
facOitate its purification. 

Liquor of offmnmiia as a solvent is only employed for treating 
complex substances after they have been withdrawn from the 
plant, in order to remove one or other of the constituents, 
especially resins, some of which are soluble in liquor of ammonia, 
others not. 

All the other above-mentioned chemicals — benzol, cMorofomhy 
wood-spirit, sulphide of carbon, petroleum, oil of twrpentine, &c. — 


are, like liquor of ammonia, never used for directly extracting the 
plant, but only for separating mixed substances. In some cases 
they have proved very useful in separating a substance from tena- 
ciously attached colouring particles, the latter being insoluble, or 
nearly so, in those liquids, while, on the contrary, they prove 
excellent solvents for alkaloids, resins, &c. The solvent may be 
finally removed, either by evaporating (chloroform, wood-spirit, 
sulphide of carbon); or the alkaloids are withdrawn from their 
respective solutions in benzol, petroleum, or oil of turpentine by 
shaking with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, as evapora- 
tion at a high temperature would be impracticable. 

C. — Eeagents. 

A, — JExcmiination of the dry substance. 

The first trial consists in exposing the respective substance 
to the action of heat, when is to be observed whether fusion,, 
either total or partial volatilisation, or carbonisation takes place. 

In the first case, i.e., with a fusible substance, is to be 
determined the fusing-poiiity by inserting small pieces of about 
the size of a millet-s^ed into a capillary tube, or with fats 
or waxy matters by allowing them in the melted state to rise 
into such a tube, and to congeal therein; then put this tube, 
together with a thermometer reaching at least to 300°, into 
a test-tube, the latter into a glass-flask, this on an iron plate, 
and heat the latter by means of a spirit-lamp. The heating has 
to be conducted very slowly and gradually, so as to enable a 
careful observation of the mercury rising from degree to degree. 
The height of the mercury is read off and noted down as soon as 
the fat begins to melt, without being entirely fluid. The latter 
precaution is necessary, becausei in the transition from the solid 
into the liquid state heat is absorbed and becomes latent, causing 
either a stoppage of the mercury, or even a retrogressive move- 
ment. — ■ Every estimation of the fusing-point has to be made 
at least twice, and if the two experiments do not harmonise, 

After complete fusion and with increased heating, the substance 
sublimates, if volatile ; if not, decomposition takes place, indicated 
by the black colour assumed by the substance, and by the 
emission of empyreumatic gases. Yet, it sometimes happens, 
that substances sublimate or decompose without having been 
fused first. In a capillary tube this cannot be observed satis- 
factorily, because the liquid sample in it rises mechanically under 
the infiuence of the heat without having been sublimated at all, 
and because the tube is too narrow for inserting slips of test- 
paper. — Bepeat, therefore, the experiment with a fresh sample, 


in a glass tube of at least l-24th inch diameter, and closed at the 
bottom. The non^oolatUUy is now characterised by a dis- 
colouration (blackening), and by the evolution of empyreumatic 
vapours, which must be tested as regards their acid or alkaline 
reaction by both litmus and turmeric paper, inserted into the 
upper part of the tube. A brown coloui*ation of the turmeric paper 
indicates with certainty a nitrogenised substance (proteinoid), 
and therewith is always connected an unpleasant odour like that 
of burnt horn or feathers (so-called homy odour). If the 
turmeric paper remains unaltered, then the substance contains 
either no nitrogen or only a little of it, and in this case the 
litmus paper assumes a red colour. 

After the substance has been tried on its behaviour towards 
heat, it is next exposed to the action of mineral adds, and first to 
that of concentrated svlphuric a,cid, which may effect alterations of 
colour, solutions, or odours. Warming the substance with it 
would only be advisable, if no perceptible alteration takes place in 
the cold; else a carbonisation would be the result. The solution 
thus obtained becomes sometimes turbid on addition of water, as 
it may throw down the substance altered or unaltered. — Diluted 
with 5 to 10 parts water, the sulphuric acid serves as reagent 
of glucosids. as it possesses the property of separating these after 
some time on warming, and to convert the carbo-hydrate contained 
in the glucosid into sugar, which is recognised by the formation of 
red suboxyd of copper on warming, after the acid has been 
neutralised by excess of soda, and mixed with dissolved alkaline 
tartarate of copper. — In a still more diluted state (1 : 50 or 100) 
tJie sulphuric acid may be used for indicatrug the alkaloid-nature 
of a substance, inasmuch as the latter dissolves more readily in it 
than in pure water. 

Nitric addy in a moderately concentrated state (from 1 '3 specific 
gravity upwards), acts almost always decomposing (oxydising) 
on dry substances, under the simultaneous appearance of yellow- 
brown fumes, accompanied, in most instances, by a colouration of 
the acid, by a change of the colour of the substance, or by a 
solution of the latter. Exposed to the heat, even a weaker 
acid shows already oxydising effects, and evolves brown-yellow 
vapours. Very diluted, it may be used instead of sulphuric 
acid; in great dilution, for indicating the alkaloid nature of 
a substance. 

Concentrated hydrocholoric add (of 1*16 to 1*20 specific gravity) 
acts least energetically of these three mineral acids, but produces 
sometimes a characteristic colouration of the substance, or gives a 
specific odour after a solution has been effected, and therefore it 
should be used in every case. — Diluted with 5 to 6 parts water 
it may be used, like sulphuric acid, for the discovery of glucosids; 
and still more diluted, it may indicate the alkoloid-nature of 


A substance, though in both these csises it is not superior to 
sulphuric acid, and is therefore used less frequently. 

After the acids, cavstic alkalies must be applied; liquor of 
ammonia, of 0*960 specific gravity, potash or soda-ley, of 1'15 
specific gravity. They are destined for solving purposes, some- 
times aided by a gentle heat. Should the substance have been 
<liBsolved in any of the three alkalies, and should diluted acids 
have proved unable to dissolve the same substance, then yet has to 
be tried, whether the alkaline solution on over-saturating with an 
acid will throw down the substance again or not. In the first 
<5ase no alteration has been effected by the alkali; in the latter 
case a change has taken place. It may also happen that the 
alkaline solution becomes turbid on diluting with water, or even 
on adding a fresh portion of the alkali. In the latter case what 
has been separated is not the original body, but a compound, of it 
with the alkali, and insoluble in alkaline liquids. In dissolving 
nitrogenised, especially protein substances in fixed alkalies, appli- 
cation of heat must be avoided entirely or as much as possible, in 
order to prevent decomposition, mostly connected with the evolu- 
tion of ammonia. 

The other liquids, the influence of which on the dry substance 
may be tried also, and which act only as solvents, are et)ier, alcohol, 
water ^ benzol, chloroform, wood-spirit, suLpJdde of ca/rhon, petroleum, 
oil of twrpentine ; but the resulting solutions are only available for 
testing with other chemicals after the solvents, as ether, alcohol, 
benzol, &c., have been removed and are replaced by water. 
Their further treatment must be referred to iie following sub- 
division : — 

B, — Examination of the Svhsta/nce in Solution, 

Under this head are comprised not only the liquids obtained 
in the course of the analysis, as well as the solutions of the solid 
substances obtained in the same way, and dissolved either in 
water or in diluted acids or in alkalies, but also the extracts 
obtained by means of ether, alcohol, water, diluted acids and 
alkalies. The three last-named solutions are submitted directly to 
the action of reagents, the alcoholic or ethereous solutions only, 
after the respective solutions have been removed by evaporation 
or distillation and replaced by water. By this change of the ether 
or alcohol by water the resulting aqueous solution will seldom be 
clear, but mostly turbidified by substances insoluble in water, to 
be separated by filtering, and to be submitted to a special treat- 
ment (specified in Division III.) Such solutions, obtained by 
treatment with water from the alcoholic and ethereous extracts, 
often retain dissolved, through the influence of other constituents. 


small quantities of resinous and other substances, which are 
insoluble by themselves in pure water. 

The reagents used for testing the aqueous solutions of any 
vegetable matter and brought into the order in which thej might 
be employed most conveniently, are as follows : — 

Bltte litnvus-paper. — ^A red colouration of it indicates free acids 
or acid salts. Extracts of vegetables will always produce thi» 

Ydlaw turmeric-paper, — ^A brown colouration of it would indi- 
cate basic salts, but such an effect has scarcely ever been obtained 
with vegetable extracts. 

Bed litmvs-paper may be dispensed with in most cases, yet it 
happens sometimes that an alkaline reaction is recognised more 
easily with this paper than with tunneric-paper. 

All other tinged papers, as those of dahlia, violets, &c., are 
inferior to the above three. 

Hther (of 0*720 specific gravity) frequently produces turbidity 
even in small quantity, but it is best to add as much as the watery 
liquid is able to dissolve, or until a small quantity of ether floats 
on the aqueous solution after the mixture has been well agitated 
for some time. The turbidity may be produced by gum, by salts of 
anorganic bases with anorganic or organic acids, by protein sub- 
stances, humus-] ike matters, <kc. 

Akoliol (of 0*815 specific gravity) usually effects no alteration 
when added in small quantity; therefore more of it is required 
than of ether, or on the average a quantity equal in bulk to the 
aqueous liquid. A turbidity, obtained hereby, is mostly caused 
by gum. 

Liquor qfamimonia (of 0*960 specific gravity) imparts clearness 
to liquids which possess an opalescent appearance {see above) from 
traces of resins. Coloured liquids become barker with it. But 
ammonia may also produce precipitates; should any of them dis- 
appear on the addition of alcohol, it is with tolerable certainty 
to be concluded that an alkaloid is present. The same conclusion 
is justified when a further addition of ammonia acts redissolvingly 
on the precipitate, and therefore the precaution should be used to 
apply the reagents only successively drop by drop, because sudden 
lai^ additions would redissolve any otherwise visible precipitate, 
and prevent its being noticed. 

Should the precipitate, obtained with ammonia, disappear 
neither with alcohol nor with an excess of ammonia, it may be 
either alumina or phosphate of lime, or phosphate of ammonia- 
magnesia or • oxalate of lime. The first of these precipitates is 
flocky and soluble in potash-ley, also in acetic acid when newly 
precipitated ; the second one is also flocky, and when newly pre- 
cipitated, soluble in acetic acid, but not in potash-ley; the third 
behaves towards acetic acid and potash-ley like the second, but is 


distinguished by its crystalline appearance ; the fourth precipitate 
is of a finely pulverulent form and insoluble either in potash-ley 
or in acetic acid. 

Ammonia is also employed for saturating liquids, especially 
those which have been precipitated with acetate of lead, in order 
to render them alkaline and so to produce another precipitate. 

Ca/rbormte of ammonia (1 part in 9 parts water) acts similarly 
to liquor of ammonia, but less energetically. Its principal use in 
phyto-chemical operations is to remove completely any excess 
of lead left from the precipitation with acetate of lead, and in this 
respect it is superior to sulphuret of hydrogen, commonly 
recommended, on account of greater simplicity and ease. 

Leys of potash <yr of soda (of 1 '330 specific gravity) produce in 
general the same appearances as ammonia, but act more decidedly. 
They impart to coloured liquids a still darker colour. 

A precipitate, produced by potash or soda, and soluble in 
an excess of the reagent, may be alumina partly or entirely. 

In the presence of ammonia-salts the ammonia is displaced by 
potash or soda, and may be recognised either by the smell or by 
the fumes obtained with acetic acid, and tested by holding a glass 
rod moistened with the acid over the surface of the liquid. 

Ca/rhonates of potash or of soda (1 part in 9 parts water) 
possess in general the properties of potash or soda-ley, but in 
a less degree, and cannot dissolve alumina. They may be used 
for removing an excess of oxyd of lead, when there is reason to 
avoid the use of carbonate of ammonia. 

Solution of baryta (1 part Ba O + 9 HO in 19 parts water) 
behaves towards coloured liquids similar to the alkalies; it 
also produces precipitates which may be either alkaloids, from 
which the acid is withdrawn, or components of baryta with 
sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, organic acids, or with substances 
acting like acids, as pigments, resins^ &c, 

Lvme-water (1 part Ca O in 700 parts water) acts like so|a<&on 
of baryta, but less decidedly; it does not precipitate sulphuric 
acid but oxalic acid (which is not precipitable by diluted solution 
of baryta), oxalate of lime being only soluble in mineral acids. — 
Of the four organic acids, malic, citric, tartaric, and racemic, the 
first is not precipitated by lime-water, either cold or hot; the 
second is precipitated only in the heat, and becomes clear again on 
cooling; the third yields cold a precipitate soluble in chloride of 
ammonium; the fourth yields also a precipitate in the cold, but 
insoluble in chloride of ammonium. 

Chloride of amfimmiium (1 part in 9 parts water) serves for 
distinguishing tartaric from racemic acid. \See Lime-water). 

Chloride of harywm (1 part in 9 parts water). A precipitate, 
obtained by means of it, contains certain anorganic acids. If it is 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid, then it contains sulphuric acid; if 


soluble, wholly or partially, then the soluble portion contains 
phosphoric acid. 

Chloride of coddwrn, (1 part in 9 parts water) is used for 
detecting a few acids through the formation of precipitates. The 
latter, if newly precipitated, soluble in acetic acid, may contain 
phosphoric acid; if not soluble, it contains oxalic acid. 

AcetxUe of lime (1 part in 9 parts water) is used for testing 
oxalic acid instead of chloride of calcium, should the presence 
of chlorides in the liquid have to be avoided. From liquids, 
containing acetates only, or free acetic acid, the oxalic acid can be 
removed entirely by means of the above reagent. 

Chloride of iron [perchloride of iron] (1 part in 9 parts water) 
indicates the various tannic acids by yielding blue or green 
precipitates of various gradations of colour, or similarly coloured 
liquids; though a green tinge, produced by chloride of iron, must 
not be taken as satisfactory proof of the presence of tannin. 
Gum arabic also is precipitated by the reagent. 

Suh-8ulphate of iron, or green vitriol (1 part in 9 parts water), 
is sometimes used for testing tannic acids instead of chloride 
of iron, as the colours of the precipitates, produced by these two 
iron salts, differ sometimes considerably. 

Glvs (1 part isinglass in 100 parts alcohol of 40%) is the 
test of the true tannic acids, with which it yields insoluble or 
hardly soluble, and mostly grey and flocky, precipitates. 
Should the solution of glue prove too thick, it must be heated 
gently and shortly before use (not diluted with water or with 

To remove tannic acid from liquids which contain other acids 
isinglass is used, in small narrow strips previously soaked in cold 

Tarta/rate of antiTrwny and potash [tartar emetic or tarta/rated 
4intimony\ (1 part in 19 parts water) precipitates most of 
the tannic acids, and may therefore be used for testing these as 
an accessory reagent. 

Acetate of lead [sugar of lead] (1 part in 9 parts water), 
the most important chemical in phyto-analyses used as pre- 
•cipitating and separating agent; it precipitates completely 
sulphuric and phosphoric acids, and more or less completely most 
of the organic acids, pigments, protein-substances, and resins. 
Those anorganic lead-precipitates are insoluble in acetic acid; 
most of the others are soluble. 

Trihasic acetate of lead [lead-vinegar or auhacetate of lead] (of 
1*200 specific gravity). — ^After a vegetable extract has been 
precipitated by acetate of lead, a new precipitate is generally 
formed on addition of lead- vinegar, but instead of using at once 
the latter, it is preferable and more convenient to saturate the 
a.cid liquid containing yet acetate of lead, first with ammonia, and 


then to remove any turbid substances by means of filtering, before 
this reagent is used. 

ProtocMoride of tin [sub-chloride of tin] acts as precipitating 
agent similar to acetate of lead,, but a great disadvantage is 
that it must be employed in a very acid solution, and even then 
soon becomes oxydised. It deserves, therefore, no recommenda- 

Sulphate of copper [blue vitriol] (1 part in 9 parts water) yields, 
with a few organic acids, precipitates of a characteristic colour, 
for instance, a green one with salicylous acid ; but may be easily 
dispensed with. 

Alkalme ta/rtcMrate of copper is used as a direct test for grape-sugar 
(glucose) or fruit-sugar, also for the direct quantitative estimation 
of grape^ugar and fruit-sugar, and for the indirect one of cane- 
sugar and starch. To prepare it, dissolve 3*465 grams pure 
crystallised sulphate of copper in about 40 grams water, add 
9 grams pure tartaric acid, and, after it is dissolved, 18 grams 
hydrate of soda and dilute, after this is also dissolved, with so much 
water that the whole amounts to 100 cubic centimeters. Ten C. C. 
of this deep-blue liquid, containing 0'3465 grams sulphate of 
copper, require for the reduction of the oxyd to suboxyd 0*05 
grams grape or fruit s^gar. 

Cane-sugar and starch must be previously converted into grape- 
sugar by digestion with diluted sulphuric acid. 500 parts grape- 
sugar, as found above, are equal to 475 parts cane-sugar, or to 
450 parts starch. 

Liquids which have to be tested with this reagent must be 
alkaline, or at least neutral; acid liquids have therefore first to be 
neutralised by potash or soda-ley. 

This reagent, when kept ready prepared, must be tried every 
time before using it on its unimpaired quality by heating it to 
the boiling point, when it must become neither discoloured nor 

Tarmic add [gallotannic acid], (1 part in 9 parts alcohol of 50 per 
cent. ; for precipitating purposes : 1 part in 9 parts water, prepared 
shortly before use). An important precipitating agent of alkaloids 
and of many indifferent bitter substances. As a rule these pre- 
cipitates do not allow washing with pure water without being 
decomposed. In order to isolate the substance combined with the 
tannic adid, the precipitate is spread out on several thicknesses of 
blotting prper,, supported by a tile or brick, it is then mixed with 
oxyd of lead or with white of lead and eventually with a little 
water, is dried at a gentle heat and extracted with alcohol, which 
leaves undissolved the tannic acid in combination with lead. 

Bi-iodide of potasdwm (4 parts iodide of potassium and 3 parts 
iodine in 93 parts water). Serves principally to distinguish 
starch, to which it imparts a violet or deep-blue colour. It may 


also be used with advantage for precipitating alkaloids which 
yield precipitates of a more or less kermes-brown colour. 

Sub'Cyanide of potctasio-^platinufn [potassio-platinous cjanide], 
(1 part in 19 parts water), gives well characterised precipitates 
with some alkaloids. It is obtained hj dissolving the grey-green 
subchloride of platinom, obtained by heating the chloride, in an 
aqueous solution of cyanide of potassium and by crystallising the 
saJt from the solution. 

Iodide of potctssio-mercury (2 parts chloride of mercury, and 5 
parts iodide of potassium in 43 parts water) yields with most 
of the alkaloids insoluble precipitates. 

Iodide of potassio-bismiUh has been recommended recently as a 
sensitive precipitant of alkaloids. For this purpose it is prepared 
by heating a mixture of 32 parts sulphide of bismuth, and 47^ 
parts iodine, until under evolution of sulphur iodide of bismuth 
has sublimated. Treat the sublimate with a concentrated solution 
of iodide of potassium hot as long as the latter dissolves anything, 
decant the solution from the insoluble portion and mix with an 
equal volume of a concentrated solution of iodide of potassium. . 

Phosphate of soda, the common crystallised salt (1 part in 
14 parts water), precipitates some alkaloids; it may also be used 
instead of sulphate of soda, for removing lead from liquids, if the 
introduction of sulphuric acid into the liquid has to be avoided. 

Phospho-molyhdate of soda (6 parts molybdic acid, 12 parts 
crystallised carbonate of soda, and 1 part crystallised phosphate 
of soda in 31 parts water), mixed with pure nitric acid, until of a 
pure citron-yellow colour. It precipitates alkaloids, and is highly 
important on account of it yielding precipitates with many 
alkaloids, which are not precipitated by other reagents. To free 
these precipitates from other matters which may likewise have 
been precipitated, washing with water must be avoided on account 
of their liability to decompose. They are, therefore, treated in 
the following way. Place the filter with its contents on several 
thicknesses of blotting paper, and the whole on a new brickbat ; 
leave the precipitate until of a pasty consistence, transfer it then 
to a porcelain dish and add water so as to form a thin pulp, 
now add burnt magnesia under continual stirring, until every 
trace of acid reaction has disappeai*ed and a slightly alkaline 
reaction towards litmus paper has taken its place, dry with a 
gentle heat, grind the residue finely and shake with absolute 
alcohol. Any alkaloid which has been liberated by the magnesia, 
passes into the alcohol, remains on evaporating and may now be 
subjected to a closer investigation. 

FliosphO'tungstate of soda (10 parts tungstic acid, 12 parts crys- 
tallised carbonate of soda, and 27 parts water are boiled until the 
liquid is no longer precipitable by acids, t.e., until the tungstic 
acid has passed into meta-tungstic acid; add 1 part crystallised 



phosphate of soda, restore the water lost by evaporation, and filter 
if necessary). After it has been strongly acidified by nitric acid, 
it acts similar to phospho-molybdate of soda, and is even more 
sensitive towards some alkaloids. In all other respects, what has 
been said of the preceding reagent is applicable to this one too. 

Ficric acid yields with many alkaloids yellow and mostly 
crystalline precipitates. 

Chloride of jjlatinwm [platinic chloride] (1 part in 19 parts 
water) is one of the most common precipitants of alkaloids. The 
precipitates are various shades of yellow, fiocky, and distinguish- 
able hereby from those obtained by ammonia or potash, whidi are 
pulverulent or crystalline. 

ChUyride of mercwry [mercuric chloride] (1 part in 19 parts 
water). Precipitating reagent of alkaloids, and forming a white 
double-compound ; but several of which are rather soluble in 
water, and do therefore not appear in diluted solutions. 

Chloride of mercury forms also with protein substances com- 
pounds which do not dissolve in water. 

Svb-nitrate ofpaMadivffn [palladious nitrate] (1 part in 19 parts 
water). Precipitant of alkaloids. The compounds are yellow or 

Stih-nitrcUe o/mercwn/ [mercurous nitrate] (1 part in 19 parts 
water under addition of a few drops of nitric acid). As in general 
vegetable extracts contain compounds of chlorine, a turbidity is 
nearly always occasioned by this test, and which cannot be 
removed by nitric acid. It precipitates also most of the organic 
acids, but the precipitates are mostly decomposed partially on 
keeping, changing their (as a rule) white colour into a grey one. 
Even if no precipitate has been obtained, the liquid, containing 
organic matters, often assumes with this reagent a grey or a 
darker colour, produced by the reduction of the sub-oxyd of mer- 
cury, and indicating eventually gallic add, which acts strongly 
i^ucing on this salt. 

Nitrate of silver (1 part in 19 parts water) yields with some 
alkaloids sparingly or not at all soluble double compounds, which 
separate as white, fiocky precipitates. In other respects, all l^t 
has been said of the sub-nitrate of mercury applies also to this 
test. — ^As regards its application for the quantitative estimation of 
formic and of hydrocyanic acids, I refer to these substances in the 
first division of the first part of this work. 

The following substances are not employed for testing, but for 
separating and purifying: — 

Oxyd of lead, ground to a subtle powder, serves for removing 
tannic acid from liquids or from pulpy precipitates. Mix the 
latter intimately with the oxyd of lead, dry, grind the remnant 
and withdraw from it the other constituents (usually an indif^rent 
or a basic bitter substamce) by means Of alcohol It may be some- 


times used also for remoying colouring matters, by assimilating 
those and rendering them insoluble. It serves also for separating 
fluid from solid &t«cids {see Part II., Div. III., A, a.) 

White of lead may be used instead of oxjd of lead, and acts even 
more decidedly in many cases. 

Acetate of magnesia (1 part in 9 parts water) serves sometimes 
ibr the fractional precipitation of solutions of soaps containing 
•different fat-acids, in order to facilitate their separation. 

Chloride of lime is used in its clear aqueous solution for bleach- 
ing the vegetable fibre (see Fibre, p. 82). 

Lime, slaked with water as to form the finely pulverulent 
Iiydrate, serves only for displacing volatile alkaloids {see Div. III., 


Phosphoric acid is employed for dissolving protein substances 
(see Div. IIL, lY.) ; also for displacing volatile organic acids {^Ibidy 

Sulphate qfsodOy Glauber's salt (1 part in 9 parts water), is em- 
ployed for removing lead from liquids, when carbonates of alkalies 
liave to be avoided; yet, as it does not precipitate the lead com- 
pletely it is necessary, after filtering, to remove the rest of the 
lead by means of sulphuret of hydrogen. 

S^phate ofMoer (1 part in 200 parts water) is employed, before 
•distilling the volatile organic acids, to remove hydrocldoric acid. 

Svlphuret qfhyd/rogen serves not so much for freeing the bases 
from any excess of lead-salts (for which purpose the carbonates or 
sulphates of alkalies are preferable) as for decomposing newly 
precipitated and edulcorated lead-precipitates with the view of 
isolating the acid combined with the lead. The gas obtained from 
sulphide of iron by means "oi diluted sulphuric acid has to pass 
through water in order to get rid of particles carried over 
mechanically, before it comes in contact with the lead-precipitate. 

Ammal tjuwcwd^ as finely ground bone-black purified by hydro- 
•chloric acid and heated afterwards to a red heat, is an important 
means for absorbing pigments, odours and bitter substances, and is 
even used for isolating the latter pure, by submitting the coal 
laden with them and after washing with water, to digestion with 
strong alcohol, which then withdraws the bitter substance or sub- 

Alv/miinja^ in its newly precipitated hydrated state, may often be 
employed with advantage as separating agent, as it precipitates 
pigments and many other either little colourod or colourless bodies 
from their solutions and leaves others dissolved. 

w 2 



Ether, alcohol, and water, are, as recorded, the most important 
solvents, respectively extracting agents used in phyto-chemical 
analysis; acids, alkalies, &c, being of less importance. 

In using the above three liquids, it would appear at first of - 
little consequence in what order they are applied to the substance 
under investigation, as, after all, the parts soluble in them must 
enter these liquids as extracts; but taking into consideration all 
circumstances for the purpose, it soon becomes evident that a 
certain order has to be adhered to. Those special cases are of 
course excepted where it is required to obtain or to recognise only 
one constituent, and when the choice of the solvent depends 
already on the nature of the particular constituent, as for 
example, when ether is required for extracting a fixed oil, and 
water for gum. Still, if a thorough investigation of the chemical 
constitution of plants should be intended, then I would recom- 
mend to follow the practice adopted by me since many years, — 
to treat the substance first with ether, then with alcohol, and last 
with water, the reasons for which treatment I shall give 

1, By treating the generality of vegetable substances with 
ether the latter dissolves fat and wax readily and completely; 
alcohol dissolves these bodies also, but less readily, and only at 
the boiling heat, and as it deposits them again on cooling, and as 
filtering is retarded thereby, it becomes necessary to employ ether 
for removing the rest of fat or wax. These two substances « there- 
fore, are passing into two different solvents. If the analysis is 
commenced with alcohol, this inconvenience increases when, as in 
seeds, the quantity of fat or wax predominates, and it can only be 
avoided by the previous treatment with ether. 

2. Certain alkaloids, bitter substances or resins, dissolve in 
alcohol and in ether, others only in alcohol. Now, by commencing 


the analysis with alcohol the whole of them is dissolved, while by 
commencing with ether a separation of two different groups is 
effected at &e outset. 

3. Not less advantageous is the previous treatment with ether 
and then with alcohol for the subsequent one with water^ whereas, 
if the commencement be made with water, inconveniences of 
various kinds are incurred. Amongst these stand out in the first 
line the difficulty of filtering, caused sometimes, it is true, by a 
considerable amount of gum, but also and often alone by finely 
suspended particles of resins and fats. These could, indeed, easily 
be removed by a few drops of dissolved acetate of lead, but this 
would disturb the course of the analysis by introducing acetic acid 
and by otherwise complicating the process. Since the water is to 
be employed not only cold but also hot, fats and resins present 
would be liable to undergo altei^tions, and greater still would be 
the difficulty with amylaceous substances, since the formation of a 
paste would make straining impossible, and to overcome this diffi- 
culty by means of adding an acid, in order to convert the paste of 
starch into sugar, would involve troubles of another kind, for in- 
stance, the breaking up of glucosids or resins, or the displacement of 
volatile acids. 

Before commencing the analysis the question must be answered, 
how much of the material has to be worked upon, and how much may 
be available. If it consists of whole herbs or of parts of these as 
roots, barks, leaves, flowers or seeds, no more than 100 grammes 
of the substance should be employed, even if there be no scarcity 
of material. With very costly or not easily procurable substances 
a less amount must suffice, and with gummous or resinous exuda- 
tions or with excretions of other kind it is possible to operate even 
upon 20 grammes, since the number of constituents of these 
bodies is comparatively small. 

After the analysis, completed according to I. to YIL, has given a 
clear idea of the chemical constitution of the substance under in- 
vestigation, then those constituents which have been obtained in 
too small a quantity for a thorough investigation, such as alkaloids, 
bitter substances, volatile oils, volatile acids, must be prepared 
from considerably larger quantities of the raw material, according 
to the methods indicated under YIII. to X. 

I. — Quantitative Estimation op the Water. 

Weigh off from the substance in the possibly finest state of com- 
minution 2 to 5 grammes, according to its bulk, into a platinum 
crucible, the weight of which and of its lid having been before 
carefully determined ; place the crucible uncovered into a metallic 
air-bath furnished with a centigrade thermometer, put the whole 


OA a Utile claj-stove, and heat by means of a very small gas-flame 
or of a spirit-lamp to 120^, and keep at this temperature for about 
an hour. After a few trials the operator will soon become accus- 
tomed to control the temperature at nearly 120^, by placing the 
flame at the requisite distance from the air-bath; and by using for 
drying operations of this kind the same stove, the same lamp, and 
the same length of flame, no new trials for regulating the degree of 
heat will be required afterwards. A difference of a few degrees, 
above or below 120° is of no consequence; but the mercury should 
never fall below 115^ nor rise above 125°. Afber the substance 
has been thus heated for an hour, remove the flame, cover the 
crucible with the lid, shut the air-bath, take out the crucible when 
quite cold, place on a balance and determine the loss of weight. 

Afterwards the same process of heating and weighing is once 
more to be repeated ; -if the second result agrees exactly with the 
first, or if it only differs by a few milligrammes, no third trial is 
required ; else the heating process has to be repeated a third time 
or more, until with two following operations the same result be 

Lastly the loss of weight is calculated for 100 parts, and the 
result is registered as the amount of percentage of water of the 

n. — ^Treatment with Ether. 

Place 10 grammes (or less, see above) of the air-dried and 
possibly fine reduced substance into a glass flask of ^ to § litres 
capacity; add of ether of 0*720 until after thoroughly soaking the 
substance is covered ^ or 1 inch high by the liquid, secure the 
flask with a cork and shake occasionally, taking care lest portions 
of the contents should get into the neck of the vessel. Having 
left it to macerate for four days, lift the cork a little, warm the 
flask in a water-bath or in any other manner to a temperature 
below the boiling-heat of ether (36°) for a few hours, remove the 
mattrass, and again macerate for two days. 

Now liunsfer the contents of the .flask (should the ether contain 
a great quantity of oil, resin, <bc., pour out first the liquid so far as 
it easily can be removed, and. after it has passed the filter, add the 
remaining substance with the aid of small quantities of fresh 
ether), into a dii^lacement apparatus, rinse the flask repeatedly 
with ether, and wash the substance with this and with small 
quantities of ether until the latter assumes not only no colour, but 
leaves, on evaporating a few drops on a watch-glass, no residue of 
any consequence.* 

To push the washing to this degree, requires mostly much ether 
and also time, but it is necessary in orier to prevent (1) that 
any portions of the constituents, soluble in ether, should be lost; 


(2) that any portions of the constituents, soluble in alcohol and 
in ether, should be transferred to the alcohbUc solution. The loss 
of time involved by performing this first part of the operation 
will be balanced by the simplification of the analysis, and as 
to the ether, it may easily be recovered by distillation. 

Throw the substance, exhausted by ether, into a wide porcelain 
dish, spread out thinly, expose to the open air, stir assiduously 
with a porcelain spatula, drive off the rest of ether at a very 
gentle heat, keep at ordinary temperature for another day, 
weigh the whole, mix uniformly, estimate with 2 to 5 grammes 
of the substance, by drying at 120°, the amount of hygro- 
scopic water, and calculate from this in centesimal propor- 
tions the weight of the whole substance in the anhydrous state. 
By adding to this weight the amount of water, found oinder I., 
and by deducting the sum from 100, the rest will be equal to the 
weight of the substances dissolved by ether. If, for instance, the 
amount of water under I. be 10^/^, and that of the substance 
exhausted by ether and in the anhydrous state 78°/^, then 
the ether will have dissolved 12%, because 100 - 10 - 78 = 12. 

The ether of the united tinctures — the colour, taste, and 
reaction of which have preliminarily to be ascertained — ^is either 
distilled off, if it amounts to at least ^ litre, or it is left to 
evaporate in an airy place, and lastly, with aid of a very gentle 
heat, in a glass beaker of known weight ; and the residue is tested - 
as below. 

For recovering the ether choose a tubulated retort, which would 
hold at least double the quantity, or fill to one-half and add suc- 
cessively of the ether to keep at the same level. The tubulus of 
this retort must be as wide as possible, and fixed in such a way as to 
allow the contents to be poured out to the last drop. After filling 
the retort with the ethereous solution, plunge into the liquid a 
glass rod, of such a length as to protrude about one inch out of the 
liquid, place the retort in a water bath, adapt to it a Goebers 
refrigerator and distil at least J of its contents. Pour what is 
left in the retort into a glass beaker (weighed), rinse the retort with 
small portions of the distillate, and keep the beaker with the 
liquid and a glass rod in it in a moderately warm place. After 
the ether has nearly evaporated, add to the remnant 10 grammes 
of distilled water, warm until the ethereous smell has completely 
disappeared, and let cool. 

The contents of the beaker, now, will consist either of two 
different strata of liquids, A and B, and of a more or less solid, 
tough, plastic mass, G, or of the latter and only one kind of liquid. 
In the first case, the upper liquid ^ is a fat, this, for instance, in 
Analysis of seeds largely present; has only one liqxdd been obtained, 
th^a remains all that is said under ^ as a matter of course un- 



A, — JSxamination of ike v/pper liquid or of the fatty stratv/m. 

After the stratum of fat has so far congealed on cooling as to be 
removable by a spatula, it is thrown into a porcelain dish. Add to 
it an equal volume of water, warm until fused entirely, stir 
assiduously, and keep warm half an hour, let cool, perforate the 
hard layer of fat, pour the subnatant aqueous liquid into the 
beaker containing the lower aqueous stratum B and the solid mass 
Ct and repeat the operation once more with fresh water, or as 
often as the water shows an acid reaction. 

Should the fat in ordinary temperature or in a cool place prove 
fluid, or of too soft consistence as to allow its removal by means 
of the spatula, then the whole mixture — warmed if necessary — ^is 
poured into a high, narrow, glass jar. Pour, after the two layers 
have completely separated, the oil stratum into a porcelain dish — 
the last portions of it by means of a pipette — pour back the 
aqueous liquid into the beaker, mix the oil in the dish with an 
equal volume of water, warm gently under stirring for half an hour, 
pour back into the jar, separate as before the oil from the water, 
and repeat, should the water exhibit an acid reaction, the opera- 
tion a third time. 

Now digest the fat, freed from all matters soluble in water, with 
three times its weight alcohol of 70% (of 0*890 specific gravity), 
in order to remove any resin present. The result in this case is 
only approximate, but fortunately the simultaneous occurrence of 
much fat and of much resin is very rare. Any small poi-tions of 
resin contained in the fat pass completely into the alcohol of 70%, 
and traces of fat, dissolved by the latter solvent when hot, 
separate on cooling. Leave the alcoholic solution in a cold place 
for one day, filter, decolouiise with animal charcoal if necessary, 
filter again, and bring to dryness at a moderate heat. 

A remnant, obtained hereby, is a resin (or a glucosid), generally 
in very small quantity; it is to be tested regarding its external 
characteristics, as fusibility, solubility in benzol, chloroform, wood- 
spirit, sulphide of carbon, petroleum, oil of turpentine, alkalies, 
and in concentrated mineral acids. If it is a glucosid it will form 
sugar, when heated with diluted sulphuric acid (1 part acid and 
10 parts water) for a quarter of an hour, and the presence of sugar 
iQ the liquid will be recognised by the reduction of alkaline tar- 
tarate of copper to red sub-oxyd, when heated together for a short 
time, and after previous neutralisation with carbonate of baryta 
and filtration. The sugar may also be recognised, and with greater 
certainty, by its sweet taste, after the acid liquid has been neu- 
tralised by carbonate of baryta, filtered and evaporated to dryness* 
In this case the properties of the other product, obtained by the 
breaking up of the glucosid, have also to be determined. 


The foA^ freed from all resin, has now to be weighed, and to be 
studied in respect to its external characteristics, colour, smell, and 
taste; of fats solid at ordinary temperature the fusing-point is to 
determined (set Div. II., (7, a), of fats liquid at ordinary tempera- 
ture, the freezing-point, and of both the specific gravities in the 
liquid state, and the temperature when thus examined ; try also 
the solubility in ether, alcohol of 100 and of 90 %, benzol, chloro- 
form, wood-spirit, sulphide of carbon, petroleum, and in oil of 
turpentine at ordinary temperature and when heated; spread also 
thin layers of the fat on a glass-plate, and see whether it will dry 
or not after being left for not less than a fortnight at a mean tem- 
perature; and lastly, try its behayiour towards concentrated 
mineral adds and caustic alkalies. 

Should a saponification have been effected by means of any 
fixed alkali, then from a weighed quantity of the fat a soap is to 
be formed (with an alkali free from chlorides and nitrates), and to 
be decomposed by adding an excess of dilute sulphuric acid and 
digesting at a gentle heat (below the boiling-point of water), then 
allow the mass to stand cold, perforate the hard layer of fat-acids (a), 
pom* off the acid aqueous liquid (6), wash repeatedly by adding 
fresh water, digest, set aside into the cold, perforate, and pour ofi' 
the water, and examine the fat-acids according to a, and the 
united acid liquids according to 6. 

(a) The riMias offatnicida obtained, is always a mixture of one 
liquid and of one or several solid fat-acids. After determining the 
fusing point of this mass, add one and a-half times its weight 
pore white of lead, triturated with water to a fine pulp, digest 
for a few hours under frequent stirring and at about 100^, transfer 
the lead-soap to a wide-mouthed bottle, add about five times its 
weight ether, secure the bottle with a cork stopper, shake with 
care lest any of the contents should get into the neck, filter after 
24 hours into a larger bottle, wash the remaining portion of solid 
fat-acids combined with lead with ether as long as it dissolves 
anything, mix the united ethereous filtrates with hydrochloric acid 
and shake for a few minutes. After the chloride of lead has sub- 
sided, try if a sample of the ethereous liquid, mixed in a test-tube 
with sulphuret of hydrogen, and well shdcen, will assume a brown 
or a black colour; if so, add again hydrochloric acid, shake, let 
subside, and test again with sulphuret of hydrogen. Filter the 
ethereous liquid, after the whole of the lead has been precipitated, 
into a glass beaker, and drive off the ether by exposure to the open 
air and the rest by means of the air-pump. 

The fat-acid remaining in the glass beaker is now probably 
either oleic acidy obtained from non-drying oils, or linoleic add, 
which is the liquid constituent of most drying oils. Should the 
fat^acid differ from either oleic or linoleic acid, its peculiar 
properties have to be further investigated; besides, now the 



atomic weight has to be estimated, and the elementary anal jHi» 
of the add is to be preformed. 

The esiimaHon of the at&mic weight is accomplished by heating- 
the fat-acid for some time with half its weight of crystallised 
carbonate ci soda, and with five ' times its weight of water. 
Evaporate the saponaceoas mass until it be equal to double 
the weight of the fat-acid employed, treat this with alcohol 
of 70%, filter, precipitate the filtrate with an aqueous solution 
of acetate of lead, wash the precipitate, consisting of either 
oleate or linoleate of lead, by decantation, dry at 110°, and 
incinerate about 1 gramme carefully in a weighed porcelain 
crucible. Mix the contents of the crucible, now consisting of 
oxyd of lead and of metallic lead, after every trace of coal 
has disappeared, with a few drops of nitric acid of 1 '200, allow to 
dry oarefdlly at a gentle heat; raise to a red-heat and weigh. 

One hundred parts oleate of lead leave 29*018 oxyd of lead: 

One hundred parts linoleate of lead leave 31*472 oxyd of lead. 

Decompose the portion of the lead-soap insoluble in ether with 
diluted hydrochloric acid warm, fuse the fat-acid obtained repeatedly 
with warm water until free from lead (tested by sulphuret of 
hydrogen), dry aj; 100°, and determine the fusing-point. Now, 
dissolve in five times its weight hot alcohol of 90%, keep 
cold for two days, collect what has crystallised, press, drive off the 
last traces of alcohol, and determine again the fusing-point. If 
this coincides with the one obtained before, then the second mass 
of fat-acid (the lead-compound of which is insoluble in ether) is a 
single compound; if, contrarily, the second fusing-point is higher, 
then the crystals have to be recrystallised until a product of a 
constant fusing-point be obtained. Now, compare this fusing- 
point with those of the different solid fat-acids (Jawricy myristic; 
palmitic, stea/ric, and other acids), and see if it agrees with any of 
those (commonly with palmitic acid), when the identity with the 
latter will be evident. To make sure it is advisable to determine, 
at least by one experiment, the atomic weight (see above) also, 
and should this not harmonise, then an elementary analysis has to 
decide the question. The two latter alterations are indispensable 
whenever the fusing-point does not coincide with that of any of 
the fat-adds known as yet. I need scarcely remark that all the 
other properties of such an acid have also to be investigatecl. 

If the lead-compound, insoluble in ether and separated from the 
mixture of fat-acids, possesses a lower fusing-point than the por- 
tion crystallised from the alcoholic solution, then at least one 
other fat-acid is present. To isolate it: mix the alcoholic mother- 
leys, allow to evaporate slowly, to stand cold during the n^t^ 
collect every morning what has crystallised and determine the 
fusing-points. Those crystals formed first are likely to belong to 
the fat-acid already found before, and must therefore be at once 


removed; ihofle irkich form afterwards are kept separately, and 
only such portions the fdsing-points of which are the same should 
be united. Now crystallise the portions of the lowest fdsing- 
point in hot alcohol and proceed as before, i.e,, evaporate the 
mother-ley slowly and examine the crystals obtained each morning. 
RecrystaUise again the portions of the lowest fusing-point until 
finally an acid is obtained which does not alter its fusing-point on 
recrystallising. Compare the fusing-point of this second acid 
likewise with those of the fat-acids known, and if found different 
&om any of them, ascume it to be a new add and determine its 
properties, chemical composition, and atomic weight. 

These operations require very much time and yield a satisfactory 
result only with an adequate quantity of raw material. Some- 
times the separation of the solid fat-acids is rendered quicker and 
more effectual by converting them, as is done with the liquid fats, 
into sodarsoaps, and by precipitating the alcoholic solution with 
acetate of magnesia, but in such a manner that (after the quantity 
of the acetate of magnesia required for precipitating the whole of 
the soap has been found previously by testing with a small sample 
of the Uquid) the precipitation is effected in at least three distinct 
equal parts successively; the precipitate obtained from each portion 
is then washed separately, decomposed with hydrochloric acid, 
and the fat-acid thus separated is treated as already previously 

Sometimes mixtures occur of more than two fat-acids; to 
analyse which the quantity obtained from 100 grammes of the 
vegetable substance would prove inadequate, and therefore more 
of the fat has to be obtained first, or the analysis in this respect 
can not be proceeded with. 

(b) Distil the acid liquids, separated from the fat-acids, in a 
retort furnished with a refrigerator and receiver, until about three- 
quarters of the whole have passed over. It is the purpose of this 
operation to find out if any volatile Jht^ctdds soluble in water be 
present (as /armicy acetic^ propionic, Jmtyric, valerianic^ caproic, 
capryHc, capric). If the distillate proves neutral, then no such 
acid is present; should it show acid reaction, then mix it with some 
carbonate of baiyta previously triturated to an impalpable pulp with 
a little of the distillate, and evaporata Should, during the evapo- 
ration, the used carbonate of baryta be completely dissolved, then 
a new quantity ought to be added, for only an excess of it gives 
the certainty that nothing of the volatile acids is lost. After the 
liquid has been brought to a certain degree of concentration, and 
when found of neutral reaction^ it has to be filtered from the 
excess of carbonate of baryta. 

The carbonate of baryta remaining on the filter^ after it has been 
washed with warm water, may possibly contain a salt of a new 
volatile fat-acid, which with baryta might form an insoluble com- 


bination. This must be tested preliminarily by heating a sample 
of the dried remnant in a glass tube closed at the bottom ; if it 
turns black, such a new acid is present. To isolate it, triturate 
the above remnant with ten times its weight phosphoric acid of 
1*08 specific gravity (10°/^ PO5 ), place this into a retort, and sub- 
mit it to distillation, when the volatile acid will pass over, the 
physical and chemical properties of which must be investigated. 

The liquid filtered off from the carbonate of baryta, and the 
water used for washing it, are now poured off from any crystals 
which may have formed. Evaporate to half its volume, keep cold 
for a few days, separate from any crystals, evaporate and repeat 
these operations several times in order to effect the separation of 
the three acids — capricy caprylic, and caproic. These acids are 
distinguished by the different degree of solubility of their baryta- 
compounds, for the caprate of baryta dissolves in 200, the caprylate 
in 106^, and the caproate in 12^ parts cold water. Every crop of 
crystals is to be collected separately and tested respecting the pro- 
perties of the respective acid according to the insiamctions given 
in the first part of this work. The baryta-compounds of the other 
Jive volatile adds can not be separated by crysto.llisation, for their 
solubility does not much differ (the formate of baryta dissolves in 
4, the butyrate in 2^, the valerianate in 2, the acetate and the 
propionate in about one part cold water). Nor is it possible to 
effect a separation by means of alcohol, as the latter dissolves them 
sparingly or not at all. The only course left is to test separately 
on each of these five acids according to the instructions given in 
the first part of this work. 

Besides these five acids an entirely new acid might be present, the 
properties of which have to be determined by a special investigation. 

The weight of the whole of these acids is found by heating to a 
red heat the baryta-compound, dried at 100°, until completely incine- 
rated, by sprinkling with carbonate of ammonia, heating again, 
weighing the carbonate of baryta, calculating the amount of pure 
baryta, and by deducting the latter value from the weight of the 
baryta-compound employed. The rest represents the acid or the 
mixture of acids. Or precipitate the baryta-compound hot with 
diluted sulphuric acid, add a little nitric acid, in order to fiEu;ilitate 
filtering, collect the sulphate of baryta, determine its weight, 
calculate from it the pure baryta and deduct its weight as above. 

(c) In the saponification of fats glycerin is always obtained 
besides fat-acids. To convince yourself of its presence, saturate 
the acid contents of the retort, left after the distillation of the 
volatile fat-acids, with carbonate of soda, evaporate on the water- 
bath nearly to dryness, triturate the salty mass to a fine powder, 
shake with absolute alcohol, filter, and let the filtrate evaporate in 
a glass beaker. A remaining syrup of sweet taste is glycerin 
(page 94). 


B. — Examination of the lower or aqueous liquid. 

Separate this liquid, mixed with the water used for washing the 
fat, from the sediment present almost in every case, edulcorate the 
sediment with small quantities of water (if the sediment be of a 
viscous nature, under warming, then cooling and pouring ofif), until 
the water assumes no longer an acid reaction; concentrate the 
whole of the liquids to about 100 grammes, pour into a glass 
jar and leave to rest for a few days. A slight resinous sediment 
will have foimed, which has to be filtered off. 

After the liquid has been examined in. respect to its physical 
properties (colour, smell, taste, reaction towards litmtis-paper), 
allow a small portion of it to evaporate to a small bulk on a 
watch-glass of considerable size and transfer to a cold plscce (in hot 
weather to a cellar or cooled by ice). If crystals have formed after 
one to two days, the rest of the liquid is also evaporated and kept 
cold. Collect the crystals in a iUter, rinse with a little water, 
spread the filter on several thicknesses of blotting-paper, and 
remove the whole of mother-ley by changing the blotting-paper 
several times. Afterwards dissolve the crystals in the least 
quantity of hot water, let cool, collect the crystals formed after 
one or two days, and dry as before on paper. The substance is 
now so pure that its properties can be recognised. 

As a preliminary treatment this body is to be examined on 
the presence of nitrogen, by exposing a sample of the size of a 
lentil with double its weight of sodium, in a dry test-tube to a 
temperature slowly increasing to a red-heat. After the whole has 
cooled down again add water, shake, filter, mix the filtrate with a 
few drops of a stale solution of subsulphate of iron, and, after a 
good shaking, with hydi*ochloric acid in excess. In the presence of 
nitrogen blue flocks will be obtained either immediately or after 
some time, if not, the substance is free from nitrogen. 

(a) The substance contains nitrogen. Most likely an alkal&id, 
combiued with an acid, or free.* 

Examine the physical properties of the substance, its behaviour 
in the heat to indifferent solvents (including volatile and fixed 
oils), to alkalies, to concentrated and diluted acids ; the behaviour 
of its aqueous solution to the hydrates and to the carbonates of 
alkalies, to the special tests of alkaloids (tannic acid, chloride of 
gold, bi-iodide of potassium, subcyanide of potassio-platinum, 
iodide of potassio-mercury, iodide of potassio-bismuth, phosphate 
of soda, phospho-molybdate . of soda, phospho-tungstate of soda, 
picric acid, chloride of mercury, chloride of platinum, subnitrate of 
palladium, nitrate of silver). The solution has also to be tested 

* That this may happen notwithstanding the acid reaction may be ex- 
emplified by caffein, wiuch, though very rich in nitrogen, is of such 1% weak 
basicity as to crystallise pure and uncombined from acid solutions, h ,. r. 


on sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, as in their presence the 
alkaloid would be in combination with any of them. 

K the alkaloid be present in the state of a salt, predpitable by 
an alkali, and soluble in an excess of the latter, it can only be 
obtained by cautiously adding of the alkali until the liquid jttst 
begins to exhibit an alkaline reaction towards LLtmus-paper. If, 
on the contraiy, it is precipitated permanently, the same precaution 
need not be taken, and the alkali may be added in a slight excess. 
Collect the precipitate, after it has completely subsided, in a filter, 
wash with water and dry at ordinary temperature or at a very 
gentle heat. It has to be tested as indicated in the preceding 

If the alkaloid be present as a salt and not precipitable by alka- 
lies, it is Inost effectually isolated in the following way. Convert 
the chloride into the sulphate by precipitating its solution with 
just a sufficient quantity of sulphate of silver, filter off the chloride 
of silver, mix the filtrate intimately with carbonate of baryta equal 
in weight to the alkaloid salt employed, digest for one day at 
ordinary temperature, and filter. If the alkaloid be soluble in 
water, it will now be present pure in the filtrate; if it be insoluble 
in water, it remains in the filter mixed with the sulphate of 
baryta, from which it may be obtained after drying by means oif 

Should the alkaloid prove new and unknown, its elementary 
analysis, determination of atomic weight, and tihe preparation and 
examination of some of its salts are required. 

If the material should be insufficient for these experiments, 'the 
continuation and conclusion must be deferred to sections IX. or X., 
when larger quantities of raw material are taken in hand. 

(6) Tlie substcmee is nonrnitrogenised cmd is indiffhrent. It 
belongs to this category if, besides being non-nitrogenised, it has 
no acid taste and no or only slightly acid reaction. Test like the 
substances under a, on its physical properties, behaviour in the 
heat towards indifferent solvents, to alkalies, to adds, and to tannin. 

Of great importance is treating with dilute sulphuric acid, as 
it shows if the substance is a glucosid or not. For this purpose 
the acid must be diluted with ten times its weight of watesL 
Digest the body with it for an hour at a temperature of about 
100°, and let cool down. If the substance remains undiBsolved, 
or if, in consequence of the treatment, a new body is formed, 
ocular inspection will show if it be the original body or a product 
of it. The whole must be filtered and the contents of the filter 
washed until all the add is removed. From the united filtarates 
or, should the whole have been dissolved, from the liquid as it is, 
take a small sample and over-saturate with caustic soda, add a 
few drops of the alkaline copper solution; heat and proceed as 
indicated under A with a resin. 


If sugar has been detected by the reduction of copper, the 

properties and constitution of the other product obtained by the 

breaking up of the glucosid have to be investigated. For this 

purpose decompose the greater portion of the remaining glucosid 

by means of digesting with dilute sulphuric acid, collect what has 

separated in a filter, wash and dry. Should, on the contrary, 

tli^ product be soluble in water, the acid liquid is satiu*ated with 

oarbcmate c£ soda and evaporated to dryness. Extract the dry 

mass with alcohol of 95%, filter off the sulphate of soda and 

let evaporate. The product of decomposition of the glucosid will 

separate slowly either in crystals or in a pulverulent or any other 

form, while the sugar remains in the mother-ley. Should the 

product be so soluble in alcohol as not to be separable from the 

sugar by crystallising, it may be obtained by any of the three 

follovring methods: — (1) If it be insoluble in pure water, evaporate 

the alcoholic tincture and remove the sugar by means of water. 

(2) If it be soluble in pure water, add a little yeast, destroy the 

sugar by fermentation, filter off the yeast, and evaporate. (3) If it 

be soluble in ether, shake the dry mass obtained on evaporatiug 

the alcoholic solution with ether, and evaporate the solvent. 

It may also happen that by treating with dilute sulphuric acid 
another decomposition takes place with the glucosid (as, for 
instance, salicin breaks up first into saligenin, and this again 
becomes decomposed instantly into saliretin). In order to ascertain 
this, the substonce has to be submitted to the action of milder 
reducing agents, as, for instance, yeast, synaptase (purified emulsin), 
and the product, if there be one, is compared with the one obtained 
by means of dilute sulphuric acid. The method adopted for this 
purpose may be the same as indicated for the production of sali- 
genin from salicin, viz., by digesting the substance with one-tenth 
synaptase and with water sufficient for a solution for about twelve 
hours, and at a temperature not exceeding 40°, by shaking with 
ether and by evaporating the latter. But, should the product be 
insoluble in ether, chloroform, benzol, or any other liquid must be 
tried which does not dissolve sugar, and therefore alcohol must be 
left out of consideration. 

(c) The suhstcmce is nonrnitrogenised^ cmd is cm €icid» It belongs 
to this category, if it has not only an acid reaction, but also an acid 
taste — the least frequent of the three cases a, 5, o. Should the 
acid prove quite new or imperfectly investigated, its properties and 
composition have to be ascertained first. Afterwards saturate the 
acid with potash, soda, or ammonia, and test the solutions thus 
obtained with salts of the earthy and of the heavy metals; or if the 
latter yield no precipitates (by forming soluble compounds with 
the acid in question) transfer the acid to these other basic bodies, 
and investigate carefully the salts hereby produced. 

(d) The mother-leys of a or 6 or c, together with the liquids 


obtained by recrystallising (containing always traces of the crystal- 
line body) or ike original aqueous sohUion of the eihereous extract 
(if no crystalline body has been obtained from it by evaporating) 
is concentrated to about 50 'grammes and tested with the following 
chexnicaJs. For every experiment only 10 to 15 drops are 
employed, and the itoagent is only added drop by drop. 

Liquor of amrrumia, — It effects either a darker tinge without 
cloudiness or it produces turbidity. The first reaction is common 
with all organic coloured matters under the influence of alkalies; 
the latter indicates with tolerable certainty the presence of an 
alkaloid, and if such a body has been obtained previously by crys- 
tallisation, and should have proved precipitable by ammonia, the 
precipitate obtained from the mother-ley is only a rest of it. 

If ammonia has effected a precipitate in the sample, the whole 
liquid is treated in the same way; the precipitate is collected on a 
filter, washed with water, and examined as under B, a. Evaporate 
the filtered liquid and the water used in washing to the original 
bulk, in order to drive off the ammonia, and proceed further as 
below. Proceed likewise and at once if ammonia has produced no 
turbidity in the sample. 

Ca/rb(mate ofamimonia, — All that has been said about liquor of 
ammonia applies also to this test. 

Leys of potash or of aoda, — ^They effect usually a darker colour- 
ation than ammonia. A turbidity produced by any of them may 
be an alkaloid, or lime, or magnesia, inasmuch as small quantities 
of the salts of these bases pass always into the ethereous extract of 
vegetable substances. If it be lime or magnesia, the cloudiness 
does not disappear after shaking the sample with twice its volume 
of alcohol of 90 or 95 7^. 

The precipitate may also be a mixture of an alkaloid and of 
alkaline earths. In this case its quantity is diminished by the 
alcohol. To make sure of it, filter the alcoholic liquid, evaporate 
almost to dryness, redissolve in a little water with aid of one or 
two drops of hydrochloric acid, and add potash-ley. Should the 
liquid remain clear now, no alkaloid was present; if a turbidness 
is produced, an alkaloid is present, and this one not precipitable 
by ammonia (as it would have been indicated before by that same 

If the precipitate produced by the fixed caustic alkali has been 
proved an alkaloid or a mixture of it, the whole liquid must be 
treated with the alkali. Collect the precipitate in a filter, shake 
with alcohol, if only partly soluble in it, filter, evaporate, and 
examine as under By a. The liquid separated from the precipitate, 
and the water used for washing, are saturated with acetic add, are 
then concentrated to the former volume and examined as below^ 
If the ley has had no precipitating effect, proceed at once to the; 
next test, ; 


If a pecuKar penetrating odour should be evolved by the caustic 
alkali, a volatile alkcUaid may be present; the examination of 
which must be deferred to section X. • 

CcL''honate of potash or of soda, — ^In the main, all that has been 
said of the preceding test applies to this also. 

Solution of baryta, — It causes, like the alkalies, darker tints in 
the liquids and eventually it precipitates. The precipates njay 
be not only alkaloids and alkaline earths, but also compotmds of 
the reagent with sulphuric, phosphoric, organic acids, and with 
acid-like bodies as pigments and resins. A closer investigation of 
such a precipitate is not advisable here on account of its complex 

Of niore importance than solution of baryta is lime-water. It 
is similar in its effects to the alkalies, though not so energetic, alhd 
produces either a darker colour or turbidness, the latter being 
also indicative of a series of acids the compounds of which with 
lime are insoluble or sparingly soluble in water. Consequently 
a turbidness, produced immediately after adding the test, may 
prove the presence, irrespective of phosphoric acid, of oxalic, 
tartaric, tannic, and other acids, and is oxalic acid, if the turbid- 
ness does not disappear with acetic acid. — Filter off the precipi- 
tate, obtained by lime-water in excess^ and heat the filtrate to the 
boiling point ; a cloudiness, which disappeai's on cooling, indicates 
citric acid. If neither cold nor hot a turbidity is obtained ; acids 
may be present which yield such compounds with Hme as are 
soluble in water, as for instance malic, quinic, lactic acids, and 
which will come under notice in the course of the analysis. 

Chloride of calcium. — A turbidness obtained by it indicates 
oxalic acid, if not removable by acetic acid. If it dissolves in the 
latter, it may have been occasioned by phosphoric acid, but in 
this case the acetic acid has to be added immediately, as else the 
precipitate woidd become crystalline and almost insoluble in acetic 

Chloride of iron. — ^The alterations effected by this test consist 
mostly in the production of various colours (with or without 
turbidness), to recognise which the mostly dark liquid must be 
diluted so far as to be of only a slightly yellowish colour. A 
green colour, obtained with the test, indicates iron-gT'eening, a 
blue or violet colour an iron-blueing tannic add. If these 
acids are not present in too small quantities, coloured preci- 
pitates are also obtained, though sometimes of such a mixed 
colour as to appear brown instead of green, and grey instead of 

Gallic acid yields, with chloride of iron, a reaction similar to 
that oi gaUotannic acid, but the gaUate of iron is abundantly 
soluble in acetic acid, in the hydrates, and in the carbonates of 
alkalies, this being not the case with gaUotannate of iron. 


Stdphate of iron, — It often produces, with tannic acids, grada- 
tions of colour different from those obtained by the chloride of 
iron, and has to be used with the same precautions. 

Qhie serves to confirm the presence of the trvie temnic ctcidSj by 
producing a dirty, flocky precipitate. Some substances, generally 
accepted as iron-greening tannic acids, produce no turbidness 
with ghie. They are, therefore, either no true tannic acids, or 
such as yield with glue compounds soluble in water. 

Ta/rta/rcUed cmtimony. — It precipitates some only of the tannic 
acids, and serves therefore to distinguish such as differ in this 

Acetate of lead, — It produces almost always a flocky, more or less 
considerable precipitate, which is sometimes light, sometimes dark, 
but in most cases of a dirty brownish or earth-colour, while the 
liquid becomes light and eventually clear as water. The precipitate 
may contain, besides traces of phosphoric and sulphuric acids, the 
oocxdic and tanrmic adds of the ethereous extracts, small portions of 
resin and of acids yielding insoluble or sparingly soluble compounds 
with lead. No sulphate, phosphate, or oxalate was present in the 
precipitate if it dissolves completely in acetic acid. 

AUcaline copper-solution (sodio-cupric tartarate). — This test re- 
quires an alkaline or at least neutral condition of the sample under 
trial ; an acid condition must therefore be previously removed by 
one or two drops of potash or soda-leys. After adding one to two 
drops of the reagent, heat to the boiling-point; a yeUowish and 
afterwards red turbidness of sub-oxyd of copper indicates sugar; 
but as other matters (tannic, gallic acid, <kc.), have a similar 
reducing power, this experiment is not decisive for the presence of 
sugar, Tinless corroborated by a sweet taste. But as IJie latter is 
not easily perceived in the presence of other matters which might 
have passed into the ethereous extract, and even less so with very 
small quantities of it, the presence of sugar cannot here be decided 
on, and must be referred to experiment in the course of the 
analysis. Should more than mere traces of sugar be contained in 
the substance under trial, most of it will pass into the alcoholic 
extract (IIL) 

Tannic acid, — It precipitates most of the aiUcalmdSy but also 
many indifferent bodies ; it therefore serves only to give collatei'al 
evidence for the presence of the one or other of these^bodies. 

After the application of the above tests has proved insufficient 
for indicating the presence of an alkaloid, try again small quantities 
of the liquid with the special alkaloid-tests, mentioned under By a 
(page 301), such as yield sparingly or not at all soluble precipitates 
with alkaloids. If the result with all of them be positive, the pre- 


ts<foc6 of aii aXkaXxnd need not be doubted any longer ; but even if 
the restdt be only positive with some of them, an alkaloid might 
be pi^esent The behaviour to caustic alkalies has shown in some 
d^^^ree, if it be volatile, and the closer examination is carried on 
aocoorting to section>X. AJs to non-volatile alkaloids, see below, 
imd^ A. 

(e) After having tried the tests under d^ proceed to the dis- 
covery of the Of game ctcids contained in the Uquid B, For this 
purpose precipitate the remaining aqueous liquid (to which the 
sample treated with abets^te of lead may be added) with acetate of 
lead in excess, collect the. precipitate, after it has subsided, on a 
:fi}ter, and edulcorate with water, as long as it assumes an acid 
reaction towards litmus-x>aper. (Testing with sulphuretted hydro- 
gen in order to find out when washing is finished, is inadmissible, 
because most of these lead-precipitates are not quite insoluble in 
water). Should the precipitate begin to decompose during washing, 
{if the water running off becomes suddenly milky), the washing 
niust be finished, even if the acid reaction has not yet disappeared. 
The filtrate and the water used for washing are reserved for^! 

From the washed precipitate take with a gliEUSS-rod a sample of 
about the size of two peas, put the rod into a test-tube, add 4 to 
5 grams water, and heat to the boiling-point. A clear solution 
obtained hereby shows that only acids are present, the lead-com- 
pounds of which are soluble in hot water, as, for instance, mcUic 
iicid, and the precipitate has then only to be examined under a. 
{If a complete solution can be expected, has already been ascer- 
tained by the preliminary reactions imder d, for a complete 
solution- could not have been effected in the presence of sulphuric, 
phosphoric, oxalic, tannic, citric, and of many other acids.) If, on 
the contrary, the liquid remains turbid, it is filtered boiling hot, 
without washing, and the filtrate is left to cool. If no sediment 
(crystalline or pulverulent) is obtained, the liquid is concentrated 
and again left to stand cold. If no sediment has formed now, 
proceed to B, since the precipitate does not contain any organic 
acids such as yield lead-compounds soluble in hot water. 

On the other hand, if a sediment has been obtained in the above 
way, the whole precipitate is washed off the filter into a spacious 
porcelain-dish under addition of water ten times the volume of 
the moist precipitate. Heat under continual stirring with a glass- 
rod, or with a porcelain-spatula, for a quarter of an hour; filter hot 
and wash with hot water. The filtrate is now examined under a, 
and the insoluble remnant under p, 

^a. Free the aqueous solution from the sediment produced in the 
cold, evaporate to a small bulk, collect the solids which may have 
separated on a filter, wash with a little cold water and dry. The 
mere external appearance of the substance will teach already to 
some extent, whether it is of a complex constitution or not. In 



the latter and more frequent case it may be mo^otfo of lead, a^ 
supposition which will be confirmed by incineration (page 298), 
when malate of lead will leave 56'917o oxyd of lead. Should 
the result be at variance with this supposition, and even be 
confirmed by a second incineration, the elementary analysis is 
resorted to and the properties of the acid must be investigated. 
To perform this, triturate a portion of the lead-compound with 
water to an impalpable pulp, wash it into a glass-jar, impregnate 
the milky liquid under continual stirring with well-washed 
sulphuret of hydrogen, allow the excess of the latter to evaporate 
at the air, filter off the sulphide of lead, after it has completely 
subsided (which takes sometimes a very long time, and may he 
accelerate by gently heating), evaporate a part of the filtrate at 
a very gentle heat (to prevent etherifigation of the alcohol) and 
at last imder the receiver of the air-pump, and employ the other 
part of the filtrate for testing with solution of baryta, lime-water, 
&c.f and for the preparation of some other salts, while the dry 
acid is tried on its behaviour in the heat, &c. 

If there is reason to suppose that the water has withdrawn, 
more than one compound from the lead precipitate, these com- 
pounds must be separated from each other by crystallization^ and 
examined separately in the above manner. 

P» The small portion of the lead precipitate, left wndiaaolved by 
hot water, is tried moist by shaking with acetic acid of about 
20%. If it prove soluble and completely so when heated, the 
further examination is confined to No. 1. If it remains tv/rlnd, 
it must be filtered and saturated with ammonia; should it now 
remain clear, then nothing has been dissolved by the acetic acid, 
and it has then to be examined under No. 2. 

If, on the other hand, a turbidity has been produced by ammo- 
nia ik the add filtrate, the whole of the precipitate is transferred 
from the filter into a beaker by means of a horn-knife. Then 
mix with acetic acid to a thin pulp, cover the vessel with a 
glass plate, agitate the contents assiduously and apply, if neces- 
sary, a gentle heat. Filter after about an hour and wash with 
water until the latter passes ofi* nearly void of acid reaction, and 
examine separately the soliUion in acetic add under 1, and the 
undissolved renvnant xmder 2. 

1. Add to the solution in ascetic add, carefully and under con- 
tinual stirring, ammonia in such a quantity as to leave the acid 
very slightly in excess (an excess of anmionia must be corrected 
eventually by a few drops of acetic acid.) This causes the part 
(/3) of the precipitate^ dissolved in the acid, to separate again. 
Let subside, collect on a filter, wash completely with water,, 
spread half of the precipitate thinly on a glass or porcelain plate,, 
dry at the air or at a very gentle heat, triturate and reserve for 
further use. 


Suspend in a glass-jar the other half of the washed precipitate 
in about five times its volume of absolute alcohol, treat with 
sulphuret of hydrogen in excess, allow the latter to evaporate at 
the open air, filter off the sulphide of lead, and evaporate the 
liquid with only a gentle heat, and at last in the vacuum. After 
the alcohol has been driven off, dilute with water half of the 
remaining liquid, to be used for testing purposes^ and evaporate 
the other half to dryness. 

The dried renmanty if consisting only of a yellowish varnish of 
a pure, astringent taste (often followed by a slightly bitter flavour), 
is most likely only a tannic add, which then has to be charac- 
terised in its aqueous solution by the proper tests of the preced- 
ing paragraph (chloride of iron, glue, tartarated antimony). The 
dry lead-compound serves for the elementary analysis and for the 
estimation of the atomic weight. 

In the absence of tannic adds, the dried body appears often in 
crystals and with a more or less acid taste^ and has then to be 
tested on citric add, &c,, by means of lime-water. Acids of a 
peculiar odour, as benzoic addy dnnamic add, &c,, betray them- 
selves to some extent by this property. 

A taste, at once astringent and acid, and a not entirely amor- 
phous state, indicate a mixture of tannic with one or more acids 
of a different kind. A thorough examination of the latter is only 
possible, after the tannic acid has been removed. This is done 
most effectually and without fear of contamination by cutting 
isinglass into short, narrow strips, leaving these to soak in a 
porcelain-dish with water, until converted into a swollen-up jelly- 
like mass, adding the acid Uquid in question and keeping the 
whole at ordinary temperature and under stirring, until a sample 
of the liquid on examination proves free from tannic acid. G^ie 
complete absorption of the tannic acid by isinglass is effected 
slowly and may take several days. Heat must be avoided entirely^ 
as likely to convert the glue into its soluble modification. After 
the process is finished, die liquid has to be filtered, and contains 
now the other acid or acids, the nature of which has to be 
examined. If necessary, the dry part of the lead-precipitate is 
also decomposed in the same way, in order to obtain more of the 
acid, and this ought to be done in all cases where two or more 
require investigation. 

2. The portion of the lead-precipitate which remains undissolved 
affcer the successive treatment with hot water and acetic acid (or 
the whole lead-precipitate, if not affected by hot water or by 
acetic acid) may contain of mineral acids, phosphoric or sulphuric; 
of organic acid^, oxalic acid, and appears, as a rule, of a grey-brown 
colour, from traces of humus-like or of other colouring matters. 

To test on oxalic acid, heat the moist precipitate to the boiling- 
point with a solution of carbonate of soda, boil for a quarter to 


half an hour, filter, saturate the filtrate with acetic acid in excess^ 
filter again if necessarj. and add lime-water or acetate of lime. lo 
the presence of oxalic acid a considerable turbidity is immediately 
produced. To determine the quantity of oxalic acid, precipitate- 
/the acid liquid with a sufficient quantity of acetate of lime and 
convert the precipitate by heat into carbonate of lime. One hun- 
dred parts carbonate of lime represent 72 parts oxalic acid. 

(/) Add to the liquid, separated by filtering from the lead 
> precipitate under e, and to the first portions of water used for 
washing the same, slowly and under continual stirring, liquor of 
aimnonia, to a very slightly add condition. (Any excess of am- 
monia must be again corrected by acetic acid). The precipitate' 
obtained hereby is of less bulk than the first, but lighter and 
usually of pale-yellow colour. It contains no sulphuric, phosphoric, 
or oxiJic acids, but may contain either traces of other acids preci- 
pitable in acid solutions by acetate of lead, or acids predpitable 
by acetate of lead only from neutral solutions ; or acids of both 
kinds. Its examination may therefore serve either for completing' 
the analysis of that portion of the lead-precipitate which is soluble- 
in acetic acid (e, /3, 1), or for the discovery of new acids. But, 
before proceeding any further, add a little acetate of lead, until a 
precipitate is no longer produced. 

Collect the precipitate after subsiding on a filter, wash, spread a 
part of it on glass or porcelain and let dry; suspend the other part 
in absolute alcohol and decompose with sulphuret of hydrogen. 
After the sulphide of lead has subsided, ^d when the liquid has. 
become clear and has lost the smell of siilphuret of hydrogen, it is 
filtered and the filtrate is cautiously evaporated. Test the remain- 
ing liquid, freed from alcohol, on such acids as have been found 
under e, p, 1, and observe any discrepancies. Should the precipi- 
tate contain only one acid, the dried portion of it serves lor 
determining its constitution. 

(ff) Mix the liquid, separated from the precipitate, with the first 
portion of the water used for washing the same, and add subacetat^ 
of lead. The white or yellowish-white precipitate obtained thereby 
contains no tannic acids, and probably of other acids only a few; 
no gum or sugar, which, though also precipitable by subacetate of 
lead, do not pass into the ethereous extract, or only to a very slight 

Let the above precipitate subside, collect in a filter, and wash 
out. The washing has to be interrupted as soon as decomposition 
sets in; which is recognised by l^e milky appearance of the 
water passing through the filter. Now, suspend the precipitate 
in a glass-jar in about ten times its volume of water, decompose 
with sulphuret of hydrogen, keep the whole at the air until the 
excess of the gas has disappeared and the liquid has become dear, 
filter, concentrate the filtrate, try its physical and chemical pro- 


perties, bring slowly to dryness, and in the first place see if it 
agrees in properties -with quinic add (page 183). 

{h) Free the liquid separated from the precipitate g from oxyd of 
lead by precipitating with carbonate of ammonia, and evaporate 
to a syrup over a water-bath, in order to drive off most of the 
acetic acid and of the ammonia. Of acids this syrup may con- 
tain especially lactic and quinic acids, bat probably, besides, matters 
of an alkcUoidal, or of an indifferent nature {hitter substcmcea, 

To recognise Itzctic (zcidf mix a part of the syrup with an equal 
volume of a cold saturated solution of acetate of zinc, and allow 
the mixture to stand in a cool place for one or two days. If no 
crystals have formed after this period, no lactic acid is present ; 
in the other case, a crystalline mass, usually in the form of a crust 
and consisting of lactate of zinc^ is obtained, which is further to be 
examined regarding its amount of water of crystallisation and of 
oxyd of zinc (see Lactic acid, p. 116). 

Quinic add is recognised by boiling a large quantity of the 
syrup with milk of lime until the ammonia is driven off, and then 
proceeding as indicated under Quinic acid (p. 183). 

Should the syrup have a bitter taste, try if its aqueous solution 
with tannic acid will produce a precipitate. (This has been tried 
already on page 301, but with a weaker solution, and may with a 
better prospect of success be repeated now on a more concentrated 
solution). Should a precipitate arise in the sample by tannic acid, 
then the whole rest of the syrup is precipitated likewise. Wash 
the precipitate as well as possible (p. 288), mix well with oxyd of 
lead or with white of lead, dry in a gentle heat and extract with 
alcohol. The tannic acid remains in combination with oxyd of 
lead, while the respective substance passes pure into the alcohol, 
remains after the evaporation of the solvent, and may then be 
examined regarding its properties. 

On the contrary, if no turbidity is produced by tannic acid, 
digest the aqueous solution of the syrup with a great quantity 
of animal charcoal over the water-bath for several hours, collect 
the coal on a filter, wash with cold water, transfer it moist, but 
freed from superfluous water, into ten times the weight of the dry 
coal employed, alcohol of 95%, heat and boil for a quarter of an hour; 
filter hot, wash with hot alcohol, and evaporate the united alcoholic 
filtrates with a very gentle heat. Should an amorphous mass 
remain without any signs of crystallisation, try if by treating with 
ether a separation, purification, &c., can be effected. The closer 
investigation will show whether the substance is of a basic or of 
an indifferent nature, and it must be treated accordingly as indi- 
cated before. 

Keep the syrup for at least a week in the cold. Anything which 
will have separated after this period, either of a pulverulent or of 


a granular or of a crystalline form, is collected in a funnel, the 
neck of which is loosely covered by a glass stopper. Wash the 
sediment, after the liquid has run off, with a little cold water, and 
submit it to a series of experiments comprising its basic as well as 
its acid constituenta It will prove most probably a salt, and 
perhaps acetate of ammonia, the two constituents of which have 
been supplied by the testing chemicals. 

C, — Exa/rniruUion of the solid mass. 

It may contain toctXy resin, fat, MorophyU, After the water 
has been removed by gently heating for some time, determine its 
weight and note down its external characters. Next let three 
times its weight alcohol of 70 7o *W5* on it warm for half an hour, 
keep cold for one day, filter and wash the remaining part with a 
little alcohol of the same strength as before. 

(a) Shake a sample of the filtrate, which may be possibly 
coloured by chlorophyll, with animal charcoal for some time and 
treat, if the colour has become lighter, the whole filtrate in the 
same way, filter and evaporate. The remnant is a resiriy and has 
to be tested as indicated on page 296. 

(&) Free the undissolved portion of C from alcohol at a gentle 
heat, weigh again (to ascertain the weight of the dissolved resin), 
and treat with ten times its weight alcohol of 90 °/q hot. Usually 
a complete solution will be effected ; any remaining body is fat — 
/a^<H^— which is rinsed repeatedly with smaU quantities of warm 
alcohol of 90 7^. 

a. The undissolved fatroil is generally of little amount, and 
allows only a few experiments concerning its taste and smell, its 
capability of drying when exposed in thin layers to the air, and 
its solubility in different solvents. If an oil has been obtained 
already under A, the oil of (7 is always identical with it and 
needs no further examination. 

p. The hot filtered alcoholic solution of the substance G 
deposits most of the wax on cooling. Let the whole stand in the 
cold for one day, collect the deposit on a weighed filter, wash 
with cold alcohol of 907o> ^^ 8,t a mean temperature, weigh and 
determine, as far as possible, its physical properties including 
fusing-point. Generally, the quantity obtained is insufficient for a 
thorough investigation, but if there be a sufficiency of the wax, 
the latter is purified by repeatedly dissolving in hot alcohol; 
afterwards its constitution is determined by treating with potash- 
ley, or if necessary, by fusing it with caustic potash, and by 
examining the products obtained. 

7. The alcoholic liquid, left after the separation of the wax, 
may retain only traces of fat and wax, and deserves no further 


III. — ^Treatment with Alcohol. 

Ketum the substance, exhausted by ether, to the dry flask 
used before, pour on it as much alcohol of 95°/^ as will cover the 
well-soaked substance one-half to one inch high, secure the flask with 
a cork, perforated lengthwise by a canal of about 1 millimeter in 
-width, digest for three days at a temperature not exceeding 70^, 
let stand cold for one day, transfer the contents to a displacement 
apparatus, and wash thoroughly with alcohol of the same strength. 
But, should the alcohol have formed a deposit on the top of the sub- 
stance, after having been kept cold for one day, then the flask 
must be warmed for half-an-hour before filtering and the washing 
is performed also with warm alcohol. 

The contents of the displacement apparatus, afber being washed, 
are spread out thinly in a shallow porcelain-dish and dried, at last 
with a very gentle heat. Weigh the substance, after it has been 
left cold for one day, determine the amount of hygroscopic water 
of a sample of 2 or 5 grams and calculate from this the weight 
of the whole substance in the dry state. The latter value deducted 
from that found under IL represents the weight of the portion 
dissolved by alcohoL 

Concentrate the solution under addition of the alcohol, used 
for washing the insoluble part, by evaporation in a weighed 
beaker at the open air, and finally at a gentle heat. Larger quan- 
tities, consisting of more than half a li^, are distilled in a retort 
until seven-eighths have passed over. Then pour the remnant into a 
beaker, rinse the retort a few times with a little alcohol, and gently 
heat the solution. Mix the residue, after the odour of the alcohol 
has almost disappeared, with 10 grams water, heat until the 
last traces of alcohol are driven ofl*, and let cool. 

The contents of the beaker will now consist of a liquid and of a 
sediment, which in some cases niay be veiy slight or even wanting 
altogether. Before separating the solid from the liquid portion, 
try if an addition of more water will produce any turbidity. If 
this should be the case — ^which generally takes place in the 
presence of much resinous matter — ^the liquid must be mixed with 
an equal volume of water, warmed for a few minutes and left to 
cool. It is afterwards tried again with more water, and, i£ it 
becomes turbid again, the same process is repeated as before, and 
so on, until a liquid be obtained which remains clear by mixing 
with water. The liquid, together with the whole sediment, is now 
brought on a weighed filter, washed thoroughly with cold water, 
and left to dry; while the solution is examined as follows: — 

A. — Exmrdnation of the aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract. 

Try the united filtrates in regard to taste, odour, colour, <kc., 
and reaction towaitls litmus-paper, evaporate a small sample to a 


small bulk on a watch-glass, and ke^ oold, in order to facilitate 
the formation into crystals. (In concentrating the liquid, traces of 
resin separate eventually from which the liquid is preyiously freed 
by decanting or filtering). In case of any crystals having formed, 
the whole filtrate is concentrated and kept cold for a few d&ja (in. 
summer time in the cellar, and, better still, surrounded by ice). 
Proceed with the crystals obtained, as indicated under II, B. 

B. — Exammation of the portion of the alcoholic extract insoltible 

in water. 

Wax, fat and chlorophyll, having passed into the ethereous 
solution, the examination, in this case, is entirely confined to- 
resins, a considerable number of which are insoluble in ether, but 
soluble in alcohoL If the vegetable substance under trial haa 
been rich in resins, most of them, as a rule, will be found in this 
part of the extract 

After noting down the physical properties of the substance and 
its behaviour in the heat, try if you can free it from any dyeii^ 
matters, by dissolving a little of it in alcohol under addition of 
animal charcoal, and digesting for some time. K no alteration 
of the colour is observable, the colour belongs to the resin itself 
and cannot be destroyed by this means; in the other case the 
whole substance is treated in the same manner and again brought 
to dryness. 

Whether the resin, so obtained and eventually decolourised, be a 
mixture of several resins or not, is now determined by treating 
successively with cold as well as boiling alcohol of 70, 80, 90, 95, 
and 100 ^/^ and by comparing with each other the single portions, 
obtained after evaporating. 

Every individual resin is afterwards examined in regard to its 
fusing-point, its solubility (in amylic alcohol, benzol, chloroform, 
sulphide of carbon, petroleum, oil of turpentine, concentrated sul- 
phuric add), elementary composition, atomic weight (calculated 
from the compoimds with oxyd of lead), and by digesting it with 
dilute sulphuric acid, in order to ascertain if it be a glucosid 
or not 

IV. — ^Treatment with Cold Water. 

Re-transfer the substance, exhausted by ether and alcohol, to 
the flask, as before, add distilled water sufficient to form a thin 
pulp, and keep at the ordinary temperature and under assiduous 
shaking for six days. In hot weather the flask with its contents, 
in order to prevent fermentation^ is kept either in a cool cellar or 
in water kept cold by artificial means. After this, expose]^the 
whole to a temperature not exceeding 30^ for one day, and 
filter in a displacement apparatus. 


Th\8 latter operation, though comparatiYelj easy with ethereous 
and alcoholic liquids, often engenders great difficulties with 
aqueous extracts on account of the presence of colloidal matters, as 
albumin and gum. It is therefore better to first try a small 
quantity, and if filtering is found practicable, to give the whole 
into the displacement apparatus and to wash with water, until the 
latter passes off clear. Any decomposing effect of heat has to b» 
avoided by performing the operation in a cool place. 

If, on the contrary, filtering through paper sboi:dd prove 
incomplete and slow, it is necessary to strain the mass through 
miller's gauze (silk bolting cloth), not through linen, calico, or 
flannel, because the meshes of these latter fabrics would soon 
becopie filled up by swelling, and so prevent the liquid from pass- 
ing through. Spread a circular piece of the silk gauze (preferably 
of No. 10 to 13) over a wide glass jar, press it in the middle 
slightly into the vessel, secure i^e part of tbe gauze resting on 
the edges by means of a wide porcelain ring, pour the contents of 
the flask into the bag-like cavity, and rinse the flask with a little 
water. After the liquid has ceased dripping, take hold of the 
cloth, tie it together close over the contents with pack-thread, and 
press out as much liquid as possible. Or use a small bookbinder's 
press, the side wedges (those parts, that come in contact with the 
liquid), of which are covered with glass or porcelain plates. Again, 
miK the pressed-out substance in a porcelain dish with water to a 
pulp, strain and press, and repeat these operations once more. 
Mix the whole of the liquids well together, and allow them to 
subside in a cool place. 

An amount of starch or inulin, surpassing mere traces, may be 
separated from the vegetable substance in a merely mechanical 
way, ue., by kneading. A partial separation is even effected in 
straining through gauze, but may be considerably improved in 
case of any starch or inulin having been observed in the first 
liquid by kneading the substance after the second pressing, and 
after the gauze-bag containing it has been tied as before, under 
water and for a considerable time, adding the milky water to the 
other liquids and kneading again under fresh water until the 
substance is entirely exhausted. From the united liquids, starch 
or inulin subside gradually. Filter, or, if impracticable, decant 
the clear liquid, collect the sediment of starch or inulin on a 
filter, dry at 110°, and weigh. 

By filtering the aqueous extract in the displacement apparatus, 
starch or inulin are, of course, left in the remnant. The presence 
of starch is easily ascertained by shaking a small quantity of the 
substance with solution of iodine, when it will assume a violet 
or blue colour. The presence of inulin can only be ascertained by 
kneading. Starch and inulin have, as yet, not been observed in 
the some plant; and, whereas the former occurs in widely 


different plants, the latter has been found as yet only in the order 
of Compositee, at least to any considerable extent. 

Starch or inulin having been observed in the substance left after 
:&ltering and washing, this substance is tied up in gauze and 
kneaded. Collect the white powder deposited from -ttie united 
liquid on a filter, dry at 110°, and weigh it. The liquid is thrown 
away, as the substance before kneaded had been exhausted already 
by cold water. 

In order to find out the form and size of the starch or inulin 
obtained, they have to be examined under a microscope magnifying 
at least 400 diamefcers; after this, try their behaviour to warm 
water in order to determine their solubility or the temperature 
required for forming a paste. Any heterogeneous substance that 
has been kneaded out together with starch or inulin will remain 
on dissolving in water; as, for instance, oxalate of lime, which, on 
burning, yields carbonate of lime, the weight of which gives the 
weight of the oxalate of lime according to 625 (Ca O + CO2) 
=1025 (Ca O + C2 O3 + 2HO). The weight of the oxalate of 
lime found in this way must be subtracted from that of the starch 
or inulin. 

After the substance has been exhausted in the above manner by 
cold and lukewarm water, and eventually by kneading, determine 
its weight whilst still moist. Now take 5 grams of it, dry at 
100°, weigh, calculate from it the weight of the whole residue, 
conceived dry, and subtract the latter weight from that of the 
substance, exhausted by ether and alcohol. The rest represents 
the weight of the substances including eventually starch or inulin; 
the weight of which, as found above, has to be subtracted from 
the rest in order to give the weight of the matters soluble in water. 

Heat the aqueous solution, obtained clear by filtering and sub- 
siding, in a porcelain dish to the boiling-point; boU for about a 
quarter of an hour and allow to cool. Any turbidness or flocky 
precipitate is produced by albumin. Let subside, collect on a 
weighed filter, dry at 110°, and weigh. The albumin obtained 
is mostly of a dark colour, and, consequently, impure; but the 
colouring matter is hardly removable and is of too little amount 
to impair the numerical result. 

Concentrate the filtered liquid to about 100 grams at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 70° to 80° (if, as usually, a little albumin 
should separate again, it must be collected and added to that 
obtained before); evaporate a small sample of it on a watch-glass 
to a thicker consistence, and allow both portions to stand cold. 
In case of crystals having formed in either of these liquids — a 
rare occurrence — evaporate the whole liquid to a small bulk, and 
keep in the cold. Collect what will have crystallised on a filter, 
wash with a little cold water, puiify by recrystallising in hot 
water, and examine according to II., B, a or b or c. 


The remaining liquid, mixed with the water that has been used 
for washing and evaporated again to the original weight of 100 
grams, or the original aqueous solution reduced to the same 
weight — ^after no crystals' have been obtained from it — is 
examined in small quantities with the reagents indicated under 
H., By d. 

After these experiments have been made, precipitate and treat 
the remaining liquid as under IL, B, e, /, g, successively with 
acetate of lead, ammonia and subacetate^ of lead, and examine 
the precipitates as indicated there. 

IJie precipitate (e), obtained by acetate of lead, may in this 
case contain, besides the substances indicated there, gum and 
a protein-substance not identical with albumin. These substances 
will remain with the sulphide of lead as in^soluble in alcohoL To 
ascertain their presence, wash the sulphide of lead well with 
alcohol, dry at 100°, triturate and shake with cold water. This 
dissolves the gum readily, and leaves behind the protein-substance 
rendered insoluble in water by drying and heating. The presence 
of gum in the cold water will be recognised by its forming 
on evaporation an amorphous tasteless varnish. 

After this, digest the sulphide of lead with phosphoric acid of 
1*04, warm, filter, edulcorate the remaining sulphide of lead with 
water, and neutralise the whole filtrate carefully by means of an 
alkali. The protein-substance is thrown down; collect it on 
a filter, wash, dry at 110°, and determine its weight. The 
quantity of the substance obtained hereby is insufficient for 
a closer investigation. 

If no gum or protein-substance has been found in the lead- 
precipitate e, the lead-precipitates / and g have to be tried for 
it, and this is done with the precipitate /in the same manner as 
with precipitate e, whereas the precipitate g, its decomposition 
not being effected under alcohol but under water, is treated in the 
following way : — Boil the liquid, filtered off from the sulphide of 
lead and containing the gum, and probably the protein-substance, 
for a few minutes, when the protein-substance, if present, will 
separate; filter, evaporate to a small bulk, and shake a sample of 
the liquid with alcohol of 90%. If the mixture remains clear, 
no gum or protein-substance is present; if it becomes turbid, 
precipitate the whole liquid with alcohol, wash the sediment with 
alcohol, dry at 100°, and treat with cold water. A clear solution 
contains only gum; any insoluble portion is protein-substance. 
As the sulphide of lead might in this case as well contain 
protein-substance, it must be treated as above, with phosphoric 
add, &c. 

The liquid, after separating from the precipitate, produced 
by lead-vinegar, is treated according to II., B, h. 


V. — Treatment with Boiling Water. 

Mix the moist substance, exhausted by ether^ alcohol and 
oold water, in a deep porcelain dish with so much water as to form 
a, very thm pulp, heat under continual stirring to the boiling- 
point, let boil for an hour, filter, or if necessary, strain through 
gauze in the manner indicated under lY., and wash the remnant 
with boiling water. 

Determine the weight of the remaining substance in the 
supposed dry state according to lY., and subtract from the weight 
of the substance found under lY., the rest representing the wei^t 
of the matters dissolved in the boiling water. 

Concentrate the united liquids to about 100 grams, and try 
in small portions with the tests indicated under U., B, d; in 
most cases slight or no reactions will be obtained. 

If no iuulin has been obtained under IV., examine on starch, by 
mixing a portion of the liquid with solution of iodine. A violet or 
blue colouration indicates starch, which is either a remnant from 
that obtained by kneading under lY., or it represents, if no starch 
has been obtained there, the whole amount of starch contained in the 
vegetable substance. 

If no rea^^ion of starch is obtained, a small amount of intdiu 
might have been present in the vegetable substance, but is now 
converted into gum by the boiling water. 

Any precipitate, produced by lead-salts, must be examined ac- 
•cordiDg to n., III. and lY. 

YI. — Treatment with Diluted Htdrochlobic Acid. 

. The substance exhausted by ether, alcohol and water, contains 
as a rule only constituents of minor interest, and in most cases 
the analysis may now be considered as finished. Considering, how- 
ever, that the object of this work is to investigate every constitu- 
ent of vegetables, though it be of minor interest, I now resort to 
those solving agents which, if employed in the beginning, would 
have caused alterations and decompositions highly detrimental to 
the analysis, but which now may be used with comparative im- 

Give the substance left in Y., and still moist, into a beaker 
(weighed before), make up with water to 500 grams, add 20 
grams pure hydrochloric acid of 1.12 specific gravity, cover the 
beaker with a glass-plate and expose to a moderate heat for two 
days. Filter and wadb the substance on a filter with water, until 
it passes oif free from acid reaction. 

After washing the substance, determine the weight of the dry 
substance as under lY., subtract from the weight imder Y. and 
note down the rest as the weight of the matters dissolved in the 
.acid water. 


(a) Saturate the add extract, mixed with the water used for 
washing, with ammonia in excess. Generally only a darker colour 
is produced ; should a turbidness be obtained, try, with a small 
quantity, if it becomes clear again by immediately overnsaturalang 
with acetic acid.* If this is not the case, oxalate of lime is pre- 
sent. Allow the liquid to become perfectly clear — sometimes 
(with barks, &c) a jelly-like mass of pectic acid is obtained 
by over saturating with ammonia, which prevents the precipitate 
from subsiding, but may easily be dissolved in a gentle heat — col- 
lect the precipitate on a filter, wash with water and redissolve in 
dilute hydrochloric acid. Over-saturate the solution, if necessary 
after filtering, with ammonia and immediately afterwards with acetic 
acid, collect the deposit of pure oxalate of lime, dry at 100^ and 
weigh it. This lime-compound contains, if no oxalic acid has been 
previously found, the whole of the oxalic acid contained in the 
original vegetable substance. In 100 parts of it = Ca O + C 2 
O3 -h 2 H O are contained 43.90 parts oxalic acid. The oxalate 
of lime may also be converted into carbonate of lime by heating to 
a moderate red heat in an open crucible, and the oxalic acid may be 
calculated from the latter salt ; 100 parts Ca O + C O 2 corres- 
pond to 72 parts oxalic acid. 

(6) Unite the liquid that has been separated from the precipi- 
tate effected by ammonia, with the liquid that has been separated 
from the pure oxalate of lime, over<saturate the mixture, if neces- 
sary, with ammonia, allow the precipitate to subside, collect on a 
filter, wash and dry. It consists chiefly of phosphate of lime and 
phosphate of ammonio-magnesia, but may eventually contain traces 
of alkaloids, met with in the preceding sections, or possibly an 
alkaloid that has not been affected by extracting with ether, alco- 
hol and water. Submit it therefore to the influence of warm 
alcohol of 90%, filter and evaporate the filtrate. Any residue^ 
obtained hereby, has to be examined according to II., By a. 

(c) Evaporate the liquid, left in b, to about 100 grams, in 
order to remove the excess of ammonia and of water, and try with 
a few sensitive alkaloid tests which are without influence on am- 
monia-salts, viz., with tannic acid, chloride of gold, bi-iodide of 
potassium, iodide of potassio-mercury, iodide of potassio-bismuth, 
phosphate of soda, chloride of mercury, nitrate of palladium. In 
case of any turbidness, obtained, an alkaloid may be present. 

Usually, for economy's sake, tannic acid is employed for preci- 
pitating the whole liquid, if an alkaloid is supposed to be present. 
Triturate the precipitate, obtained by tannic acid or by any other 
of the above tests, after washing and while still moist, intimately 

* The acetic acid must be added inunediately after the ammonia, be- 
cause phosphate of lime and phosphate of ammonio-magnesia are only 
soluble in acetic acid when newly precipitated. 


with an excess of burnt magnesia (or finely pulverised oxyd of lead 
or white of lead), dry in a gentle heat, pulverise, treat with cold 
water (in order to remove alkali-salts, chloride of magnesium, iodide 
of potassium, &c.), boil with alcohol of 90%, evaporate the alcoho- 
lic liquid and submit to examination what has remained. 

(d) The remaining liquid may probably contain traces of dyeing 
matters, of gum and of resin, the further examination of which is 
perfectly valueless and involves only loss of time. 

VII.— Treatment with Diluted Potash-ley. 

Bring the substance remaining after the treatment with hydro- 
chloric acid, and while still in a moist state, back into the beaker, 
add water enough to make the whole up to 500 grams, dissolve 
in the mixture 10 grams hydrate of potash (or of soda), digest 
for two days in a temperature of 50° to 60°, let cool, filter and 
wash the residue thoroughly. 

Dry 5 grams of the residue at 110°, weigh, calculate the 
weight of the whole residue conceived dry, and subtract this 
weight from the one obtained under VI., the rest representing the 
weight of the matters dissolved by the ley. 

Shoidd the mass prove too thick for filtering, it must be diluted 
previously, and is, if necessary, clarified by subsiding. 

(a) The alkaline liquid is generally more or less brown, some- 
times black-brown. By over-saturating with hydrochloric acid, a 
brown, flocky predpitate is invariably obtained, which contains 
so-called humic acids, but which may also contain protein-sub- 
stances. The two substances are only incompletely separable by 
liquor of ammonia, the himiic acids being more soluble in it than 
the protein-substances. For the quantitative estimation of the 
two bodies it is sufficient to collect the precipitate produced by 
hydrochloric acid, to wash, to dry at 120°, and to determine the 
amount of nitrogen by heating with soda-lime. By multiplying 
with 6 J the weight of the nitrogen obtained, the quantity of the 
protein-substances is determined, and by subtracting the latter 
weight from that of the precipitate, the weight of the humic acids 
is obtained. 

(b) The liquid obtained by filtering in a, contains small 
quantities of humic acids as well as of protein-substances, the 
closer investigation of which is impracticable. 

(c) The residue left after the treatment with potash-ley, and the 
dry weight of which has been calculated, is generally accounted 
for as vegetable fibre or cellulose, though this name is not correct, 
as this fibre contains not only colouring mattei'S but also mineral 
compounds. Begarding the complete removal of the first and the 
estimation of the letter impurities, see under Fibre, p. 82. 


VIII. — Distillation with Water. 

In the preceding analytical course the volatile oils have found 
no place, though their presence might have been conspicuous 
sometimes, especially in the ethereous extract. For their produc- 
tion and examination another sample of the substance must be 
employed, but not less than 1 kilogram, or much more on 
account of the comparatively small amount of volatile oil contained 
in most plants. 

Besides volatile oils there are other ingredients of plants that 
have been obtained in the preceding analysis in too small a quan- 
tity or not at all, and the discovery of which becomes easier with 
a larger amount of raw material. 

The production of these two classes of bodies may be combined 
in the following way:— 

(a) Macerate the substance with water for one or two days and 
distil, preferably on the water-bath and by means of steam, in a 
Beindorf 's apparatus, described on p. 277, and provided with a good 
refrigerator. From what will be seen afterwards the weight of the 
empty tin still (without head or other accessories) must be deter- 
mined and engraved on the tin. As recipient, a Florentine flask 
or a similar contrivance is employed. 

The distilling water dissolves invariably certain quantities of 
oil. Either more oil is present than requisite for saturating the 
water, or there is less of it- In the first case the oil separates on 
or under the water, according to its density. To clanfy the at 
first usually turbid oil allow to stand undisturbed for a few days, 
and prevent the solidifying of some oils by keeping them in a 
moderately warm place. After it has become clear, and if it 
floats on the water, remove it by means of a thin cotton wick^ 
used as a syphon; if it be heavier than water, pour off* the latter 
ajid remove the rest by means of the same syphon. 

If no volatile oil has been separated in the distillate, z.e., if 
the water has not been saturated with it, a saturation or separa- 
tion may be obtained in most cases by submitting the distillate to 
another distillation with a fresh quantity of raw material so as to 
increase the amount of oil in the same quantity of water. Some- 
times this process (cohobation) must be repeated a thii'd time. 
Should it be desirable to obtain the oil without distilling two or 
three times, the aqueous distillate must be shaken with one-fifth 
its volume of ether for half-an-hour. Allow the mixture to become 
clear, pour off" the ether and let evaporate spontaneously in a 
beaker. The volatile oil, mixed with a few drops of water, re- 
mains, though only in very small quantity. 

In order to enable an investigation of more than the external 
characters of a volatile oil (colour, smell, taste, density) at least 50 


grams of it are required. The examination has to be conducted 
as indicated under Essential Oils, p. 77. 

(6) The aqueous distillate contains, besides small quantities of 
volatile oil, almost invariably some volatile organic acid, and has 
therefore an acid reaction. If the examination of these acids be 
required the distillate must not be treated with ether, as the latter 
removes both oil and acid. 

Test first on hydrocyanic acid, and employ in case of its pre- 
sence a weighed quantity of the distillate for its quantitative esti- 
mation. Both is done according to the instruction given under 
'^Hydrocyanic acid," p. 107. 

Now mix the rest of the distillate with carbonate of baryta, 
iTibbed down so as to form a fine milk, and evaporate on the 
water-bath, driving away together with the water any hydro- 
cyanic acid present. After the liquid has been reduced to 50 
grams, filter off the excess of carbonate of baryta and evaporate 
slowly to dryness. As the residue will be very small it can only 
be examined in regard to the more common volatile acids occurring 
in distillates, as formic acid, acetic acid, and as regards the lower 
members of the series of fat-acids, as propionic, butyric, valerianic 
acids, while a closer investigation is deferred to section IX. 

After the distillation has been finished, remove the tube con- 
ducting the steam, the head and the false bottom of the still, place 
the latter on the balance and determine the weight of the water 
by subtracting from the whole weight the weight of the still and 
of the raw material employed, add as much pure water as to make 
the whole up to twice the quantity of the raw material, add 
alcohol of 90%, equal in weight to the wh«le of the water, mix the 
whole assiduously with a spatula of beech-wood, replace the still 
once more into the hot water of the boiler, refit the head and con- 
tinue firing for the rest of the day — the distillation ought to be 
conmienced in the morning — but not so strong as to make the 
alcohol pass over. After the apparatus has been left undisturbed 
for one day, the contents are strained, preferably, by means of a 
strong linen bag-filter, fastened to a tenacle, under assiduously Stir- 
ling the mass in the filter with a spatula. After dripping has ceased, 
submit the remnant to the strongest possible pressure, put back 
into the still, mix with alcohol of 45% to a pulp, strain, press and 
repeat the same operation once more. Clarify the united alcoholic 
liquids by subsiding and filtering, distil off the alcohol completely 
in the tin still, remove the head and allow the contents of the still 
to cool down as slowly as possible, in order to remove the last 
traces of alcohol (for this purpose the still is left suspended in the 
hot water of the boiler). 


The contents of the still are now either a clear liquid or — more 
frequently — a fat is floating on the surface and a resin has subsided. 
Pour off from the latter ana remove the fat by filtering through a 
wet filter. 

All these three substances — ^resin, fat, aqueous liquid — ^together 
with the remaining substance, have to be examined separately. 

(a) The resinous mass is usually of a dark colour. Wash with 
water and try if it contains an alkaloid by triturating it assidu- 
ously with water containing l-20th of its weight hydrochloric acid 
of 1.12 specific gravity, keeping at ordinary temperature for a few 
hours (heat applied with the acid is liable to split up the resin), 
filter the acid watery solution and wash the resin well with water. 

a. Evaporate the acid liquid at a very gentle heat, try any crys- 
talline or non-crystalline residue with the proper tests (II., B, a) 
and see, if it be a new or a known alkaloid. 

/3. The resinous mass, remaining in a, is compared with the 
reran obtained previously (II., A and III., B), and the knowledge 
of the latter is, if necessary, completed by means of the resin now 

(b) Submit the fat to the same treatment with hydrochloric acid 
and water as the resin, examine the acid liquid for alkaloids, compare 
the fat with the fat obtained previously (II., A, B), and complete 
its investigation by means of the new material. 

(c) Over-saturate a small sample of the aqueous solution of in- 
variably acid reaction with ammonia. If a precipitate is obtained 
hereby, precipitate the whole liquid with ammonia. If no precipi- 
tate has been obtained with ammonia, try in the same way suc- 
cessively carbonate of ammonia, ley of potash (or of soda) and 
carbonates and bicarbonates of potash or of soda. 

o. Let the precipitate, obtained by means of the above tests, 
subside, wash, dry, triturate, digest with alcohol of 90%, warm, 
filter, evaporate the alcohol and examine any remnant on al- 
kaloids (II., Bj a). 

/3. Precipitate the liquid remaining in c, after it has been made 
slightly acid with acetic acid, or the original clear liquid, in case 
no precipitate has been produced by alkalies, with acetate of lead 
completely and proceed according to II., B, e. The chief object 
is in this case the investigation of non-volatile organic acids and 
the completion of the former investigations. 

(d) The remaining mass, exhausted by alcohol of 45%, contains 
most of the gum, and may be used for determining this substance 
if the former investigations (IV.) have been without a satisfactory 
result. For this purpose spread it on shallow dishes to drive 
off the alcohol, mix with cold water, strain after some time, press, 
let the liquid subside, decant, evaporate to a small bulk, and 
throw down the gum by means of alcohol, &c., according to 
the instructions given under " Gum," p. 99. 


IX. — Distillation with Acid Water. 

In distilling vegetable substances with water, volatile acids 
are obtained in the distillate, but generally in such small quantities 
(except hydrocyanic acid) that it is often impossible, especially ia 
a mixture, to recognise their nature. In order to obtain larger 
quantities of these volatile acids, the distillation with acid water 
is resorted to, while employing at least 1 kilogram of fresh 
raw material, or larger quantities if required. 

Usually sulphuric acid is used for this purpose, although 
phosphoric acid is preferable on account of its non-volatility, and 
because it does not become decomposed towards the end of the 
distillation, while sulphuric acid is reduced to sulphurous acid, 
which passes over and adulterates the distillate. The volatile 
anorganic acids occurring in plants (hydrochloric and nitric acids) 
are likewise obtatued by distilling with sulphuric or phosphoric 
acid, but the hydrochloric acid may easily be removed from 
the distillate, and the presence of nitric acid is of less consequence. 

As the volatile acids (i.e., those volatile by the steam of water, 
consequently not benzoic, cinnamic, oxalic, &c., acids) ai^e always 
contained in plants as compounds soluble in water, the dis- 
tillation of the aqueous extract is preferable to the distillation 
of the whole vegetable substance. Prepare, therefore, firat an 
aqueous extract by mixing the finely-comminuted substance with 
four to six times its weight of pure water; keeping the whole for 
one day at a gentle heat (in the tin still of Beindorf s apparatus) ; 
straining, pressing, adding 50 to 60 grams phosphoric acid to 
every kilogram of the liquid; filtering (filtering before the 
addition of the acid would have been difficult or impossible; 
should it prove difficult still, subsiding instead of filtering must 
be resorted to) and adding a solution of sulphate of silver, as long 
as a precipitate is produced. Allow the chloride of silver to 
subside, filter, pour the filtrate into a glass retort, and distil two- 
thirds by means of a good refrigerator. 

Pour the distillate into a porcelain-dish, add an adequate 
quantity (for every kilogram of raw material, about 10 grams) 
of carbonate of baryta, rubbed down to the finest powder with a 
portion of the distfllate, and evaporate under assiduous stirring 
with a glass-rod on the water-bath. Any hydrocyanic acid present 
in the distillate evaporates, while the other volatile organic acida I 

combine with the baryta, and remain in the liquid. Should the 
whole of the carbonate of baryta be dissolved in evaporating, a 
fresh portion of it must be added in order to prevent the loss of 
volatile acids. After the liquid has reached a certain concentra- 
tion, and is no longer of acid reaction, it is filtered, and the 
contents of the filter are edulcorated with water. 


The examination of the contents of the filter, and of the filtrate, 
is conducted according to II., A, h; but, besides the low acids of 
the fat-acid series named there, other acids, as angelic, salicjlous, 
<fec., acids, must not be neglected, or even the investigation of as 
yet unknown acids. 

The discovery and estimation of (with water) non-volatile acids 
is not effected with the liquid remaining from the distillation of 
the volatile acids, on account of the great amount of phosphoric 
acid contained in it; but^ with the liquid c, /3 of the preceding 
(VIII.) section; whereas the acid remnant, if necessary, may be 
employed for the investigation of volatile alkaloids (X.) 

X. — Distillation with Alkaline Water. 

For a thorough investigation of volatile alkaloids, at least 1 
kilogram of the dried raw material is required. Similar to 
volatile acids, their separation is effected best by distilling the 
aqueous extract of the i*espective vegetable substance with an 
alkali, for the reason given before, and in order to prevent rising 
of the liquid and evolution of much ammonia. The latter is 
obtained, indeed, even in distilling the extract, because no vege- 
table extract is free from ammonia-salts or from other nitrogenised 
compounds, but in much less quantity. 

Extract the substance by a warm digestion with four to six 
times its quantity of water (which, in presence of tannic acid, is 
mixed with l-25th its weight hydrochloric acid of 1*12 specific 
gravity), press, pour the whole liquid into a copper-boiler (well 
adapted for this purpose is the boiler of the Beindorf 's apparatus) ; 
saturate with slaked lime, add as much lime, slaked and mixed 
with water to the finest pulp, as to effect an excess of 50 grams 
quick-lime to every kilogram of raw material, and distil by 
means of a good refrigerator, until the distilling water is void or 
nearly void of alkaline reaction. 

In case of any scarcity of raw material, the investigation of 
volatile alkaloids may be effected by means of the acid residue 
left from the distillation under IX., but modified in such a way as 
to use caustic soda instead of quicklime, in order to prevent the 
formation of insoluble phosphate of lime. 

Saturate the whole distillate exactly with diluted sulphuric acid, 
evaporate on the water-bath, and aiter due concentration in a 
weighed dish under the receiver of an air-pump, until no further 
loss of weight be observed. Weigh the salty remnant, triturate if 
necessary, shake in a flask with absolute alcohol ; collect the in- 
soluble portion (sulphate of ammonia) on a filter, wash with 
absolute alcohol, dry by means of the air-pump, and weigh. By 
subtracting the latter weight from that of the whole remnant, the 
quantity of the sulphate of the alkaloid is obtained ; and by deter- 



mining in the alcoholic solution, and after the alcohol has been 
driven off, the quantity of sulphuric acid by means of a salt of 
baryta, and by subtracting this weight from that of the sulphate 
of the alkaloid, the rest represents the quantity of the pure 

The isolation of the alkaloid is effected by distilling the sulphate 
with sodarley, shaking the distillate with ether, decanting the 
ethereous liquid and evaporating by means of the air-pump. 

The investigatibn,of the physical and chemical properties of the 
composition and constitution of the volatile alkaloid is the object 
of further experiments. 

Table of Comparison between Celsius' and Falirenlieit's 

Thermometric Scales. 

-20° C. 



+ 90° C. 

+ 194" F. 

+ 200° C. 

r - 

+ 392° F. 



+ 5° 








+ 14° 







- 5° 

+ 23° 





- — 




+ 32° 





+ 5° 

— ■ 

+ 41° 








































— = 





— ■ 





, ■ 


























: — : 



— . 





— - 


















. - 

158° I 







- : 








176° 1 





- _: 



- - 

185° 1 





Table of Compaitson between Baume's Seale and the 

Specific Gravity of Alcohol. 

10 degrees 6. 



1.000 sp. gr. 

27 degrees 6. - 0.896 


28 , 

= 0.890 



= 0.885 


30 , 

=x 0.880 



= 0.874 



» 0.869 






= 0.869 



= 0.854 



= 0.849 


37 , 

= 0.844 



= 0.839 



- 0.834 



= 0.830 



- 0.825 



- 0.820 



= 0.816 

Table Showinf^ the Specific Gravity of Alcohol of Different 

Percentage by Weight at OO"" F. 

5% - 0.9914 sp. 


40% - 0.9396 sp. 


75% — 0.8603 sp. gr. 

10 -0.9841 

45 =0.9292 

80 =0.8483 

15 -0.9778 

50 =0.9184 

85 -0.8367 

20 —0.9716 

55 —0.9069 

90 = 0.8228 

25 =0.9652 

60 —0.8956 

95 -0.8089 

30 -0.9578 

65 =0.8840 

100 =0.7938 

35 =0.9490 

70 =0.8721 

Table showing the Specific Gravity of Alcohol of Different 

Percentage by Yolnme at 60° F, 

5% - 0.9928 sp. 


40% = 0.9519 sp. 


75% = 0.8773 sp. gr 

10 —0.9866 

45 =0.9435 

80 =0.8639 

15 —0.9811 

50 =0.9343 

85 =0.8496 

20 -=0.9760 

55 =0.9242 

90 =0.8340 

25 =0.9709 

60 =0.9134 

95 =0.8164 

30 =0.9655 

65 -0.9021 

100 =0.7946 

35 =0.9692 

70 =0.8900 


Table of Comparison between the Speeific GraTity of Alcohol 
and its Percental^ Over or Under Proof. 

0.8156 sp. gr. 




















0.8825 ^ 















67% over proof. 












44 ' 





















proof spirit 

0.9225 sp. gr. = 

0.9248 = 

0.9270 = 

0.9295 = 8 

0.9318 = 10 

0.9340 = 12 

0.9362 = 14 

0.9384 = 16 

0.9409 r=: 18 

0.9435 = 20 

0.9446 =. 22 

0.9465 = 24 

0.9485 =r 26 

0.9503 ^ 28 

0.9521 = 30 

0.9540 = 32 

0.9559 = 34 

0.9572 =: 36 

0.9587 = 38 

0.9602 = 40 

0.9617 = 42 

0.9632 = 44 

0.9645 = 46 

0.9658 == 48 

0.9672 = 50 

0.9702 - 55 

0.9732 = 60 

0.9760 = 65 

0.9789 = 70 

0.9819 = 75 

0.9851 = 80 

0.9885 = 85 

0.9921 = 90 

0.9959 = 95 

1.0000 = 100 

2% under proof 



Table of Comparison between French metrical and 

English Weights. 

1 Milligramme 
1 Centigramme 
I Decigramme 
1 Gramme 
1 Kilogramme 

0.015432 grs. av. 

1 Gran 

0.154323 „ „ 


1.543234 „ „ 


15.432348 „ „ 


16432.348 „ „ 


35.2739 0Z8. „ 


2.2046 lbs. „ 

7 „ 


9 „ 

15.432 grs. av. 







Table of Comparison between Cubie Centimeters and 

Enjplish Cubic Incites. 

1 Cub. Centimeter 

= 0.061024 cub. in.] 

6 Cub. Centimeter 

= 0.366144 




= 0.122048 















= 0.488192 





= 0.244096 





= 0.549216 





= 0.305120 


Table of Comparison between Litres and Fluid Ounces. 

1 litre = 35.2754 fluid 


2 „ = 70.5508 „ 


3 „ = 105.8262 „ 


4 „ = 141.1016 „ 


5 „ = 176.3770 „ 


6 Litres = 211.6524 fluid ozs. 

7 „ = 246.9278 

8 „ = 282.2032^ 

9 ,. = 317.4786 



Table of Atomic and Molecular Wei^cbts of tbe Principal 

Elementary Bodies. . 

Aluminium : 
























Molecular Atomic 



Weights. Weights. 





Manganese = Mn. 







Mercury = Hg. 













num — Mo. 







Nickel Ni. 








Nitrogen == N. 








Oxygen = 0. 








Palladium — Pd. 








Pho8phoru8=:^ P. 







Platinum = Ft. 






Potassium s= K. 







Silicium — Si. 







Silver = Ag. 








Sodium = Na. 







Strontium — Sr. 







Sulphur = S. 








Tin = Sn. 





127 - 


Tungsten or 





Wolfram - W. 

: : 






Uranium = U. 







Zinc = Zn. 










Aconitin. — Br. C. R. A. Wright has shown that the use of 
alcohol acidulated with a mineral acid, for exhausting the root of 
Aconite, causes an alteration of the alkaloids originally present ; 
hence it is recommended, according to Duquesnel's method, to 
percolate by alcohol acidulated with tartaric acid, to evaporat-e at 
a low temperature, or, better still, in vacuo, to crystallise from 
ether after the separation of the base by sodium-carbonate, and to 
purify by conversion into a crystalline salt, for which purpose the 
hydrobromide is well fitted. Dr. Wright's formula for pure 
Aconitin izCsa H43 NO12.— ^(Blackett). 

Alstonin* — Alkaloid of the bark of Alstonia constricta, F. v. M- 
Obtained by treating the alcoholic extract with water and a little 
hydrochloric acid, adding to the filtered solution a small excess of 
ammonia, dissolving the separated flocks in ether, evaporating the 
ethereous solution, and purifying the remaining A. by dissolving 
again in dilute acid and repeating the above process. — Orange 
yellow, brittle, pellucid mass, of very bitter taste, melts below 
100°, and is carbonised in higher temperatures ; dissolves easily 
in alcohol, ether, and dilute acids, sparingly in water. All its 
solutions in the dilute state exhibit a strong blue fluorescence, 
which is not aflected by acids or alkalies. Its alcoholic solution 
has a slightly alkaline reaction. Alstonin combines with acids, 
but does not completely neutralise them. Hydrochloric and other 
strong acids, also alkalies, decompose it partly on evaporation in 
the water-bath to a dark-coloured acid substance. The hydro- 
chloride of A. gives precipitates with the chlorides of platinum 
and mercury, the iodides of potassio-mercury and of potassio- 
bismuth, bi-iodide of potassium, the phospho-molybdate and the 
phospho-tungstate of soda, bichromate of potash, picric acid, and 
by the alkalies and alkaline carbonates. Tannic acid does not 
precipitate the hydrochloride, but does so the acetate and the pure 
base. Concentrated nitric acid dissolves A. with crimson colour, 
yellow on warming; sulphuric acid reddish brown, afterwards 
dirty green; hydrochloric only effects a yellowish solution. 
Alstonin differs from Ditamin chiefly by its behaviour towards